Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 28 of 28

Full-Text Articles in Law

Zoning Reformed, Michael Allan Wolf Jan 2021

Zoning Reformed, Michael Allan Wolf

UF Law Faculty Publications

It has been roughly a century since early advocates of zoning took notice of how crowded and congested housing conditions contributed to the spread of disease (including the then-recent H1N1 pandemic). The U.S. Supreme Court had just rejected on property rights grounds a city ordinance that expressly segregated neighborhoods by race. One hundred years later, the exposure of the weaknesses embedded in our system of public land use regulation during the crises of 2020 presents a unique and timely opportunity for serious consideration of major and minor adjustments to state statutes, local ordinances, and judicial decisions. This Article calls for …


Territorial Exceptionalism And The American Welfare State, Andrew Hammond Jan 2021

Territorial Exceptionalism And The American Welfare State, Andrew Hammond

UF Law Faculty Publications

Federal law excludes millions of American citizens from crucial public benefits simply because they live in the United States territories. If the Social Security Administration determines a low-income individual has a disability, that person can move to another state and continue to receive benefits. But if that person moves to, say, Guam or the U.S. Virgin Islands, that person loses their right to federal aid. Similarly with SNAP (food stamps), federal spending rises with increased demand—whether because of a recession, a pandemic, or a climate disaster. But unlike the rest of the United States, Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, …


To Report Or Not To Report: Data On School Law Enforcement, Student Discipline, Race, And The 'School-To-Prison Pipeline', Michael Heise, Jason P. Nance Jan 2021

To Report Or Not To Report: Data On School Law Enforcement, Student Discipline, Race, And The 'School-To-Prison Pipeline', Michael Heise, Jason P. Nance

UF Law Faculty Publications

The “school-to-prison pipeline” wreaks havoc on the lives of thousands of students each year, particularly with respect to students of color. While the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the school-to-prison pipeline remain unclear, the eventual return to full in-person teaching nationwide undoubtedly will renew this long-festering problem. The presence of law enforcement officers in schools is a key component of the school-to-prison pipeline and has generated considerable recent national attention, especially after George Floyd’s tragic death in the spring of 2020. Indeed, several robust empirical studies document that the increased presence of school resource (and/or police) officers in a …


The Soul Savers: A 21st Century Homage To Derrick Bell’S Space Traders Or Should Black People Leave America?, Katheryn Russell-Brown Jan 2020

The Soul Savers: A 21st Century Homage To Derrick Bell’S Space Traders Or Should Black People Leave America?, Katheryn Russell-Brown

UF Law Faculty Publications

Narrative storytelling is a staple of legal jurisprudence. The Case of the Speluncean Explorers by Lon Fuller and The Space Traders by Derrick Bell are two of the most well-known and celebrated legal stories. The Soul Savers parable that follows pays tribute to Professor Bell’s prescient, apocalyptic racial tale. Professor Bell, a founding member of Critical Race Theory, wrote The Space Traders to instigate discussions about America’s deeply rooted entanglements with race and racism. The Soul Savers is offered as an attempt to follow in Professor Bell’s narrative footsteps by raising and pondering new and old frameworks about the rule …


White Privilege: What It Is, What It Is Not, And How It Shapes American Discussions Of Policing And Historical Iconography, Neil H. Buchanan Jan 2020

White Privilege: What It Is, What It Is Not, And How It Shapes American Discussions Of Policing And Historical Iconography, Neil H. Buchanan

UF Law Faculty Publications

What is White privilege? In this Essay, I explore the privileges that White men take for granted in dealing with the police, even as I acknowledge that the most privileged Americans are still potentially subject to arbitrary and unaccountable police abuses. I also examine the debate over changing the names of places in the United States, as well as taking down the statues of the people who have long been treated as heroes, including the founding generation. The common thread between these two topics is that privilege allows White people not even to notice when they receive favorable treatment. They …


Children's Equality: Strategizing A New Deal For Children, Nancy E. Dowd Jan 2020

Children's Equality: Strategizing A New Deal For Children, Nancy E. Dowd

UF Law Faculty Publications

It is the ultimate gift to have one’s work trigger feedback, critique and challenge that expands and deepens the project. Professors Cooper, Huntington, McGinley, Silbaugh, and Woodhouse all have been sources of inspiration for me; their Articles and Essays in response to Reimagining Equality contribute both to my thinking and to the core focus of the book, the well-being, development and equality of all children, but also to the broad focus of this special issue on children and poverty. I am particularly grateful for their challenges and critiques, and their shared focus on the strategies I explore in the book, …


Children's Equality: The Centrality Of Race, Gender, And Class, Nancy E. Dowd Jan 2020

Children's Equality: The Centrality Of Race, Gender, And Class, Nancy E. Dowd

UF Law Faculty Publications

Hierarchies among children dramatically impact their development. Beginning before birth, and continuing during their progression to adulthood from birth to age 18, structural and cultural barriers separate and subordinate some children, while they privilege others. The hierarchies replicate patterns of inequality along familiar lines, particularly those of race, gender, and class, and the intersections of those identities. These barriers, and co-occurring support of privilege for other children, emanate from policies, practices, and structures of the state, including education, health, policing and juvenile justice, and limited social welfare. Reimagining Equality: A New Deal for Children of Color takes on the task …


The Dog Walker, The Birdwatcher And Racial Voice: The Manifest Need To Punish Racial Hoaxes, Katheryn Russell-Brown Jan 2020

The Dog Walker, The Birdwatcher And Racial Voice: The Manifest Need To Punish Racial Hoaxes, Katheryn Russell-Brown

UF Law Faculty Publications

This Essay shines a spotlight on racial hoaxes, as both historical and contemporary phenomena. The discussion proceeds with three objectives in mind. First, to provide a context for racial hoaxes. This history shows that hoaxes are not benign offenses. Second, to identify the legal and social harms of racial hoaxes. Third, to discuss why sanctions for hoaxes should be reimagined to impose harms that deter future hoaxes. The fact that racial hoaxes continue to be deployed demonstrates that they carry legal and cultural weight. Racial hoaxes are used to activate and privilege some voices over others. The resulting inequity courses …


Implicit Racial Bias And Students' Fourth Amendment Rights, Jason P. Nance Jan 2019

Implicit Racial Bias And Students' Fourth Amendment Rights, Jason P. Nance

UF Law Faculty Publications

Tragic acts of school violence such as what occurred in Columbine, Newtown, and, more recently, in Parkland and Santa Fe, provoke intense feelings of anger, fear, sadness, and helplessness. Understandably, in response to these incidents (and for other reasons), many schools have intensified the manner in which they monitor and control students. Some schools rely on combinations of security measures such as metal detectors; surveillance cameras; drug-sniffing dogs; locked and monitored gates; random searches of students’ belongings, lockers, and persons; and law enforcement officers. Not only is there little empirical evidence that these measures actually make schools safer, but overreliance …


“Essentially Black”: Legal Theory And The Morality Of Conscious Racial Identity, Kenneth B. Nunn Jan 2019

“Essentially Black”: Legal Theory And The Morality Of Conscious Racial Identity, Kenneth B. Nunn

UF Law Faculty Publications

In philosophy, essentialism involves the claim that everything that exists has a fundamental character or core set of features that makes it what it is. Although this idea developed out of Platonic notions of ideal forms, it has spread beyond philosophy into the social sciences and hard scientific disciplines like mathematics and biology. Since the advent of postmodernism, discussions around essentialism have become controversial. Adherents of postmodern theory argue that social categories, such as gender, race, and sexuality are socially constructed and that essentialist notions of identity, which suggest that identity is static, natural, and unchanging, are theoretically wrong. This …


Who Locked Us Up? Examining The Social Meaning Of Black Punitiveness, Darren Lenard Hutchinson Jun 2018

Who Locked Us Up? Examining The Social Meaning Of Black Punitiveness, Darren Lenard Hutchinson

UF Law Faculty Publications

Mass incarceration has received extensive analysis in scholarly and political debates. Beginning in the 1970s, states and the federal government adopted tougher sentencing and police practices that responded to rising punitive sentiment among the general public. Many scholars have argued that U.S. criminal law and enforcement subordinate people of color by denying them political, social, and economic well-being. The harmful and disparate racial impact of U.S. crime policy mirrors historical patterns that emerged during slavery, Reconstruction, and Jim Crow. In his Pulitzer Prize-winning book Locking Up Our Own: Crime and Punishment in Black America, James Forman, Jr. demonstrates that many …


Martin Luther King Jr. And Pretext Stops (And Arrests): Reflections On How Far We Have Not Come Fifty Years Later, Tracey Maclin, Maria Savarese Jan 2018

Martin Luther King Jr. And Pretext Stops (And Arrests): Reflections On How Far We Have Not Come Fifty Years Later, Tracey Maclin, Maria Savarese

UF Law Faculty Publications

By January, 1956, the Montgomery Bus boycott was in full-swing. Black citizens in Montgomery, Alabama were refusing to ride the city’s private buses to protest racially segregated seating. On the afternoon of January 26, 1956, twenty-seven-year-old Martin Luther King, Jr. had finished his day of work at the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery. On his drive home, King stopped his vehicle to offer a ride to a group of bus boycotters standing at a downtown car-pool location. After the boycotters entered King’s car, two motorcycle policemen pulled-in behind King’s vehicle. While everyone in King’s car tried to remain calm, …


Equal Work, Stephanie Bornstein Jan 2018

Equal Work, Stephanie Bornstein

UF Law Faculty Publications

Most Americans have heard of the gender pay gap and the statistic that, today, women earn on average eighty cents to every dollar men earn. Far less discussed, there is an even greater racial pay gap. Black and Latino men average only seventy-one cents to the dollar of white men. Compounding these gaps is the “polluting” impact of status characteristics on pay: as women and racial minorities enter occupations formerly dominated by white men, the pay for those occupations goes down. Improvement in the gender pay gap has been stalled for nearly two decades; the racial pay gap is actually …


The Violent State: Black Women's Invisible Struggle Against Police Violence, Michelle S. Jacobs Oct 2017

The Violent State: Black Women's Invisible Struggle Against Police Violence, Michelle S. Jacobs

UF Law Faculty Publications

Black women have a very specific history with the state and law enforcement that is not replicated among other women’s communities, and it is that unique situation that is the focus of this Article. Part I of this Article explores the historical roots of Black women’s interaction with the state. Part II of this Article is broken into two sections. The first will cover police killings of Black women. The second part of the section will explore the conditions under which Black women are physically assaulted by the police. Part III of the Article seeks to highlight when the police …


Critical Black Protectionism, Black Lives Matter, And Social Media: Building A Bridge To Social Justice, Katheryn Russell-Brown Jan 2017

Critical Black Protectionism, Black Lives Matter, And Social Media: Building A Bridge To Social Justice, Katheryn Russell-Brown

UF Law Faculty Publications

This Article provides a detailed, contemporary examination and critique of the practice of Black protectionism. The discussion focuses on how Black protectionism has evolved over the decades, and whether the changes make it a more useful tool for community empowerment than its applications in previous eras. Its latest iteration, herein labeled Critical Black Protectionism, is assessed and evaluated in light of the increasing use of social media.This Article is divided into five parts. Part I provides an overview of Black protectionism, its roots and evolution. As well, this Part examines how African Americans have used protectionism. Part II sets out …


Undignified: The Supreme Court, Racial Justice, And Dignity Claims, Darren Lenard Hutchinson Jan 2017

Undignified: The Supreme Court, Racial Justice, And Dignity Claims, Darren Lenard Hutchinson

UF Law Faculty Publications

The Supreme Court has interpreted the Equal Protection Clause as a formal equality mandate. In response, legal scholars have advocated alternative conceptions of equality, such as antisubordination theory, that interpret equal protection in more substantive terms. Antisubordination theory would consider the social context in which race-based policies emerge and recognize material distinctions between policies intended to oppress racial minorities and those designed to ameliorate past and current racism. Antisubordination theory would also closely scrutinize facially neutral state action that systemically disadvantages vulnerable social groups. The Court has largely ignored these reform proposals. Modern Supreme Court rulings, however, have invoked the …


Student Surveillance, Racial Inequalities, And Implicit Racial Bias, Jason P. Nance Jan 2017

Student Surveillance, Racial Inequalities, And Implicit Racial Bias, Jason P. Nance

UF Law Faculty Publications

In the wake of high-profile incidents of school violence, school officials have increased their reliance on a host of surveillance measures to maintain order and control in their schools. Paradoxically, such practices can foster hostile environments that may lead to even more disorder and dysfunction. These practices may also contribute to the so-called “school-to-prison pipeline” by pushing more students out of school and into the juvenile justice system. However, not all students experience the same level of surveillance. This Article presents data on school surveillance practices, including an original empirical analysis of restricted data recently released by the U.S. Department …


Black Boys Matter: Developmental Equality, Nancy E. Dowd Jan 2016

Black Boys Matter: Developmental Equality, Nancy E. Dowd

UF Law Faculty Publications

The life course of Black boys is a stark reminder of the realities of inequality. While recent attention to policing and high profile deaths of Black youth and adults has raised consciousness of life-threatening situations, this focus exposes the most visceral and deadly aspect of a much larger set of issues. Those issues begin at birth, and are powerfully framed before adulthood, creating inequality particularly when the individual is most vulnerable, in childhood. This Article confronts the inequalities of Black boys and their subordination, as a vehicle to expose inequalities more generally based on children’s identities.

The life course of …


Dismantling The School-To-Prison Pipeline: Tools For Change, Jason P. Nance Jan 2016

Dismantling The School-To-Prison Pipeline: Tools For Change, Jason P. Nance

UF Law Faculty Publications

The school-to-prison pipeline is one of our nation’s most formidable challenges. It refers to the trend of directly referring students to law enforcement for committing certain offenses at school or creating conditions under which students are more likely to become involved in the criminal justice system, such as excluding them from school. This article analyzes the school-to-prison pipeline’s devastating consequences on students, its causes, and its disproportionate impact on students of color. But most importantly, this article comprehensively identifies and describes specific, evidence-based tools to dismantle the school-to-prison pipeline that lawmakers, school administrators, and teachers in all areas can immediately …


Narratives Of Identity, Nation, And Outsiders Within Outsiders: Not Yet A Post-Anything World, Berta E. Hernández-Truyol Jan 2011

Narratives Of Identity, Nation, And Outsiders Within Outsiders: Not Yet A Post-Anything World, Berta E. Hernández-Truyol

UF Law Faculty Publications

The essays in this cluster all deploy narratives of identity and nation. They also bring to life the status of outsiders as racialized "others." This reality of racialization contradicts the popular narrative that we live in a post-racial society. The current claim of post-racialism is grounded in the simple fact that in the United States a huge margin of the popular vote elected a Black man as president. That man is Barack Hussein Obama, someone who has to engage, as those who are the subject of the essays, with concerns about nation, identity, and being a racialized "other."


The Latindia And Mestizajes*: Of Cultures, Conquests, And Latcritical Feminism, Berta E. Hernández-Truyol Oct 1999

The Latindia And Mestizajes*: Of Cultures, Conquests, And Latcritical Feminism, Berta E. Hernández-Truyol

UF Law Faculty Publications

In writing this essay I will begin what I am certain will be a long, complex process of answering the question of who is my mother. I will develop the work in three parts, corresponding to critical parts of the rediscovery process. In Part II, this essay probes cultural links that are formative and transformative of our personhood, which define and determine how we interact with the various and varied communities through which we take daily voyages. I use narrative to locate myself in the context of knowing and discovering the myriad cultures in which I define my mothers. This …


Latina Multidimensionality And Latcrit Possibilities: Culture, Gender, And Sex©, Berta E. Hernández-Truyol Jul 1999

Latina Multidimensionality And Latcrit Possibilities: Culture, Gender, And Sex©, Berta E. Hernández-Truyol

UF Law Faculty Publications

This essay explores the multiple margins that Latinas inhabit both within majority society and their comunidad Latina because of their compounded outsider status in all their possible communities. Exploring the concept and theme of "Between/Beyond Colors: Outsiders Within Latina/o Communities" elucidates both the challenges and the possibilities the young LatCrit movement presents for Latinas.

From its inception, LatCrit has broadened and sought to reconstruct the race discourse beyond the normalized binary black/white paradigm -- an underinclusive model that effects the erasure of the Latina/o, Native, and Asian experiences as well as the realities of other racial and ethnic groups in …


Las Olvidadas -- Gendered In Justice/Gendered Injustice: Latinas, Fronteras And The Law, Berta E. Hernández-Truyol Apr 1998

Las Olvidadas -- Gendered In Justice/Gendered Injustice: Latinas, Fronteras And The Law, Berta E. Hernández-Truyol

UF Law Faculty Publications

This Article will study Latinas in the United States and develop a framework that aims to eradicate injustices Latinas experience by importing the voices of las olvidadas into the heart of rights-talk, thus placing Latinas in justice. First, the piece will identify who the olvidadas are-unseen, unheard, and virtually non-existent in the world of law as well as in the myriad other worlds they inhabit. Parts III and IV consider structural roadblocks-first external and then internal-that conspire to perpetuate Latina invisibility and disempowerment, keeping Latinas from justice. Part V presents the locations and positions of Latinas who suffer intimate violence …


Law, Culture, And The Morality Of Judicial Choice, Kenneth B. Nunn Jan 1998

Law, Culture, And The Morality Of Judicial Choice, Kenneth B. Nunn

UF Law Faculty Publications

Remarks from Professor Kenneth B. Nunn at the Ray Rushton Distinguished Lecture Series at the Cumberland School of Law on April 24, 1998.


Indivisible Identities: Culture Clashes, Confused Constructs And Reality Checks, Berta E. Hernández-Truyol Oct 1997

Indivisible Identities: Culture Clashes, Confused Constructs And Reality Checks, Berta E. Hernández-Truyol

UF Law Faculty Publications

This essay, an expansion of remarks delivered at the LatCrit I Conference -- the first conference ever convened to discuss and explore critical legal thought from a Latina/o perspective -- develops a basis for articulating a LatCrit theory. As the introductory section, "LatCrit: The Voice for Latina/o Narratives" sets out, Latinas/os are a diverse community, whose identity components -- race, sex, ethnicity, language, and sexuality to name a few of the pertinent ones -- are indivisible yet diverse and varied. Such diversity, to date, has not allowed for a cohesive Latina/o theoretical model to be articulated. Rather, it has been …


Borders (En)Gendered: Normativities, Latinas, And A Latcrit Paradigm, Berta E. Hernández-Truyol Oct 1997

Borders (En)Gendered: Normativities, Latinas, And A Latcrit Paradigm, Berta E. Hernández-Truyol

UF Law Faculty Publications

This Essay, developed in a prologue and three parts, adopts Latinas'/os' world traveling as a metaphor for Latina/o multidimensionality and as a springboard for LatCrit theorizing. The Prologue is a brief diary entry of unfin de semana viajando mundos - a weekend of actual traveling between New York and Miami; law and familia; profesora and learner; colleague and hija; español and English; norte y sur; normativa and other; indigenous and alien. This abbreviated record of a Latina's life reveals, exposes, and unveils Latinas'/os' daily crossdressing simply by virtue of their latinidad. This Prologue thus serves as a concrete backdrop for …


The Diversity Among Us, Berta E. Hernández-Truyol Jan 1997

The Diversity Among Us, Berta E. Hernández-Truyol

UF Law Faculty Publications

It is really a pleasure to be here today and I think we owe great thanks to Western New England College School of Law for hosting this historic First Annual Northeastern People of Color Legal Scholarship Conference. I think there are two people who deserve special mention and to whom a great deal of thanks are in order. First, I would like to thank Dean Mahoney of Western New England College School of Law who made this conference possible. These events just do not happen without administrative and, more specifically, deaconal support. Her role and support are invaluable. The other …


Building Bridges - Latinas And Latinos At The Crossroads: Realities, Rhetoric And Replacement, Berta E. Hernández-Truyol Jan 1994

Building Bridges - Latinas And Latinos At The Crossroads: Realities, Rhetoric And Replacement, Berta E. Hernández-Truyol

UF Law Faculty Publications

This essay uses the narrative form to share experiences from one latina's perspective. The author aspires to show how latinas/os, a magnificently diverse group, can be a critical factor in building the bridges that can move the stubborn, static oppositionality (normative) perspective towards a "true universalist" approach. I suggest latinas/os can do this because our diverse backgrounds have equipped us with a multiple perspective viewpoint.