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University of Michigan Law School

Comparative and Foreign Law

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Modular Bankruptcy: Toward A Consumer Scheme Of Arrangement, John A. E. Pottow Aug 2023

Modular Bankruptcy: Toward A Consumer Scheme Of Arrangement, John A. E. Pottow

Law & Economics Working Papers

The world of international bankruptcy has seen increasing use of the versatile scheme of arrangement, a form of corporate reorganization available under English law. A key feature of the scheme is its modularity, whereby a debtor can restructure only a single class of debt, such as bond indentures, without affecting other debt, such as trade. This is the opposite of chapter 11 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code’s comprehensive reckoning of all financial stakeholders. This article considers a novel idea: could the scheme be transplanted into the consumer realm? It argues that it could and should. Substantial benefits of more individually …


Rebraiding Frayed Sweetgrass For Niijaansinaanik: Understanding Canadian Indigenous Child Welfare Issues As International Atrocity Crimes, Alyssa Couchie Jun 2023

Rebraiding Frayed Sweetgrass For Niijaansinaanik: Understanding Canadian Indigenous Child Welfare Issues As International Atrocity Crimes, Alyssa Couchie

Michigan Journal of International Law

The unearthing of the remains of Indigenous children on the sites of former Indian Residential Schools (“IRS”) in Canada has focused greater attention on anti-Indigenous atrocity violence in the country. While such increased attention, combined with recent efforts at redressing associated harms, represents a step forward in terms of recognizing and addressing the harms caused to Indigenous peoples through the settler-colonial process in Canada, this note expresses concern that the dominant framings of anti-Indigenous atrocity violence remain myopically focused on an overly narrow subset of harms and forms of violence, especially those committed at IRSs. It does so by utilizing …


After Pillar One, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah Mar 2023

After Pillar One, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah

Law & Economics Working Papers

Pillar One is unlikely to succeed for three reasons. First, it requires an MTC to be implemented because Amount A requires overriding Articles 5 (Permanent Establishment, PE), 7 (Business Profits) and 9 (Associated Enterprises) of every tax treaty to abolish the PE and Arm’s Length Principle (ALP) limits enshrined therein. But negotiating an MTC is hard, especially when over 100 countries are involved and there are fundamental disagreements among them.

Second, because Pillar One (despite its October 2021 expansion) is still aimed primarily at taxing the US digital giants (Big Tech), it is hard to envisage it being implemented without …


Unraveling The International Law Of Colonialism: Lessons From Australia And The United States, Robert J. Miller, Harry Hobbs Jan 2023

Unraveling The International Law Of Colonialism: Lessons From Australia And The United States, Robert J. Miller, Harry Hobbs

Michigan Journal of Race and Law

In the 1823 decision of Johnson v. M’Intosh, Chief Justice John Marshall formulated the international law of colonialism. Known as the Doctrine of Discovery, Marshall’s opinion drew on the practices of European nations during the Age of Exploration to legitimize European acquisition of territory owned and occupied by Indigenous peoples. Two centuries later, Johnson—and the international law of colonialism—remains good law throughout the world. In this Article we examine how the Doctrine of Discovery was adapted and applied in Australia and the United States. As Indigenous peoples continue to press for a re-examination of their relationships with governments, …


A Comparative Look At Various Countries' Legal Regimes Governing Automated Vehicles, Brittany Eastman, Shay Collins, Ryan Jones, Jj Martin, Marjory S. Blumenthal, Karlyn D. Stanley Jan 2023

A Comparative Look At Various Countries' Legal Regimes Governing Automated Vehicles, Brittany Eastman, Shay Collins, Ryan Jones, Jj Martin, Marjory S. Blumenthal, Karlyn D. Stanley

Journal of Law and Mobility

News and commentary about automated vehicles (AVs) focus on how they look and appear to operate, along with the companies developing and testing them. Behind the scenes are legal regimes—laws, regulations, and implementing bodies of different kinds—that literally and figuratively provide the rules of the road for AVs. Legal regimes matter because public welfare hinges on aspects of AV design and operation. Legal regimes can provide gatekeeping for AV developers and operators seeking to use public roads, and they can allocate liability when something goes wrong. Guiding and complementing legal regimes is public policy. Policy documents such as articulations of …


Copyright Infringement And Enforcement In Ghana: A Comparative Study, Doreen Adoma Agyei Jan 2023

Copyright Infringement And Enforcement In Ghana: A Comparative Study, Doreen Adoma Agyei

SJD Dissertations

Copyright infringement is a widespread problem in developed and developing nations and particularly concerning in Ghana. Many talented creators in Ghana have a strong desire to produce original creative works and are enthusiastic about committing themselves to this pursuit. Additionally, many more aspire to pursue these endeavours into professional careers. However, upon releasing their works, they are unfortunately immediately faced with infringements in nearly all copyright industries. These violations have become so common that they have unfairly placed rightsholders’ original works in competition with the infringers. Within this context, many talented creators, mostly self-funded, lack the incentive to pursue their …


Illegality Defense To Contractual And Restitutionary Claims: A Comparative And Philosophical Study, Dingyurui Bao Jan 2023

Illegality Defense To Contractual And Restitutionary Claims: A Comparative And Philosophical Study, Dingyurui Bao

SJD Dissertations

The aim of this dissertation is to study the practice and theories regarding the law of illegality, in the context of contract and unjustified enrichment.

Illegality (and immorality) is universally seen as a ground for invalidating contracts. It is widely acknowledged that the courts have the "prerogative to limit enforcement of contracts that transgress the boundaries of public policy". In both Common Law and the Civil Law systems, it is usually in the law of contract that the problem of illegality is dealt with. An illegal contract is invalid, but it may be performed, either in full or in part. …


Suspect Development Systems: Databasing Marginality And Enforcing Discipline, Rashida Richardson, Amba Kak Jun 2022

Suspect Development Systems: Databasing Marginality And Enforcing Discipline, Rashida Richardson, Amba Kak

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Algorithmic accountability law—focused on the regulation of data-driven systems like artificial intelligence (AI) or automated decision-making (ADM) tools—is the subject of lively policy debates, heated advocacy, and mainstream media attention. Concerns have moved beyond data protection and individual due process to encompass a broader range of group-level harms such as discrimination and modes of democratic participation. While a welcome and long overdue shift, the current discourse ignores systems like databases, which are viewed as technically “rudimentary” and often siloed from regulatory scrutiny and public attention. Additionally, burgeoning regulatory proposals like algorithmic impact assessments are not structured to surface important –yet …


Surrogacy And Parenthood: A European Saga Of Genetic Essentialism And Gender Discrimination, Mélanie Levy Jun 2022

Surrogacy And Parenthood: A European Saga Of Genetic Essentialism And Gender Discrimination, Mélanie Levy

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

This paper tells a story of shifting normativities, from tradition to modernity and back, regarding the recognition of legal parenthood in non-traditional families created through crossborder surrogacy. The cross-border nature of the surrogacy is often forced as most domestic legal frameworks in Europe still restrict the creation of non-traditional families through assisted reproductive technologies. Once back home, these families struggle to have birth certificates recognized and establish legal parenthood. The disjuncture between social reality and domestic law creates a situation of legal limbo. In its recent case law, the European Court of Human Rights has pushed for domestic authorities to …


Pregnant Transgender People: What To Expect From The Court Of Justice Of The European Union's Jurisprudence On Pregnancy Discrimination, Hannah Van Dijcke Jun 2022

Pregnant Transgender People: What To Expect From The Court Of Justice Of The European Union's Jurisprudence On Pregnancy Discrimination, Hannah Van Dijcke

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

Pregnant transgender people’s experiences vary: they may identify as male or non-binary and may seek gender-affirming medical care to different degrees. This variety in gender identities and bodies puts additional pressure on CJEU’s pregnancy discrimination case law—a case law that is, as this Article argues, already flawed. Building on a critique of the CJEU’s decision in Dekker, this Article discusses three alternative approaches to addressing pregnancy discrimination in EU law. The first two approaches are different ways of construing pregnancy discrimination as sex discrimination. First, the Article discusses a gender-stereotyping approach to direct sex discrimination, and, second, an indirect sex …


A New Framework For Digital Taxation, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Young Ran (Christine) Kim, Karen Sam Mar 2022

A New Framework For Digital Taxation, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Young Ran (Christine) Kim, Karen Sam

Law & Economics Working Papers

The international tax regime has wide implications for business, trade, and the international political economy. Under current law, multinational enterprises do not pay their fair share of taxes to market countries where profits are generated because market countries are only allowed to tax companies with a physical presence there. Digital companies, like Google and Amazon, can operate entirely online, thereby avoiding market country taxes. Multinationals can also exploit existing tax rules by shifting their profits to low-tax jurisdictions, thereby avoiding taxes in the residence country where their headquarters are located.

Recently, a global tax deal was reached to tackle these …


Of Rights And Regulation, Stephen W. Sawyer, William J. Novak Jan 2022

Of Rights And Regulation, Stephen W. Sawyer, William J. Novak

Book Chapters

This chapter explores the development of social provisioning as a matter not of right but of democratic administration in France and the United States in the nineteenth century. The authors take issue with conventional chronologies of rights development, which see civil and political rights being developed in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, with social rights appearing in the twentieth. Such categories and sequencing obscure the ways in which democratic administrations took the problem of social provisioning seriously. A history of socio-economic rights cannot be distinguished from the less formal technologies of socio-economic regulation that were an integral part of the …


In Defense Of Its Identity, Daniel H. Halberstam, Werner Schroeder Jan 2022

In Defense Of Its Identity, Daniel H. Halberstam, Werner Schroeder

Articles

The Court of Justice has spoken. The Commission may now, under Regulation 2020/2092, withhold monies from Member States that do not observe the rule of law. This “budget conditionality”, if wielded smartly, should prove a powerful tool if comparative experience coaxing states through union money to follow union policies holds true in Europe. Given the limitations of national reference actions and infringement proceedings that lag behind the nefarious strategies of some governments, and the political obstacles to using Article 7 TEU, we cheer on this new tool of the Union. But we believe the urgency of rule of law concerns …


Nature’S Rights, Christiana Ochoa Sep 2021

Nature’S Rights, Christiana Ochoa

Michigan Journal of Environmental & Administrative Law

Do forests and rivers possess standing to sue? Do mountain ranges have substantive rights? A recent issue of The Judges’ Journal, a preeminent publication for American judges, alerts the bench, bar, and policymakers to the rapidly emerging “rights of nature,” predicting that state and federal courts will increasingly see claims asserting such rights. Within the United States, Tribal law has begun to legally recognize the rights of rivers, mountains, and other natural features. Several municipalities across the United States have also acted to recognize the rights of nature. United States courts have not yet addressed the issue, though in 2017, …


Foreword, James C. Hathaway Aug 2021

Foreword, James C. Hathaway

Other Publications

The prognosis for the global refugee protection regime is not good. Wealthy countries are more determined than ever to avoid the arrival of refugees, investing massively in a variety of non-entree policies to deflect refugees away from their borders. Yet despite the fact that only about 15 percent of the world's refugees reach such states, rich countries spend four times as much money to manage and process the refugee claims of the small number of refugees who reach them than to fund the protection of the 85 percent of refugees who remain in the less developed world. Roughly a third …


Pushing Back On Stricter Copyright Isp Liability Rules, Pamela Samuelson Apr 2021

Pushing Back On Stricter Copyright Isp Liability Rules, Pamela Samuelson

Michigan Technology Law Review

For more than two decades, internet service providers (ISPs) in the United States, the European Union (EU), and many other countries have been shielded from copyright liability under “safe harbor” rules. These rules apply to ISPs who did not know about or participate in user-uploaded infringements and who take infringing content down after receiving notice from rights holders. Major copyright industry groups were never satisfied with these safe harbors, and their dissatisfaction has become more strident over time as online infringements have grown to scale.

Responding to copyright industry complaints, the EU in 2019 adopted its Directive on Copyright and …


Understanding National Remedies And The Principle Of National Procedural Autonomy: A Constitutional Approach, Daniel H. Halberstam Jan 2021

Understanding National Remedies And The Principle Of National Procedural Autonomy: A Constitutional Approach, Daniel H. Halberstam

Articles

This article provides a constitutionally grounded understanding of the vexing principle of ‘national procedural autonomy’ that haunts the vindication of EU law in national court. After identifying tensions and confusion in the debate surrounding this purported principle of ‘autonomy’, the Article turns to the foundational text and structure of Union law to reconstruct the proper constitutional basis for deploying or supplanting national procedures and remedies. It further argues that much of the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union may be considered through the lens of ‘prudential avoidance’, ie the decision to avoid difficult constitutional questions …


Kings, Lords And Courts In Anglo-Norman England, Robert Hirshon Jan 2021

Kings, Lords And Courts In Anglo-Norman England, Robert Hirshon

Articles

This is an important book, filling a significant gap in scholarship on late Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Norman law, lordship, and administration. Its primary focus is on the hundred court and its relationship to lords’ local courts. Nicholas Karn argues (204) that, following the creation of shires and hundreds across England in the tenth century, by the middle of the eleventh “the unitary model of the hundred was starting to break down, and decay accelerated and became general into the twelfth century.” Lords either “claimed whole hundreds themselves, or they created lesser units which were originally subsets of hundreds and which were …


Introduction: Situating, Researching, And Writing Comparative Legal History, John G. H. Hudson, William Eves Jan 2021

Introduction: Situating, Researching, And Writing Comparative Legal History, John G. H. Hudson, William Eves

Other Publications

This volume is a selection of essays taken from the excellent range of papers presented at the British Legal History Conference hosted by the Institute for Legal and Constitutional Research at the University of St Andrews, 10–13 July 2019. The theme of the conference gives this book its title: ‘comparative legal history’. The topic came easily to the organisers because of their association with the St Andrews-based European Research Council Advanced grant project ‘Civil law, common law, customary law: consonance, divergence and transformation in Western Europe from the late eleventh to the thirteenth centuries’. But the chosen topic was also …


Resources For Foreign, Comparative, And International Legal Research, Kate E. Britt Sep 2020

Resources For Foreign, Comparative, And International Legal Research, Kate E. Britt

Law Librarian Scholarship

In our increasingly globalized world, a legal issue outside of American domestic law can pop up in a variety of circumstances. Commercial transactions, marriage and custody issues, immigration statuses, and more may involve the law of another nation or be governed by an international treaty. This article outlines some resources to help you tackle foreign, comparative, and international legal issues, whenever they arise.


Putting The Fetus First — Legal Regulation, Motherhood, And Pregnancy, Emma Milne Jun 2020

Putting The Fetus First — Legal Regulation, Motherhood, And Pregnancy, Emma Milne

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

The fetus-first mentality advocates that pregnant women and women who could become pregnant should put the needs and well-being of their fetuses before their own. As this Article will illustrate, this popular public perception has pervaded criminal law, impacting responses to women deemed to be the “irresponsible” pregnant woman and so the “bad” mother. The Article considers cases from Alabama and Indiana in the United States and from England in the United Kingdom, providing clear evidence that concerns about the behavior of pregnant women now hang heavily over criminal justice responses to women who experience a negative pregnancy outcome or …


Healthy Data Protection, Lothar Determann May 2020

Healthy Data Protection, Lothar Determann

Michigan Technology Law Review

Modern medicine is evolving at a tremendous speed. On a daily basis, we learn about new treatments, drugs, medical devices, and diagnoses. Both established technology companies and start-ups focus on health-related products and services in competition with traditional healthcare businesses. Telemedicine and electronic health records have the potential to improve the effectiveness of treatments significantly. Progress in the medical field depends above all on data, specifically health information. Physicians, researchers, and developers need health information to help patients by improving diagnoses, customizing treatments and finding new cures.

Yet law and policymakers are currently more focused on the fact that health …


Digitizing Scent And Flavor: A Copyright Perspective, Amara Lopez May 2020

Digitizing Scent And Flavor: A Copyright Perspective, Amara Lopez

Michigan Technology Law Review

Should the flavor of a cheese fall under copyright protection? The Court of Justice of the European Union recently confronted this question in Levola Hengelo BV v. Smilde Foods. Although the court ultimately denied protection, its reasoning opened many doors for those seeking intellectual property protection for scents and flavors. The court implied that it was the subjective nature of a cheese flavor that bars it from enjoying the protection copyright affords, which begs the question of what would happen if there were a sufficiently objective way to describe a flavor.

Recent developments in technology have led to the digitization …


Fascism And Monopoly, Daniel A. Crane May 2020

Fascism And Monopoly, Daniel A. Crane

Michigan Law Review

The recent revival of political interest in antitrust has resurfaced a longstanding debate about the role of industrial concentration and monopoly in enabling Hitler’s rise to power and the Third Reich’s wars of aggression. Proponents of stronger antitrust enforcement argue that monopolies and cartels brought the Nazis to power and warn that rising concentration in the American economy could similarly threaten democracy. Skeptics demur, observing that German big business largely opposed Hitler during the crucial years of his ascent. Drawing on business histories and archival material from the U.S. Office of Military Government’s Decartelization Branch, this Article assesses the historical …


The Plight Of Women In Positions Of Corporate Leadership In The United States, The European Union, And Japan: Differing Laws And Cultures, Similar Issues, Bettina C. K. Binder, Terry Morehead Dworkin, Niculina Nae, Cindy A. Schipani, Irina Averianova Mar 2020

The Plight Of Women In Positions Of Corporate Leadership In The United States, The European Union, And Japan: Differing Laws And Cultures, Similar Issues, Bettina C. K. Binder, Terry Morehead Dworkin, Niculina Nae, Cindy A. Schipani, Irina Averianova

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

Gender diversity in corporate governance is a highly debated issue worldwide. National campaigns such as “2020 Women on Boards” in the United States and “Women on the Board Pledge for Europe” are examples of just two initiatives aimed at increasing female representation in the corporate boardroom. Several

European countries have adopted board quotas as a means toward achieving gender diversity. Japan has passed an Act on Promotion of Women’s Participation and Advancement in the Workplace to lay a foundation for establishing targets for promoting women.

This Article examines the status of women in positions of leadership in the United States, …


Property, Unbundled Water Entitlements, And Anticommons Tragedies: A Cautionary Tale From Australia, Paul Babie, Paul Leadbeter, Kyriaco Nikias Mar 2020

Property, Unbundled Water Entitlements, And Anticommons Tragedies: A Cautionary Tale From Australia, Paul Babie, Paul Leadbeter, Kyriaco Nikias

Michigan Journal of Environmental & Administrative Law

As water becomes an increasingly scarce resource, a lack of clarity in relation to its use can produce both conflict among and inefficient use by users. In order to encourage markets in water and to ensure the viability and functionality of those markets, governments in many jurisdictions have moved away from commons property as a means of water allocation, and towards systems of private property in water. In doing so, one policy and legal option is “unbundling”, which seeks carefully to define both the entitlement to water and its separation into constituent parts. Advocates claim that unbundling makes water rights …


Parsing And Managing Inconsistency In Investor-State Dispute Settlement, Julian Arato, Chester Brown, Federico Ortino Jan 2020

Parsing And Managing Inconsistency In Investor-State Dispute Settlement, Julian Arato, Chester Brown, Federico Ortino

Other Publications

Inconsistency in legal interpretation is among the most salient problems in investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS). Some such instances have been particularly glaring, and introducing consistency into ISDS rates high on the agenda of reformers - particularly for several government delegations leading multilateral reform efforts in the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Working Group III. This Article starts from the position that some degree of interpretive inconsistency is endemic to any legal order. Yet systemic inconsistency tends to undermine the basic purposes of the investment treaty regime – namely protecting and promoting foreign direct investment through predictable international …


Regulatory Responses To Medical Machine Learning, Timo Minssen, Sara Gerke, Mateo Aboy, W. Nicholson Price Ii, Glenn Cohen Jan 2020

Regulatory Responses To Medical Machine Learning, Timo Minssen, Sara Gerke, Mateo Aboy, W. Nicholson Price Ii, Glenn Cohen

Articles

Companies and healthcare providers are developing and implementing new applications of medical artificial intelligence, including the artificial intelligence sub-type of medical machine learning (MML).MML is based on the application of machine learning (ML) algorithms to automatically identify patterns and act on medical data to guide clinical decisions. MML poses challenges and raises important questions, including (1) How will regulators evaluate MML-based medical devices to ensure their safety and effectiveness? and (2) What additional MML considerations should be taken into account in the international context? To address these questions, we analyze the current regulatory approaches to MML in the USA and …


The Original Intent Of The Single Tax Principle: From Theory To Practice, Gianluca Mazzoni Jan 2020

The Original Intent Of The Single Tax Principle: From Theory To Practice, Gianluca Mazzoni

SJD Dissertations

This dissertation is comprised of the following articles:

  • The Italian Patent Box Regime and the Foreign Tax Credit, published as Mazzoni, G. “The Italian Patent Box Regime and the Foreign Tax Credit.” European Taxation 59, no. 9 (August 20, 2019). https://doi.org/10.59403/2p3evbr.
  • The Italian Supreme Court's Decision in the ITW case (No. 32840): The Beneficial Ownership Requirement and Double Non-Taxation?
  • Present at the Creation: Archival Research and Evidence on the Origins of the Single Tax Principle, published as Mazzoni, Gianluca. “Present at the Creation: Archival Research and Evidence on the Origins of the Single Tax Principle.” Intertax 47, no. Issue 10 …


The Elusive Object Of Punishment, Gabriel S. Mendlow Jun 2019

The Elusive Object Of Punishment, Gabriel S. Mendlow

Articles

All observers of our legal system recognize that criminal statutes can be complex and obscure. But statutory obscurity often takes a particular form that most observers have overlooked: uncertainty about the identity of the wrong a statute aims to punish. It is not uncommon for parties to disagree about the identity of the underlying wrong even as they agree on the statute’s elements. Hidden in plain sight, these unexamined disagreements underlie or exacerbate an assortment of familiar disputes—about venue, vagueness, and mens rea; about DUI and statutory rape; about hate crimes, child pornography, and counterterrorism laws; about proportionality in punishment; …