Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

University of Kentucky

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year

Articles 1 - 30 of 741

Full-Text Articles in Law

A Critical Assessment Of The First Step Act's Recidivism-Reduction Measures, Raquel Wilson Jan 2024

A Critical Assessment Of The First Step Act's Recidivism-Reduction Measures, Raquel Wilson

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

The First Step Act of 2018 (“FSA”) is the most impactful federal sentencing reform of the past 40 years. While the Act represents a partial resurgence of the rehabilitative model of imprisonment, which had fallen out of favor decades before, it also represents a missed opportunity to fully integrate evidence-based rehabilitation programs for those offenders who pose the greatest risks to public safety.

The public has a strong interest in reducing recidivism, particularly among violent offenders, most of whom will be released from federal prison eventually. The FSA incentivizes participation in evidence-based, recidivism-reducing programs offered by the Bureau of Prisons …


Reflections On Arlington Heights: Fifty Years Of Exclusionary Zoning Litigation And Beyond, Robert G. Schwemm Jan 2024

Reflections On Arlington Heights: Fifty Years Of Exclusionary Zoning Litigation And Beyond, Robert G. Schwemm

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Fifty years ago, when I was two years out of law school, I began work on a case—Metropolitan Housing Development Corp. v. Village of Arlington Heights—that was destined to take on epic proportions in the housing discrimination field. The case started with a complaint filed in 1972, shortly before I joined the plaintiffs’ legal team, and was not finally resolved until 1980, after I’d left that team to become a law professor. During the seven years that I worked on the Arlington Heights case, it produced a major Supreme Court decision on standing and the Fourteenth Amendment’s Equal Protection Clause3 …


Trauma-Informed Legal Advocacy, Laken Albrink Jan 2023

Trauma-Informed Legal Advocacy, Laken Albrink

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

A trauma-informed approach in legal practice can reduce the re-traumatization of victims, provide recognition of the role trauma plays in the attorney-client relationship, and provide legal professionals with the opportunity to increase connections to their clients and improve advocacy.1 Part Two of this article defines trauma and adverse childhood experiences and the impact they have on clients. It then explores indicators of trauma and how they may present case barriers if the attorney is not trauma informed. Part Three explores ways attorneys can tailor their practice of law to be trauma-informed with clients, support staff, and other professionals. It demonstrates …


Generative And Ai Authored Artworks And Copyright Law, Michael D. Murray Jan 2023

Generative And Ai Authored Artworks And Copyright Law, Michael D. Murray

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Generative art linked to non-fungible tokens (NFTs) is an extremely popular genre of art in the NFT universe. Many of the most famous NFT projects—CryptoPunks, Bored Ape Yacht Club, World of Women, Azuki, Chromie Squiggles, Clone X, and Moonbirds, just to name a few—involve generative art. But there is a potential copyrightability problem with generative art:

Under current United States copyright law, many examples of generative art might be held to be uncopyrightable.

Why does generative art fail in the copyrightability analysis? As discussed below, it is because the work might lack a human author. And at present, the U.S. …


Transfers And Licensing Of Copyrights To Nft Purchasers, Michael D. Murray Jan 2023

Transfers And Licensing Of Copyrights To Nft Purchasers, Michael D. Murray

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Property as a concept in the law means the right to own and control something and to exclude others from using and controlling it. This concept often is expressed as the rights owner having a monopoly over the thing that is owned. When the term “intellectual” is added to the concept of property, it means that the thing protected is a non-tangible item devised, imagined, developed, or invented by a person or group, and that thing has value deserving of protection in the law. Copyright is one form of intellectual property (“IP”), the others being trademarks, patents, right of publicity, …


Nfts Rescue Resale Royalties? The Wonderfully Complicated Ability Of Nft Smart Contracts To Allow Resale Royalty Rights, Michael D. Murray Jan 2023

Nfts Rescue Resale Royalties? The Wonderfully Complicated Ability Of Nft Smart Contracts To Allow Resale Royalty Rights, Michael D. Murray

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Resale royalty rights (also known by the French phrase, droit de suite or “right of continuation” rights) give artists a right to participate in the proceeds realized from the resale of their works. According to DuBoff, “[w]hile copyright laws give the creator of a work the right to control eproduction of the work, many visual artists do not benefit as directly as print authors do from this aspect of copyright protection.” Unlike print authors, who derive their primary economic return on a literary work through the sale of multiple copies, visual artists receive most of their economic returns from the …


Copyright Transformative Fair Use After Andy Warhol Foundation For The Visual Arts, Inc. V. Goldsmith, Michael D. Murray Jan 2023

Copyright Transformative Fair Use After Andy Warhol Foundation For The Visual Arts, Inc. V. Goldsmith, Michael D. Murray

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

On May 18, 2023, the United States Supreme Court entered its opinion in Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc. v. Goldsmith. The Court examined the work of the renowned artist Andy Warhol (Warhol), posthumously represented by his eponymously named foundation, who had incorporated a significant portion of the visual elements from Lynn Goldsmith’s photograph of the deceased rock star Prince without Goldsmith’s permission. In a 7-2 opinion, the Court held that Warhol’s use of the Goldsmith photograph was not “transformative” and thus did not constitute fair use of the photographer’s work. This article will explain and analyze …


Generative Ai Art: Copyright Infringement And Fair Use, Michael D. Murray Jan 2023

Generative Ai Art: Copyright Infringement And Fair Use, Michael D. Murray

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

The discussion of AI copyright infringement or fair use often skips over all the required steps of the infringement analysis in order to focus on the most intriguing question, “Could a visual generative AI generate a work that potentially infringes a preexisting copyrighted work?” and then the discussion skips further ahead to, “Would the AI have a fair use defense, most likely under the transformative test?” These are relevant questions, but without considering the actual steps of the copyright infringement analysis, the discussion is misleading or even irrelevant. This neglecting of topics and stages of the infringement analysis fails to …


Interbranch Equity, Jonathan Shaub Jan 2023

Interbranch Equity, Jonathan Shaub

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

In recent years, Congress has increasingly turned to the courts to challenge executive actions. In these suits, the executive branch has strenuously pressed several distinct doctrinal arguments that interbranch cases are nonjusticiable and must be dismissed. These arguments, though expressed in the relevant language of each individual justiciability doctrine, are all centered on a single fundamental point—the judiciary should not be involved in refereeing a dispute that is solely between the legislative and executive branches. The briefs and judicial opinions explicitly identify a coherent category of cases—interbranch cases. But these cases are treated haphazardly as a matter of doctrine. Within …


Introduction: There Must Be Something In The Water - Or The Bourbon - In Kentucky: Voting Rights In The Bluegrass State, Joshua A. Douglas Jan 2023

Introduction: There Must Be Something In The Water - Or The Bourbon - In Kentucky: Voting Rights In The Bluegrass State, Joshua A. Douglas

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Kentucky is best known for three things: horses, bourbon, and basketball. Add positive improvements for the right to vote to the list.

The Bluegrass state has made national news in recent years for its election rules. In 2020, many people in the media and advocacy world pointed to Kentucky as a model for administering an election during the COVID-19 pandemic. Under a bipartisan agreement between the Democratic Governor and Republican Secretary of State, Kentucky initially postponed the 2020 primary to provide for additional planning time. Then it implemented smart rules to ease access to vote-by-mail and made in-person voting safer …


Nft Ownership And Copyrights, Michael D. Murray Jan 2023

Nft Ownership And Copyrights, Michael D. Murray

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Non-fungible tokens (NFTs) have made enormous waves in the art, music, entertainment, and collectibles world, but the backwash of this blockchain technology has inundated and overwhelmed many peoples’ understanding of intellectual property (IP) law in general and copyright law in particular when it comes to NFTs and blockchains. Artists and creatives who mint NFTs often have very different understandings and expectations from collectors and investors who purchase and use them when it comes to the copyrights associated with the content linked to an NFT. Art law attorneys may not have gone fully down the rabbit hole that is the current …


Precious And Dear To Us Is Only This Place: The Transformative Potential Of Monumental Remnants, Zachary A. Bray Jan 2023

Precious And Dear To Us Is Only This Place: The Transformative Potential Of Monumental Remnants, Zachary A. Bray

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

When monuments are torn down, what remains, and what should we do with the remains? In the United States as elsewhere, recent political and social conflicts have led to the destruction or relocation of many monuments—sometimes spontaneous, sometimes carefully planned. Much attention has been focused on these processes of removal and relocation, and the laws that hinder or advance these changes. On the other hand, relatively little attention has been paid to what remains behind after monuments are removed or destroyed: the vacant spaces, empty pedestals, fragments of statues, and so forth. Sometimes these remnants are protected by laws that …


Trademarks, Nfts, And The Law Of The Metaverse, Michael D. Murray Jan 2023

Trademarks, Nfts, And The Law Of The Metaverse, Michael D. Murray

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

This Article discusses the early encounters of NFTs, trademarks, and the legal system. This work will examine the areas where NFT creators are getting into or are likely to get into trouble with the law and policy of trademark infringement, trademark dilution, and the related legal causes of action of false endorsement and false designation of origin. United States law is being applied in lawsuits that already are being adjudicated in the real world concerning subject matter that exists only in cyberspace, the pre-cursor to the metaverse.


Personalizing Prices To Redistribute Wealth In Antitrust And Public Utility Rate Regulation, Ramsi A. Woodcock Jan 2022

Personalizing Prices To Redistribute Wealth In Antitrust And Public Utility Rate Regulation, Ramsi A. Woodcock

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

The information age is enabling firms with even small amounts of market power to personalize the prices they charge to each consumer in the market. Left to their own devices, firms will use this new power to increase profits by charging prices personalized to the maximum that each consumer is willing to pay. But government can also use the new power to personalize prices to equalize wealth—by insisting that firms personalize high prices to the rich and low prices to the poor—and most of the legal rules needed to do so are already in place. Both the antitrust laws and …


How To Sell Nfts Without Really Trying, Brian L. Frye Jan 2022

How To Sell Nfts Without Really Trying, Brian L. Frye

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Something is happening and we don’t know what it is. Suddenly last summer, the internet went nuts for “non-fungible tokens” or “NFTs.” In a matter of months, NFT sales swelled from a sleepy slough of the blockchain to a thundering cataract that shows no sign of slaking. Special NFTs sell for millions of dollars, and some are even securitized. It’s a big business that’s only getting bigger.

But no one seems to know why. Objectively, NFTs are useless, meaningless, and worthless. So why are people willing to pay millions of dollars for them, even begging for the opportunity? Maybe it …


Are Cryptopunks Copyrightable?, Brian L. Frye Jan 2022

Are Cryptopunks Copyrightable?, Brian L. Frye

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Larva Labs’s CryptoPunks NFTs are iconic. Created in 2017, they were among the first NFTs on the Ethereum blockchain. Four years later, they are among the most valuable, selling for anywhere from $200,000 to millions of dollars.

The CryptoPunks collection consists of 10,000 NFTs, each of which is associated with a unique CryptoPunks image. Everyone knows who owns each CryptoPunks NFT. The Ethereum blockchain provides indelible proof. But people disagree about who owns - and who should own - the copyright in the CryptoPunks images. Most CryptoPunks NFT owners believe they should own the copyright in the image associated with …


The Costs Of The Punishment Clause, Cortney E. Lollar Jan 2022

The Costs Of The Punishment Clause, Cortney E. Lollar

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Criminal punishment pursuant to a facially valid conviction in a court of law is an uncontested exception to the Thirteenth Amendment’s prohibition on slavery and involuntary servitude. After all, the Constitutional text reads, “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States.” And yet, beginning almost immediately after the Thirteenth Amendment was adopted, states regularly employed criminal statutes to limit the movement and behaviors of those previously enslaved and subject them to slavery-type labor camps in conditions that closely mirrored slavery. Because neither the …


The Ties That Bind: The Relationship Between Law Firm Growth And Law Firm Survival, Alan J. Kluegel Jan 2022

The Ties That Bind: The Relationship Between Law Firm Growth And Law Firm Survival, Alan J. Kluegel

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

For the better part of the twentieth century, law firms hired, trained, and grew through a stable and predictable pattern: hire new law school graduates, monitor and evaluate their work, and pick promising attorneys from among their ranks and elevate them to partner. Rinse, lather, repeat. A combination of professional norms and organizational inertia made this approach the dominant method of growth among large corporate law firms until changes in legal market broke down these customary practices, ushering in a new era of lawyer mobility. Now, it has become commonplace for lawyers to leave for greener pastures as more law …


State Constitutions And Youth Voting Rights, Joshua A. Douglas Jan 2022

State Constitutions And Youth Voting Rights, Joshua A. Douglas

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Young voters suffer the lowest turnout rates in American elections. One study shows that younger voters face numerous barriers when attempting to cast a ballot, such as work responsibilities, not receiving an absentee ballot in time, inability to find or access their polling place, voter ID problems, or other issues. Many state election laws are a labyrinth of rules and regulations that make it more difficult to vote, especially for younger people. As one report notes, “many young voters are new voters who need to register for the first time and who may be unfamiliar with the process. Young people …


The Multi-Level Marketing Pandemic, Christopher G. Bradley, Hannah E. Oates Jan 2022

The Multi-Level Marketing Pandemic, Christopher G. Bradley, Hannah E. Oates

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Among the societal effects of the COVID-19 pandemic has been a sharp rise in the activities of multi-level marketing companies (MLMs). MLMs are business enterprises in which participants seek not only to sell products to friends, family, and social media contacts, but also to recruit them as MLM participants, with the promise of "building their own business from home."

False promises often pervade MLM sales pitches. Evidence shows that few participants see even a dollar of profit from their MLM work; the vast majority of recruits quickly abandon their MLM dreams and lose their investments. Yet the pitch has become …


Cross-Cultural Communication In A Crisis: The Universality Of Visual Narrative In The Covid-19 Pandemic, Michael D. Murray Jan 2022

Cross-Cultural Communication In A Crisis: The Universality Of Visual Narrative In The Covid-19 Pandemic, Michael D. Murray

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

A primary goal of twenty-first century legal works is to communicate the law effectively to diverse audiences. Many of the most needful and most vulnerable audiences for legal information have members who lack basic literacy skills and suffer linguistic and cultural confusion from verbal textual media—namely, the printed word. Yet for centuries, legal rules and government restrictions have been communicated nearly exclusively through the printed word. Recent scholarship in visual legal rhetoric, visual literacy studies, and visual cultural studies is informed by cognitive psychology and neuroscience that all points to a solution: visual communication of the law. Visual communication is …


Toxic Public Goods, Brian L. Frye Jan 2022

Toxic Public Goods, Brian L. Frye

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Everybody loves public goods. After all, they are a perpetual utility machine. Obviously, we want as many of them as possible. But what if the consumption of a public good actually decreases net social welfare? I refer to this kind of public good as a "toxic public good." In this essay, I discuss three kinds of potential toxic public goods: trolling, pornography, and ideology, and I reflect on how we might make the production of toxic public goods more efficient.


After Copyright: Pwning Nfts In A Clout Economy, Brian L. Frye Jan 2022

After Copyright: Pwning Nfts In A Clout Economy, Brian L. Frye

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Copyright is a means to an end, not an end in itself. We created copyright because we wanted to encourage the creation and distribution of works of authorship, not because we wanted to enable copyright owners to control the use of the works they own. We stuck with copyright because it was the best tool we had, despite its flaws. Was copyright ever efficient? No. But marginal improvements matter.

Technology has changed the copyright calculus. Distribution of works of authorship gradually got cheaper and cheaper. And then the Internet made it free. But creation remained costly, even though technology helped …


A New Methodology For The Analysis Of Visuals In Legal Works, Michael D. Murray Jan 2022

A New Methodology For The Analysis Of Visuals In Legal Works, Michael D. Murray

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

The goal of this Article is to introduce a comprehensive methodology for the analysis of visuals used for communication in legal works, by which I mean transactional and litigation documents, legal instruments, primary and secondary sources of law, and legal informational materials. To date, the scholarship on visuals in legal communications has been heavily descriptive, with some forays into the ethical and practical considerations of the use of “visualized” legal works. No one has yet devised a comprehensive analytical methodology that draws upon the disciplines of visual literacy, visual cultural studies, visual rhetoric, and mise en scène analysis to evaluate …


These Brutal Indignities: The Case For Crimes Against Humanity In Black America, Tiffany D. Atkins Jan 2022

These Brutal Indignities: The Case For Crimes Against Humanity In Black America, Tiffany D. Atkins

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

There is nothing we can do. Not guilty. No indictment. There is nothing we can do. As cases of violence and police killings of Black Americans continue to rise, "there's nothing we can do" seems like the default response from the American justice system. Despite the evidence, police officers enjoy the protection of qualified immunity to insulate them from the consequences of their deadly actions. Prosecutors, who often work closely with police, decline to press criminal charges, or if charges are raised, they rarely lead to convictions. Instead of protecting its citizens from violence and loss of life, the American …


The Guardians Of The New Internal Revenue Code, Douglas C. Michael Jan 2022

The Guardians Of The New Internal Revenue Code, Douglas C. Michael

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

The proliferation of electronic filing (e-filing) of income tax returns creates new problems and opportunities for the regulation of the tax return preparation industry. Now that e-filing is universal, the rules of the law are, for many taxpayers, the code of the tax software, not in the Internal Revenue Code. The natural consequences of universal e-filing are unremitting complexity in a tax code which is also used to deliver social benefits in the form of tax credits. This, combined with the polit¬ical pariah status of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), makes it imperative that the IRS work with the tax …


The Mixed Legacy Of The January 6 Investigation For Executive Privilege And Congressional Oversight, Jonathan Shaub Jan 2022

The Mixed Legacy Of The January 6 Investigation For Executive Privilege And Congressional Oversight, Jonathan Shaub

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

The attack on the Capitol on January 6 was an unprecedented event in U.S. history. Across a wide swath of constitutional law, January 6 will have significant implications and consequences, most of which are likely not yet known. That is particularly true of constitutional doctrines governing congressional oversight and executive privilege. The select committee established by the House of Representatives to investigate the events on and leading up to January 6 has undertaken a monumental task of investigating, collecting, and reporting the facts surrounding the attack, and the January 6 committee has doggedly pursued an exhaustive investigation in furtherance of …


Sec No-Action Letter Request, Brian L. Frye Jan 2021

Sec No-Action Letter Request, Brian L. Frye

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

No abstract provided.


Undue Deference To States In The 2020 Election Litigation, Joshua A. Douglas Jan 2021

Undue Deference To States In The 2020 Election Litigation, Joshua A. Douglas

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

COVID-19 has wreaked havoc on so much of our lives, including how to run our elections. Yet the federal courts have refused to respond appropriately to the dilemma that many voters faced when trying to participate in the 2020 election. Instead, the courts—particularly the U.S. Supreme Court and the federal appellate courts—invoked a narrow test that unduly defers to state election administration and fails to protect adequately the fundamental right to vote.


"How The Sausage Gets Made": Voter Id And Deliberative Democracy, Joshua A. Douglas Jan 2021

"How The Sausage Gets Made": Voter Id And Deliberative Democracy, Joshua A. Douglas

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

In 2020, Kentucky became the twentieth state to enact a law that requires voters to show a photo ID at the polls to vote. Yet the law is one of the most mild and reasonable photo ID laws to pass in recent memory. This article tells the inside story of how that law came to be. And it presents the broader story of how the process of crafting legislation, when employing a theory of deliberative democracy, can increase legitimacy and produce better results for the functioning of our elections. The Kentucky story therefore offers important lessons for election law policy …