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Covid Aftermath: The Impact Of The Pandemic On Florida's Public School Students, Hannah Blount, Michael Figg, Autumn Finke, Christina Gilbert, Mackenzie O'Connell, Nyasia Minaya, Kylee Neeranjan, Alyssa Rodriguez Dec 2022

Covid Aftermath: The Impact Of The Pandemic On Florida's Public School Students, Hannah Blount, Michael Figg, Autumn Finke, Christina Gilbert, Mackenzie O'Connell, Nyasia Minaya, Kylee Neeranjan, Alyssa Rodriguez

Gator TeamChild Juvenile Law Clinic

The goal of this White Paper is to provide an overview of the current and future impacts the COVID-19 pandemic (“COVID”) has left on Florida’s public school education system. Additionally, this White Paper review shows how public education institutions are still working to address the loss of instructional time and long-term consequences due to pandemic-related school disruptions.


"Defund The (School) Police"?: Bringing Data To Key School-To-Prison Pipeline Claims, Michael Heise, Jason P. Nance Jan 2021

"Defund The (School) Police"?: Bringing Data To Key School-To-Prison Pipeline Claims, Michael Heise, Jason P. Nance

UF Law Faculty Publications

Nationwide calls to “Defund the Police,” largely attributable to the resurgent Black Lives Matter demonstrations, have motivated derivative calls for public school districts to consider “defunding” (or modifying) school resource officer (“SRO/police”) programs. To be sure, a school’s SRO/police presence—and the size of that presence—may influence the school’s student discipline reporting policies and practices. How schools report student discipline and whether it involves referrals to law enforcement agencies matter, particularly as they may fuel a growing “school-to-prison pipeline.” The school-to-prison pipeline research literature features two general claims that frame debates about changes in how public schools approach student discipline and …


To Report Or Not To Report: Data On School Law Enforcement, Student Discipline, Race, And The 'School-To-Prison Pipeline', Michael Heise, Jason P. Nance Jan 2021

To Report Or Not To Report: Data On School Law Enforcement, Student Discipline, Race, And The 'School-To-Prison Pipeline', Michael Heise, Jason P. Nance

UF Law Faculty Publications

The “school-to-prison pipeline” wreaks havoc on the lives of thousands of students each year, particularly with respect to students of color. While the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the school-to-prison pipeline remain unclear, the eventual return to full in-person teaching nationwide undoubtedly will renew this long-festering problem. The presence of law enforcement officers in schools is a key component of the school-to-prison pipeline and has generated considerable recent national attention, especially after George Floyd’s tragic death in the spring of 2020. Indeed, several robust empirical studies document that the increased presence of school resource (and/or police) officers in a …


Children’S Equality Rights: Every Child’S Right To Develop To Their Full Capacity, Nancy E. Dowd Jan 2020

Children’S Equality Rights: Every Child’S Right To Develop To Their Full Capacity, Nancy E. Dowd

UF Law Faculty Publications

Children are born equal. Yet as early as eighteen months, hierarchies emerge among children. These hierarchies are not random but fall into patterns by race, gender and class. They are not caused nor voluntarily chosen by children or their parents. The hierarchies grow, persist, and are made worse by systems and policies created by the state, perpetuating the position of the privileged and continuing the disadvantage of the subordinated. Children’s equal right to develop to their capacity is severely undermined by policies and structures that hamper and block the development of some by creating barriers and challenges or failing to …


Cooperative Federalism And Sijs, Shani M. King, Nicole Silvestri Hall Jan 2020

Cooperative Federalism And Sijs, Shani M. King, Nicole Silvestri Hall

UF Law Faculty Publications

Recognizing the plight of young immigrants who have suffered abuse, neglect, or abandonment, and cannot be reunited with a parent, Congress has accorded those who qualify Special Immigrant Juvenile Status (SIJS). SIJS has created an expedited path for them to permanent residency and, ultimately, citizenship. The statutory scheme Congress crafted is unusual in that it requires each applicant to obtain a state court order finding that they meet the requirements for SIJS before the United States Citizenship and Immigration Service decides whether to confer that status on them. The implementation of this scheme has been fraught with difficulty, representing for …


Unaccompanied Minors, Statutory Interpretation, And Due Process, Shani M. King, Nicole Silvestri Hall Jan 2020

Unaccompanied Minors, Statutory Interpretation, And Due Process, Shani M. King, Nicole Silvestri Hall

UF Law Faculty Publications

This Article proposes a novel statutory argument in favor of finding a categorical right to appointed counsel for unaccompanied minors (UMs) using the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA)’s fair hearing provision as the basis for this right. We provide the historical framework behind the enshrinement of these two rights and then argue that Congress never intended to preclude appointed counsel. We further propose that the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA) grants UMs a positive liberty interest,14 and we use this statutory interest as the basis of an original means of surmounting the Lassiter presumption that only a loss of …


Implicit Racial Bias And Students' Fourth Amendment Rights, Jason P. Nance Jan 2019

Implicit Racial Bias And Students' Fourth Amendment Rights, Jason P. Nance

UF Law Faculty Publications

Tragic acts of school violence such as what occurred in Columbine, Newtown, and, more recently, in Parkland and Santa Fe, provoke intense feelings of anger, fear, sadness, and helplessness. Understandably, in response to these incidents (and for other reasons), many schools have intensified the manner in which they monitor and control students. Some schools rely on combinations of security measures such as metal detectors; surveillance cameras; drug-sniffing dogs; locked and monitored gates; random searches of students’ belongings, lockers, and persons; and law enforcement officers. Not only is there little empirical evidence that these measures actually make schools safer, but overreliance …


Radical Aces: Building Resilience And Triggering Structural Change, Nancy E. Dowd Jan 2019

Radical Aces: Building Resilience And Triggering Structural Change, Nancy E. Dowd

UF Law Faculty Publications

Children’s developmental equality is critical to their opportunity and lifetime success. If we are to dismantle hierarchies among children, we must dismantle barriers placed in their way as well as insure affirmative support so that each child achieves their full developmental potential. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) framework identifies factors that create hurdles, not necessarily insurmountable, to children’s development. A higher ACEs number translates into geometrically increased challenges for individual children. Identifying ACEs, if used simply to count obstacles for children, does not contribute to the goal of children’s equality. Indeed, counting ACEs may have the converse effect, if identifying …


Introduction: Early Childhood Symposium - Early Childhood Matters, Nancy E. Dowd, Teresa Drake Jan 2019

Introduction: Early Childhood Symposium - Early Childhood Matters, Nancy E. Dowd, Teresa Drake

UF Law Faculty Publications

Early childhood is a critical time in development when equality can be sustained, or inequality can take root. As a developmental period, it is marked by rapid neurological development, and thus the period from birth to three is a foundation for all future development. In early childhood, children’s critical need is developmental support through nurturing and responsive interactions in everyday activities and routines. Differences commonly emerge linked to the differences in children’s immediate ecologies. As the contributions to this symposium underscore, one of the major impacts on ecologies is income inequality, and in particular, poverty. While it is not the …


The Case For Trauma-Informed, Gender-Specific Prevention/Early Intervention Programming In Reducing Female Juvenile Delinquency In Florida, Joan D. Flocks, Emily Calvin, Simone Chriss, Marina Prado-Steiman Jan 2017

The Case For Trauma-Informed, Gender-Specific Prevention/Early Intervention Programming In Reducing Female Juvenile Delinquency In Florida, Joan D. Flocks, Emily Calvin, Simone Chriss, Marina Prado-Steiman

UF Law Faculty Publications

This article describes the statutory recognition of the need for prevention/early intervention juvenile services in Florida that are both trauma-informed and gender-specific. It examines how childhood trauma can impact at-risk children and the gendered aspects of such trauma. The article then describes the PACE Center for Girls, a Florida-based school, currently undergoing a comprehensive evaluation, which attempts to incorporate elements that fulfill statutory recommendations into its programming.


Student Surveillance, Racial Inequalities, And Implicit Racial Bias, Jason P. Nance Jan 2017

Student Surveillance, Racial Inequalities, And Implicit Racial Bias, Jason P. Nance

UF Law Faculty Publications

In the wake of high-profile incidents of school violence, school officials have increased their reliance on a host of surveillance measures to maintain order and control in their schools. Paradoxically, such practices can foster hostile environments that may lead to even more disorder and dysfunction. These practices may also contribute to the so-called “school-to-prison pipeline” by pushing more students out of school and into the juvenile justice system. However, not all students experience the same level of surveillance. This Article presents data on school surveillance practices, including an original empirical analysis of restricted data recently released by the U.S. Department …


John Moore Jr.: Moore V City Of East Cleveland And Children's Constitutional Arguments, Nancy E. Dowd Jan 2017

John Moore Jr.: Moore V City Of East Cleveland And Children's Constitutional Arguments, Nancy E. Dowd

UF Law Faculty Publications

At the heart of Moore v City of East Cleveland is 7 year old John Moore Jr. How would we tell the story of Moore from his perspective, and how might the case have been constructed if his rights and constitutional harms were asserted? The ordinary act of registering John for school was the apparent trigger for efforts to exclude him from school, by mandating his removal from his grandmother’s house, after an earlier effort to deny his entry into school had failed. In this essay I first tell the story of the case from John’s perspective and then construct …


The American Bar Association Joint Task Force On Reversing The School-To-Prison Pipeline Preliminary Report, Sarah E. Redfield, Jason P. Nance Feb 2016

The American Bar Association Joint Task Force On Reversing The School-To-Prison Pipeline Preliminary Report, Sarah E. Redfield, Jason P. Nance

UF Law Faculty Publications

In 2014, the American Bar Association (ABA) Coalition on Racial and Ethnic Justice (COREJ) turned its attention to the continuing failures in the education system where certain groups of students — for example, students of color, with disabilities, or LGBTQ — are disproportionately over- or incorrectly categorized in special education, are disciplined more harshly, including referral to law enforcement for minimal misbehavior, achieve at lower levels, and eventually drop or are pushed out of school, often into juvenile justice facilities and prisons — a pattern now commonly referred to as the School-to-Prison Pipeline. While this problem certainly is not new, …


Over-Disciplining Students, Racial Bias, And The School-To-Prison Pipeline, Jason P. Nance Jan 2016

Over-Disciplining Students, Racial Bias, And The School-To-Prison Pipeline, Jason P. Nance

UF Law Faculty Publications

Over the last three decades, our nation has witnessed a dramatic change regarding how schools discipline children. Empirical evidence during this time period demonstrates that schools increasingly have relied on extreme forms of punishment such as suspensions, expulsions, referrals to law enforcement, and school-based arrests to discipline students for violations of school rules, including for low-level offenses. Many have referred to this disturbing trend of schools directly referring students to law enforcement or creating conditions under which students are more likely to become involved in the justice system—such as suspending or expelling them—as the “school-to-prison pipeline.” Perhaps the most alarming …


Cost-Effective Juvenile Justice Reform: Lessons From The Just Beginning “Baby Elmo” Teen Parenting Program, Shani M. King, Rachel Barr, Jennifer Woolard Jan 2015

Cost-Effective Juvenile Justice Reform: Lessons From The Just Beginning “Baby Elmo” Teen Parenting Program, Shani M. King, Rachel Barr, Jennifer Woolard

UF Law Faculty Publications

This Article reviews the literature describing the rise of mass incarceration and its effects on individuals, families, and communities. The Article then describes the Just Beginning “Baby Elmo” Program, a cost-effective, sustainable parental instruction and child visitation intervention created for use with incarcerated teen parents. This intervention is designed to increase the quality of interaction between parent and child, increasing the likelihood that the teen father and child will form a positive relationship and maintain that relationship after release from detention—thereby increasing the child’s resilience and reducing the risk of recidivism for the teen father. The “Baby Elmo” Program is …


Youth Matters: Miller V. Alabama And The Future Of Juvenile Sentencing, John F. Stinneford Oct 2013

Youth Matters: Miller V. Alabama And The Future Of Juvenile Sentencing, John F. Stinneford

UF Law Faculty Publications

In the Supreme Court's latest Eighth Amendment decision, Miller v. Alabama, the Court held that statutes authorizing mandatory sentences of life in prison with no possibility of parole are unconstitutional as applied to offenders who were under eighteen when they committed their crimes. This short essay examines several themes presented in Miller, including the constitutional significance of youth and science, the legitimacy of mandatory life sentences and juvenile transfer statutes, and the conflict between “evolving standards of decency” and the Supreme Court’s “independent judgment.”

This essay also introduces important articles by Richard Frase, Carol Steiker and Jordan Steiker, …


Alone And Unrepresented: A Call To Congress To Provide Counsel For Unaccompanied Minors, Shani M. King Jan 2013

Alone And Unrepresented: A Call To Congress To Provide Counsel For Unaccompanied Minors, Shani M. King

UF Law Faculty Publications

The legal rights of children who enter a country without their parents or other guardians, including the right to legal representation in immigration proceedings, differ vastly across the globe. This Article is the first to show that unaccompanied minors lie at the nexus of international and regional human rights standards governing the treatment of immigrants, children, and civil counsel and to show how the development of human rights standards in these three areas underscores the importance of and the need for counsel for unaccompanied minors. Part I illustrates why unaccompanied minors in the United States need legal representation by focusing …


Foreword - A Dedication To Barbara Bennett Woodhouse, Nancy E. Dowd Apr 2009

Foreword - A Dedication To Barbara Bennett Woodhouse, Nancy E. Dowd

UF Law Faculty Publications

Families and family law are at the cutting edge of social policy. As we navigate through difficult times, we are reminded not only of the importance of families, but also of their vulnerability. The challenge for family law and policy is to remain responsive and relevant. This requires that we confront the realities of families, their needs and issues. We live in times of enormous diversity in family forms. That reality is frightening and worrisome to some, but reminds us that it is how families function, rather than what they look like, that is most important. Embracing function over form …


Boys, Masculinities And Juvenile Justice, Nancy E. Dowd Dec 2008

Boys, Masculinities And Juvenile Justice, Nancy E. Dowd

UF Law Faculty Publications

Culture and tradition are part of the macrosystem of ideas and beliefs that have a dramatic effect on children and families. One aspect of culture is gender beliefs, values and roles. Feminist analysis has explored the incorporation of gender in a wide range of structures, challenging gender bias and advocating reform of a range of laws, structural systems, and social practices. Masculinities analysis, an outgrowth of feminist analysis that focuses on men as gendered subjects, provides a perspective to consider those areas in which men are disproportionately present either in positions of power and privilege, or in positions of disadvantage. …


Protecting Students From Abuse: Public School District Liability For Student Sexual Abuse Under State Child Abuse Reporting Laws, Jason P. Nance, Philip T.K. Daniel Jan 2007

Protecting Students From Abuse: Public School District Liability For Student Sexual Abuse Under State Child Abuse Reporting Laws, Jason P. Nance, Philip T.K. Daniel

UF Law Faculty Publications

Virtually all courts recognize that a child abuse reporting statute creates a duty to children, the breach of which is the basis of a civil suit for damages. Normally, courts recognize a duty only to the minor child about whom school officials have received the abuse reports. In 2004, the Supreme Court of Ohio extended this duty to third party student victims. Thus, causes of action may now be brought against school districts when a school employee abuses one student, school officials fail to report the abuse, and the same employee abuses a different student. Public school students who are …


School Discipline 101: Students' Due Process Rights In Expulsion Hearings, Melissa Frydman, Shani M. King Oct 2006

School Discipline 101: Students' Due Process Rights In Expulsion Hearings, Melissa Frydman, Shani M. King

UF Law Faculty Publications

Upholding the principle that school districts, as state actors, shall not deprive a student of liberty or property without due process of law, courts have expanded for more than four decades the Fourteenth Amendment's due process protection of public school students. Understanding this principle is essential to representing children in school discipline proceedings. Before presenting a practical guide to representing students in these proceedings, we offer a brief history of due process protection for children.


Emotional Segregation: Huckleberry Finn In The Modern Classroom, Sharon E. Rush Jan 2003

Emotional Segregation: Huckleberry Finn In The Modern Classroom, Sharon E. Rush

UF Law Faculty Publications

This paper explores the harm of teaching The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn in public school classrooms. Such harm can be broadly described as emotional segregation, which occurs when society sanctions disrespect. To illustrate the effects of emotional segregation, this article explores the reaction Black students and parents have to the novel to that of White students and parents. White students eagerly imagine being Huck and going on his adventures. Black students, however, cannot and should not even be asked to try to imagine being Huck and betraying their racial identity. But then who are the Black students supposed to identify …


The Child As Other: Race And Differential Treatment In The Juvenile Justice System, Kenneth B. Nunn Jan 2002

The Child As Other: Race And Differential Treatment In The Juvenile Justice System, Kenneth B. Nunn

UF Law Faculty Publications

The juvenile justice system is rife with disparities between white and non-white children. African American children are not the only ones who may be treated as the "other" inthe juvenile justice system. Latino, Native American, Asian, and even white children may be "othered" in the appropriate social context. This article focuses on African American children and their condition, because it is exemplary of how all children who are perceived as children of the "other" are treated and because, in some ways, the treatment of African American children, in a bipolar racial hierarchy, is unique.


The Undue Burden: Parental Notification Requirements For Publicly Funded Contraception, Stephanie Bornstein Jan 2000

The Undue Burden: Parental Notification Requirements For Publicly Funded Contraception, Stephanie Bornstein

UF Law Faculty Publications

This article analyzes the legal impact of legislative proposals in 1998 and 1999 to require parental notification for minors seeking publicly funded contraception. Part I explores the history of Title X and some of its amendments, the HHS interpretive “squeal rule,” and the federal courts' rejection of the HHS rule based on the congressional intent behind Title X. Part II focuses on the Parental Notification Act of 1998 and its likelihood for success against a constitutional challenge, based on an analysis of precedent on parental consent requirements for contraception and abortion. Part III discusses the change in the legislative and …


The Warren And Burger Courts On State, Parent, And Child Conflict Resolution: A Comparative Analysis And Proposed Methodology, Sharon E. Rush Mar 1985

The Warren And Burger Courts On State, Parent, And Child Conflict Resolution: A Comparative Analysis And Proposed Methodology, Sharon E. Rush

UF Law Faculty Publications

Developing a legal framework for analyzing children's rights is difficult. In part, this difficulty stems from the inherent ambiguity of the term "child." Within this general rubric are individuals whose age, maturity, education, and developmental levels encompass a wide rage. A more important obstacle stems from the conflict between the democratic ideals of individual freedom and the sanctity of the family unit. Whether children can be given certain rights without destroying parental authority over the family is a dilemma. Taking into account these opposing principles, a simplified methodology for analyzing and resolving conflicts among the state, parent, and child is …