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After Obergefell V. Hodges: The Continuing Battle Over Equal Rights For Sexual Minorities In The United States, Simone Chriss, Danaya C. Wright Dec 2015

After Obergefell V. Hodges: The Continuing Battle Over Equal Rights For Sexual Minorities In The United States, Simone Chriss, Danaya C. Wright

UF Law Faculty Publications

This article examines the pathbreaking U.S. Supreme Court decision in Obergefell v. Hodges that held same-sex marriage was a fundamental right that could not be denied by any state, despite the myriad same-sex marriage bans that had been passed in a majority of states. After explaining the constitutional jurisprudence of due process and equal protection, the article then examines the history of the same-sex marriage movement and the Obergefell decision. We conclude by discussing how the jurisprudential theory of the case, fundamental rights under the due process clause, narrows the scope of the case’s precedential value. Although gay rights activists …


Keep Securities Reform Moving: Eliminate The Sec's Integration Doctrine, Stuart R. Cohn Oct 2015

Keep Securities Reform Moving: Eliminate The Sec's Integration Doctrine, Stuart R. Cohn

UF Law Faculty Publications

Small and developing companies raising capital under the federal securities laws often face the considerable barrier imposed by the SEC's integration doctrine. Despite recent reforms in registration exemptions the integration doctrine has remained untouched and continues to be a significant problem for many companies needing multiple infusions of capital. This article examines and recommends that the integration doctrine be eliminated nearly in its entirety.


Inheritance Equity: Reforming The Inheritance Penalties Facing Children In Non-Traditional Families, Danaya C. Wright Oct 2015

Inheritance Equity: Reforming The Inheritance Penalties Facing Children In Non-Traditional Families, Danaya C. Wright

UF Law Faculty Publications

This Article examines how more than 50% of children living today may be disadvantaged by 1950s era inheritance laws that privilege and protect only those children living in nuclear families with their biological parents. Because so many children today are living in blended families — single-parent families, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer/questioning (LGBTQ) families, or are living with relatives — their right to inherit from the persons who function as their parents are severely limited by most state probate codes, even though they would likely be entitled to child support under the parent-child definitions of most of those states' …


Of More Than Usual Interest: The Taxing Problem Of Debt Principal, Charlene Luke Oct 2015

Of More Than Usual Interest: The Taxing Problem Of Debt Principal, Charlene Luke

UF Law Faculty Publications

Leverage is an essential but often troubling component of the U.S. market. The financial crisis highlighted the risks and complexity of a leverage web that includes flesh-and-blood people from all walks of life and paper people from all corners of the business and investment world. In the tax area, the potentially problematic incentive effects of interest deductibility have long engaged a wide array of tax commentators and policymakers. While interest deductibility rightly receives widespread scrutiny, a more comprehensive approach to leverage is needed. This Article focuses on the surprisingly complicated tax treatment of cash (and cash equivalent) borrowings. This Article …


Dividing Crime, Multiplying Punishments, John F. Stinneford Jun 2015

Dividing Crime, Multiplying Punishments, John F. Stinneford

UF Law Faculty Publications

When the government wants to impose exceptionally harsh punishment on a criminal defendant, one of the ways it accomplishes this goal is to divide the defendant’s single course of conduct into multiple offenses that give rise to multiple punishments. The Supreme Court has rendered the Double Jeopardy Clause, the Cruel and Unusual Punishments Clause, and the rule of lenity incapable of handling this problem by emptying them of substantive content and transforming them into mere instruments for effectuation of legislative will.

This Article demonstrates that all three doctrines originally reflected a substantive legal preference for life and liberty, and a …


United States V. Woods And The Future Of The Tax Blue Book As A Means Of Penalty Avoidance And Statutory Interpretation, Cole Barnett May 2015

United States V. Woods And The Future Of The Tax Blue Book As A Means Of Penalty Avoidance And Statutory Interpretation, Cole Barnett

Florida Law Review

The Blue Book is a “General Explanation” of tax law prepared by the Joint Committee on Taxation, and is commonly relied upon by both taxpayers and the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). In United States v. Woods, the U.S. Supreme Court broadly disapproved of judicial deference to the Blue Book when courts are faced with such reliance. Yet, the Court left no guidance on when the Blue Book should or should not prove persuasive. The Court’s decision to summarily undermine Blue Book deference—without further elaboration, sophistication, or nuance—will give taxpayers pause when considering whether to rely on the Blue Book. …


Fernandez V. California And The Expansion Of Third-Party Consent Searches, Anna P. Hayes May 2015

Fernandez V. California And The Expansion Of Third-Party Consent Searches, Anna P. Hayes

Florida Law Review

Imagine a day when the police come knocking at your door: you open the door, and the police ask you if they may conduct a warrantless search of your residence. As any good constitutional law student would, you explain to them that you are well aware of your rights under the Fourth Amendment, and that they should come back with a warrant. Because the dutiful officers believe that you have committed a crime, they arrest you on the spot, rather than obtaining a search warrant for the premises. After arresting you and removing you from the premises the officers then …


You Have The Right To Remain Silent, But Anything You Don’T Say May Be Used Against You: The Admissibility Of Silence As Evidence After Salinas V. Texas, Andrew M. Hapner May 2015

You Have The Right To Remain Silent, But Anything You Don’T Say May Be Used Against You: The Admissibility Of Silence As Evidence After Salinas V. Texas, Andrew M. Hapner

Florida Law Review

In Salinas v. Texas, the United States Supreme Court held that a suspect’s refusal to answer an officer’s questions during a noncustodial, pre-Miranda, criminal interrogation is admissible at trial as substantive evidence of guilt. In a plurality decision, Justice Samuel Alito emphasized that before a suspect can rely on the privilege against self-incrimination, the suspect must invoke the privilege. Consequently, because silence does not invoke the privilege, and because the petitioner failed to expressly invoke the privilege in words, the prosecutor’s use of his pre-Miranda silence during a noncustodial interrogation did not violate the Fifth Amendment. …


Misuse Of Information Under The Computer Fraud And Abuse Act: On What Side Of The Circuit Split Will The Second And Third Circuits Wind Up?, Robert D. Sowell May 2015

Misuse Of Information Under The Computer Fraud And Abuse Act: On What Side Of The Circuit Split Will The Second And Third Circuits Wind Up?, Robert D. Sowell

Florida Law Review

The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA) has reached a breaking point. The much-discussed issue is whether the CFAA provides a cause of action against persons who use electronic information in a way that violates a relevant computer-use policy. Four circuit courts of appeals have held that the CFAA provides a cause of action for misuses of information, while two have disagreed. In two undecided circuits, the district courts have favored the latter interpretation. As the Supreme Court recently refused to address the issue, these two undecided circuits will play a pivotal role in determining the direction of the CFAA.


Aventura Management, Llc V. Spiaggia Ocean Condominium Association: Condominium Associations Beware, William C. Matthews May 2015

Aventura Management, Llc V. Spiaggia Ocean Condominium Association: Condominium Associations Beware, William C. Matthews

Florida Law Review

In late January 2013, the Third District Court of Appeal sent shockwaves throughout the real estate community with regards to condominium associations’ rights as unit owners. In AventuraManagement, LLC v. Spiaggia Ocean Condominium Association (Spiaggia), the appellate court interpreted Florida Statute § 718.1162 in an unprecedented way. The court held that if a condominium association takes title to a unit before the bank forecloses on a defaulting unit owner, the association is jointly and severally liable for all past due assessments with the previous owner that came due, up to the time of transfer of title.3 Condominium associations across …


Thirty-Two Years On The Federal Bench: Some Things I Have Learned, Judge Emmett Ripley Cox May 2015

Thirty-Two Years On The Federal Bench: Some Things I Have Learned, Judge Emmett Ripley Cox

Florida Law Review

In this Essay, prepared as the basis for the 2014 Dunwody Distinguished Lecture in Law at the University of Florida Levin College of Law, Judge Cox discusses a few things he learned from his experience as a trial judge and later as an appellate judge. Specifically, he addresses how the proliferation of federal law—both criminal and civil—imposes a real burden on the federal courts. This proliferation has negatively affected pleading and pretrial procedures in the federal court system. Additionally, he discusses what lawyers can do about these pleading and pretrial problems.

Over the course of his career Judge Cox have …


Guilt Without Mens Rea: How Florida’S Elimination Of Mens Rea For Drug Possession Is Constitutional, Marc B. Hernandez May 2015

Guilt Without Mens Rea: How Florida’S Elimination Of Mens Rea For Drug Possession Is Constitutional, Marc B. Hernandez

Florida Law Review

The Florida Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act is almost unique among criminal drug statutes in the United States. Like all states, Florida prohibits the possession, sale, and delivery of certain controlled substances. However, a recent revision of the Florida Comprehensive Drug Act removed Florida’s burden of proving one aspect of defendants’ mens rea in drug cases. Although several cases have challenged the Florida Comprehensive Drug Act for disregarding the traditional role of mens rea in criminal law and for subjecting innocent people to prosecution, the state of Florida continues to prosecute and obtain convictions under the statute.

This …


Expertise And Opinion Assignment On The Courts Of Appeals: A Preliminary Investigation, Jonathan Remy Nash May 2015

Expertise And Opinion Assignment On The Courts Of Appeals: A Preliminary Investigation, Jonathan Remy Nash

Florida Law Review

This Article examines the role of expertise in judicial opinion assignment and offers four contributions: First, this Article develops a general theory of opinion assignment on multimember courts. Second, this Article uses that theory to predict how expertise might influence opinion assignment. Third, because the theory advanced in this Article suggests that the courts of appeals are far more likely to witness experience-based opinion assignment than is the Supreme Court, this Article contributes to an understanding of opinion assignment practices in this understudied area. Fourth, this Article identifies two settings in which the theory this Article advances should have observable …


Mainstreaming Employment Contract Law: The Common Law Case For Reasonable Notice Of Termination, Rachel Arnow-Richman May 2015

Mainstreaming Employment Contract Law: The Common Law Case For Reasonable Notice Of Termination, Rachel Arnow-Richman

Florida Law Review

This Article simultaneously exposes a fundamental error in employment termination doctrine and a paradox in contract law jurisprudence. Contemporary employment law has developed under the assumption that at-will parties may terminate their relationship both without reason and without notice. This Article argues that the second half of this formulation—the idea that parties reserve the procedural right to terminate without notice—is neither historically supported nor legally correct. Employment at will, as originally expressed, was a mere duration presumption reflecting America’s rejection of the predominant British rule favoring one-year employment terms. While subsequent case law expanded the presumption in various ways, a …


Democracy, The Constitution, And Legal Positivism In America: Lessons From A Winding And Troubled History, Edward A. Purcell Jr. May 2015

Democracy, The Constitution, And Legal Positivism In America: Lessons From A Winding And Troubled History, Edward A. Purcell Jr.

Florida Law Review

This Article explores the political and philosophical background of the current debate between positivist “originalism” and evolutionary “living constitutionalism” and, more generally, the significance of positivist ideas for both democratic and constitutional theory. Noting the tensions between positivist and nonpositivist ideas that existed in early American constitutionalism, it focuses on the impact of John Austin’s theory of legal positivism in the United States after the Civil War and the way successive generations of Americans interpreted positivist ideas to develop their theories of democracy and constitutionalism. It argues that Austin inspired rival jurisprudential approaches that quickly, but misleadingly, became entangled with …


The Debilitating Effect Of Exclusive Rights: Patents And Productive Inefficiency, William Hubbard May 2015

The Debilitating Effect Of Exclusive Rights: Patents And Productive Inefficiency, William Hubbard

Florida Law Review

Are we underestimating the costs of patent protection? Scholars have long recognized that patent law is a double-edged sword. While patents promote innovation, they also limit the number of people who can benefit from new inventions. In the past, policy makers striving to balance the costs and benefits of patents have analyzed patent law through the lens of traditional, neoclassical economics. This Article argue that this approach is fundamentally flawed because traditional economics rely on an inaccurate oversimplification: that individuals and firms always maximize profits. In actuality, so-called "productive inefficiencies" often prevent profit maximization. For example, cognitive biases, bounded rationality, …


Unbundling Procedure: Carve-Outs From Arbitration Clauses, Christopher R. Drahozal, Erin O'Hara O'Connor May 2015

Unbundling Procedure: Carve-Outs From Arbitration Clauses, Christopher R. Drahozal, Erin O'Hara O'Connor

Florida Law Review

A rich literature analyzes how parties choose between courts and arbitration. Within this literature, scholars traditionally assume that sophisticated parties make a single choice between courts and arbitration based on the bundle of dispute resolution services that seems most appealing ex ante. As with the literature on bundling generally, however, legal scholars are increasingly focusing their attention on the unbundling of court and arbitral procedures—that is, the ability of parties to contract for à la carte or customized dispute resolution procedures in court and arbitration. While such unbundling is common ex post, i.e., after a dispute arises, most …


Disuniformity, Jason Rantanen, Lee Petherbridge Ph.D. May 2015

Disuniformity, Jason Rantanen, Lee Petherbridge Ph.D.

Florida Law Review

The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit is a response to a failure in judicial administration that produced a fractured, unworkable patent law—one that Congress concluded ill-served entrepreneurship and innovation. The purpose of the response—vesting exclusive jurisdiction for patent appeals in the Federal Circuit—was to permit that court to develop patent law in the direction of greater clarity and uniformity. Both at the time of the Federal Circuit's creation and again more recently scholars, judges, and practitioners have waged great debates over whether patent law uniformity furthers the ultimate goals of entrepreneurship and innovation. These debates have …


Lost In Compromise: Free Speech, Criminal Justice, And Attorney Pretrial Publicity, Margaret Tarkington May 2015

Lost In Compromise: Free Speech, Criminal Justice, And Attorney Pretrial Publicity, Margaret Tarkington

Florida Law Review

No abstract provided.


"Sophisticated Robots": Balancing Liability, Regulation, And Innovation, F. Patrick Hubbard May 2015

"Sophisticated Robots": Balancing Liability, Regulation, And Innovation, F. Patrick Hubbard

Florida Law Review

Our lives are being transformed by large, mobile, "sophisticated robots" with increasingly higher levels of autonomy, intelligence, and interconnectivity among themselves. For example, driverless automobiles are likely to become commercially available within a decade. Many people who suffer physical injuries from these robots will seek legal redress for their injury, and regulatory schemes are likely to impose requirements on the field to reduce the number and severity of injuries.

This Article addresses the issue of whether the current liability and regulatory systems provide a fair, efficient method for balancing the concern for physical safety against the need to incentivize the …


Quality-Enhancing Merger Efficiencies, Roger D. Blair, D. Daniel Sokol May 2015

Quality-Enhancing Merger Efficiencies, Roger D. Blair, D. Daniel Sokol

UF Law Faculty Publications

The appropriate role of merger efficiencies remains unresolved in US antitrust law and policy. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) has led to a significant shift in health care delivery. The ACA promises that increased integration and a shift from quantity of performance through increased competition will create a system in which quality will go up and prices will go down. Increasingly, due to the economic trends that respond to the ACA, including considerable consolidation both horizontally and vertically, it is imperative that the antitrust agencies provide an economically sound and administrable legal approach to efficiency enhancing mergers. …


Licensing Health Care Professionals, State Action And Antitrust Policy, Roger D. Blair, Christine Piette Durrance May 2015

Licensing Health Care Professionals, State Action And Antitrust Policy, Roger D. Blair, Christine Piette Durrance

UF Law Faculty Publications

In this Essay, we raise some economic concerns about the wisdom of conferring antitrust immunity on professional licensing boards, which are often comprised of members of the profession and therefore apt to be motivated by self-interest rather than the public interest. In Part II, we examine the political economy of special interest legislation, which suggests that little public good results from replacing competitive market forces with self-regulation. In Part III, we employ a basic economic model to generate predictions of the economic effects of professional licensing. Part IV provides a survey of the empirical research in this area, which confirms …


Judicial Treatment Of The Antitrust Treatise, Hillary Greene, D. Daniel Sokol May 2015

Judicial Treatment Of The Antitrust Treatise, Hillary Greene, D. Daniel Sokol

UF Law Faculty Publications

This essay examines Herbert Hovenkamp's influence in antitrust law and policy in the courts. This essay focuses its attention primarily with the Treatise and primarily in the area of merger law – procedural with issues of antitrust injury and substantively with merger efficiencies. The essay provides a case count citation analysis of Hovenkamp's scholarship and compares Hovenkamp to other major figures in antitrust scholarship (Bork and Posner) and to the other antitrust treatises (Kintner and Sullivan) in the courts. Our meta-level findings show that Hovenkamp is far more cited than other treatise writers or scholars who have been recognized for …


Copyright As Contract, Jeffrey L. Harrison Apr 2015

Copyright As Contract, Jeffrey L. Harrison

UF Law Faculty Publications

Copyright is essentially a contract between the author and the public with the government acting as the agent of the public. The consideration received by authors is defined by duration and breadth of exclusivity. The consideration for the public is the creation of a "work" that will be available on a limited basis for the life of the author plus 70 years and then available without limit after that. If there were no transaction costs at all, it would be possible to "pay" authors different amounts of exclusivity. Perhaps a greeting card would get one holiday season of exclusivity, if …


Beyond Ownership: State Capitalism And The Chinese Firm, Curtis J. Milhaupt, Wentong Zheng Mar 2015

Beyond Ownership: State Capitalism And The Chinese Firm, Curtis J. Milhaupt, Wentong Zheng

UF Law Faculty Publications

Chinese state capitalism has been treated as essentially synonymous with state-owned enterprises (SOEs). But drawing a stark distinction between SOEs and privately owned enterprises (POEs) misperceives the reality of China’s institutional environment and its impact on the formation and operation of large enterprises of all types. We challenge the “ownership bias” of prevailing analyses of Chinese firms by exploring the blurred boundary between SOEs and POEs in China. We argue that the Chinese state has less control over SOEs and more control over POEs than its ownership interest in the firms suggests. Our analysis indicates that Chinese state capitalism can …


The Intended Parent: The Power And Problems Inherent In Designating And Determining Intent In The Context Of Parental Rights, Heather Kolinsky Mar 2015

The Intended Parent: The Power And Problems Inherent In Designating And Determining Intent In The Context Of Parental Rights, Heather Kolinsky

UF Law Faculty Publications

This Article seeks to consider and discuss the intent to parent and, particularly, the use of the words intent and intentional in the context of assigning legal parental rights. Problems and preferences have arisen from the use of this paradigm and the notion that intent can be fixed at any one point in time. This Article discusses how this historical use of intent and intentional parenthood may impact the evolving field of parental form, considering whether we will carry forward some of the same problems and preferences into newer forms of the assignment of legal parental rights.

The Article first …


Illusory Protection: The Fifth Circuit’S Misguided Interpretation Of Title Vii’S Anti-Retaliation Provision In Hernandez V. Yellow Transportation, Inc., William C. Matthews Feb 2015

Illusory Protection: The Fifth Circuit’S Misguided Interpretation Of Title Vii’S Anti-Retaliation Provision In Hernandez V. Yellow Transportation, Inc., William C. Matthews

Florida Law Review

After Burlington Northern & Santa Fe Railway Co. v. White resolved the issue of what constitutes an “adverse action” under the Title VII anti-retaliation statute, the scope of employer liability was substantially broadened. The Supreme Court’s decision reinforced the broad intent behind the anti-retaliation statute and acknowledged the statute’s remedial purpose. The Fifth Circuit, however, has been reluctant to expand employer liability as evidenced through its interpretation of the “adverse action” prong relating to coworker harassment. More specifically, the Fifth Circuit’s “In Furtherance” standard, which is used to judge whether an employer is liable for coworker harassment in retaliation for …


Freedom Of Information Act And Federal Licensing Procedures: Invoking Exemption 7(F) To Protect Examination Materials, Karl Gruss Feb 2015

Freedom Of Information Act And Federal Licensing Procedures: Invoking Exemption 7(F) To Protect Examination Materials, Karl Gruss

Florida Law Review

The United States Supreme Court’s 2011 decision in Milner v. Department of the Navy shut the door on an expansive interpretation of one of the nine enumerated exemptions to the public disclosure requirements mandated under the Freedom of Information Act. No longer can federal agencies seek cover behind the judicially crafted interpretation of Exemption 2 known as the “High 2” that permitted agencies to withhold documents from the public eye solely because disclosure of the information contained therein could risk circumvention of an individual agency’s regulations or statutes. However, Justice Alito’s concurring opinion in Milner hinted at the Court’s possible …


Fact Sheet #71: Shortchanging The Unpaid Academic Intern, Patricia L. Reid Feb 2015

Fact Sheet #71: Shortchanging The Unpaid Academic Intern, Patricia L. Reid

Florida Law Review

On the eve of the Fair Labor Standards Act’s seventy-fifth anniversary, unpaid academic internships threaten to outpace government regulation and undermine opportunities for gainful employment. Although coveted by students eager to fill a line on their résumé, unpaid academic internships are a subspecies of unpaid internships that might soon face extinction. While the advent of unpaid internship litigation decreases the likelihood that employers will plead ignorance of the law when they defend against disgruntled unpaid interns, recent litigation does little to clear up a half-century of contradictory case law. The only certainty that surrounds the legal status of unpaid academic …


Who’S Afraid Of Good Governance? State Fiscal Crises, Public Pension Underfunding, And The Resistance To Governance Reform, Thomas J. Fitzpatrick, Amy B. Monahan Feb 2015

Who’S Afraid Of Good Governance? State Fiscal Crises, Public Pension Underfunding, And The Resistance To Governance Reform, Thomas J. Fitzpatrick, Amy B. Monahan

Florida Law Review

Much attention has been paid to the significant underfunding of many state and local employee pension plans, as well as to efforts by states and cities to alleviate that underfunding by modifying the benefits provided to workers. Yet relatively little attention has been paid to the systemic causes of such financial distress—such as chronic underfunding that shifts financial burdens to future taxpayers, and governance rules that may reduce the likelihood that a plan’s trustees will make optimal investment decisions. This Article presents the results of a qualitative study of the funding and governance provisions of twelve public pension plans that …