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Full-Text Articles in Law

Uncommon Carriage, Blake Reid Jan 2024

Uncommon Carriage, Blake Reid

Publications

As states have begun regulating the carriage of speech by “Big Tech” internet platforms, scholars, advocates, and policymakers have increasingly focused their attention on the law of common carriage. Legislators have invoked common carriage to defend social media regulations against First Amendment challenges, making arguments set to take center stage in the Supreme Court’s impending consideration of the NetChoice saga.

This Article challenges the coherence of common carriage as a field and its utility for assessing the constitutionality and policy wisdom of internet regulation. Evaluating the post-Civil War history of common carriage regimes in telecommunications law, this Article illustrates that …


Second Amendment Immigration Exceptionalism, Pratheepan Gulasekaram Jan 2024

Second Amendment Immigration Exceptionalism, Pratheepan Gulasekaram

Publications

This Essay critiques the decision to uphold federal gun restrictions on unlawfully present noncitizens on the basis of "immigration exceptionalism." It argues that courts should avoid applying bespoke constitutionalism to criminal laws, including gun laws, simply because the law regulates noncitizens. This Essay shows why such exceptional modes misapprehend long-decided Supreme Court cases and well-established legal doctrine. Further, it warns that an exceptional approach to Second Amendment claims by unlawfully present noncitizens cannot be cabined to either firearms or the unlawfully present. Rather, it portends a wider gulf in constitutional protections for all noncitizens across a variety of fundamental criminal …


Getting To Trustworthiness (But Not Necessarily To Trust), Helen L. Norton Jan 2023

Getting To Trustworthiness (But Not Necessarily To Trust), Helen L. Norton

Publications

As ethicist and political scientist Russell Hardin observed, our willingness to trust an actor generally turns on our own experience with, and thus our own perceptions of, that actor’s motives and that actor’s competence. Changes over time and technology can alter our experience with a particular actor and thus our willingness to trust or distrust that actor.

This symposium essay focuses not on how to encourage the public to trust the media, but instead on how the media’ can behave in trustworthy ways--in other words, how its choices can demonstrate its trustworthy motives and competence. Examples include refusing to amplify …


Social Construction Of Race Undergirds Racism By Providing Undue Advantages To White People, Disadvantaging Black People And Other People Of Color, And Violating The Human Rights Of All People Of Color, Adjoa A. Aiyetoro Jan 2023

Social Construction Of Race Undergirds Racism By Providing Undue Advantages To White People, Disadvantaging Black People And Other People Of Color, And Violating The Human Rights Of All People Of Color, Adjoa A. Aiyetoro

University of Colorado Law Review

No abstract provided.


Shades Of Justice: Racial Profiling Then And Now, F. Michael Higginbotham Jan 2023

Shades Of Justice: Racial Profiling Then And Now, F. Michael Higginbotham

University of Colorado Law Review

No abstract provided.


Higher Education Redress Statutes: A Preliminary Analysis Of States’ Reparations In Higher Education, Christopher L. Mathis Jan 2023

Higher Education Redress Statutes: A Preliminary Analysis Of States’ Reparations In Higher Education, Christopher L. Mathis

University of Colorado Law Review

No abstract provided.


Slave Law, Race Law, Gabriel J. Chin Jan 2023

Slave Law, Race Law, Gabriel J. Chin

University of Colorado Law Review

No abstract provided.


Foreword: Looking Back To Move Forward: Exploring The Legacy Of U.S. Slavery, Suzette Malveaux Jan 2023

Foreword: Looking Back To Move Forward: Exploring The Legacy Of U.S. Slavery, Suzette Malveaux

University of Colorado Law Review

No abstract provided.


Separation Of Church And Law: The Ministerial Exception In Demkovich V. St. Andrew The Apostle Parish, Jonathan Murray Jan 2023

Separation Of Church And Law: The Ministerial Exception In Demkovich V. St. Andrew The Apostle Parish, Jonathan Murray

University of Colorado Law Review

Religious freedom is increasingly invoked to defeat liability for behavior that has long been regulated under accepted, neutral law, an argument to which many courts and judges appear receptive. One such area of law seeing this activity is the ministerial exception-a judicial principle recognized under the First Amendment. The ministerial exception guarantees religious organizations' discretion in how they select their "ministers,"or religious employees dedicated to the organization's religious mission. However, current law lacks clarity regarding the application of the exception to an organization's treatment of its ministers. Recently, the Seventh Circuit, sitting en banc, chose to categorically expand the application …


Reconsidering The Public Square, Helen L. Norton Jan 2023

Reconsidering The Public Square, Helen L. Norton

Publications

No abstract provided.


Electoral Maintenance, Douglas M. Spencer Jan 2023

Electoral Maintenance, Douglas M. Spencer

Publications

According to the U.S. Supreme Court, the right to vote is fundamental because it is preservative of all rights, and yet in many cases legal protections for the right to vote fall short of protections for the other rights that voting is meant to preserve. Redefining the right to vote cannot solve this problem alone. Election administration has at least as much consequence on the right to vote as any particular definition or legal theory. In Democracy’s Bureaucracy, Michael Morse draws our attention to one of the most important yet understudied issues of election administration: voter list maintenance. In addition …


Redistricting’S Ultimate Antidote, Douglas M. Spencer Jan 2023

Redistricting’S Ultimate Antidote, Douglas M. Spencer

Publications

No abstract provided.


Immigration Enforcement Preemption, Pratheepan Gulasekaram Jan 2023

Immigration Enforcement Preemption, Pratheepan Gulasekaram

Publications

The Supreme Court's 2012 decision, Arizona v. United States, turned back the most robust and brazen state regulation of immigration in recent memory, striking down several provisions of Arizona's omnibus enforcement law. Notably, the Court did not limit preemption inquiries to conflicts between the state law and congressional statutes. The Court also based its decision on the tension between the state law and Executive Branch enforcement policies. The landmark decision seemed to have settled the Court's approach to immigration enforcement federalism. Yet, a scant eight years after Arizona, in Kansas v. Garcia, the Court upheld Kansas's prosecutions of noncitizens who …


The Second Amendment's "People" Problem, Pratheepan Gulasekaram Jan 2023

The Second Amendment's "People" Problem, Pratheepan Gulasekaram

Publications

The Second Amendment has a “people” problem. In 2008, District of Columbia v. Heller expanded the scope of the Second Amendment, grounding it in an individualized right of self-protection. At the same time, Heller’s rhetoric limited “the people” of the Second Amendment to “law-abiding citizens.” In 2022, New York State Rifle & Pistol Ass’n v. Bruen doubled down on the Amendment’s self-defense rationales but, once again, framed the right as one possessed by “citizens.” In between and after the two Supreme Court cases, several lower federal courts, including eight federal courts of appeals, wrestled with the question whether the right …


Foreword: Expanding The Boundaries Of Knowledge About Slavery And Its Legacy, Lolita Buckner Inniss Jan 2023

Foreword: Expanding The Boundaries Of Knowledge About Slavery And Its Legacy, Lolita Buckner Inniss

University of Colorado Law Review

No abstract provided.


Loving Reparations, Eric J. Miller Jan 2023

Loving Reparations, Eric J. Miller

University of Colorado Law Review

No abstract provided.


Roundtable: The 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre; The Quest For Accountability, Robert Turner Jan 2023

Roundtable: The 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre; The Quest For Accountability, Robert Turner

University of Colorado Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Color(Blind) Conundrum In Colorado Property Law, Tom I. Romero Ii Jan 2023

The Color(Blind) Conundrum In Colorado Property Law, Tom I. Romero Ii

University of Colorado Law Review

No abstract provided.


Distrust, Negative First Amendment Theory, And The Regulation Of Lies, Helen Norton Jan 2022

Distrust, Negative First Amendment Theory, And The Regulation Of Lies, Helen Norton

Publications

This symposium essay explores the relationship between “negative” First Amendment theory—rooted in distrust of the government’s potential for regulatory abuse—and the government’s regulation of lies. Negative First Amendment theory explains why many lies are protected from governmental regulation—even when the regulation neither punishes nor chills valuable speech (as was the case, for example, of the statute at issue in United States v. Alvarez). But negative theory, like any theory, also needs limiting principles that explain when the government’s regulation is constitutionally justifiable.

In my view, we engage in the principled application of negative theory when we invoke it in (the …


A Framework For Thinking About The Government’S Speech And The Constitution, Helen Norton Jan 2022

A Framework For Thinking About The Government’S Speech And The Constitution, Helen Norton

Publications

This Essay sketches a framework for mapping and navigating the constitutional implications of the government’s speech—and then illustrates this framework’s application to some contemporary constitutional disputes. My hope is that this framework will help us sort through the constitutional puzzles triggered by the government’s expressive choices—puzzles that confront courts and policymakers with increasing frequency. What I call “first-stage government speech questions” require us to determine when the government is speaking itself and when it is instead (or also) regulating others’ speech. This determination matters because the rules that apply to the government as speaker are very different from those that …


The Press’S Responsibilities As A First Amendment Institution, Helen Norton Jan 2022

The Press’S Responsibilities As A First Amendment Institution, Helen Norton

Publications

No abstract provided.


Manipulation And The First Amendment, Helen Norton Jan 2022

Manipulation And The First Amendment, Helen Norton

Publications

No abstract provided.


Text Is Not Enough, Anuj C. Desai Jan 2022

Text Is Not Enough, Anuj C. Desai

University of Colorado Law Review

In Bostock v. Clayton County, the Supreme Court held that Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 protects gay and lesbian individuals from employment discrimination. The three opinions in the case also provided a feast for Court watchers who study statutory interpretation. Commentators across the ideological spectrum have described the opinions as dueling examples of textualism. The conventional wisdom is thus that Bostock shows the triumph of textualism. The conventional wisdom is wrong. Instead, Bostock shows what those who have studied statutory interpretation have known for decades: judges are multimodalists, drawing from a panoply of forms of …


Bucklew V. Precythe And The Resurgence Of The Method Of Execution Challenge, Hannah York May 2021

Bucklew V. Precythe And The Resurgence Of The Method Of Execution Challenge, Hannah York

University of Colorado Law Review Forum

No abstract provided.


Unclear And Unestablished: Exploring The Supreme Court/Tenth Circuit Disconnect In Qualified Immunity Jurisprudence, Josiah Cohen Apr 2021

Unclear And Unestablished: Exploring The Supreme Court/Tenth Circuit Disconnect In Qualified Immunity Jurisprudence, Josiah Cohen

University of Colorado Law Review Forum

No abstract provided.


"Make The Map All White": The Meaning Of Maps In The Prohibition And Suffrage Campaigns, Susan Schulten Jan 2021

"Make The Map All White": The Meaning Of Maps In The Prohibition And Suffrage Campaigns, Susan Schulten

University of Colorado Law Review

Maps.have long been deployed as instruments of power, protest, and reform in American history. In the antebellum era, Northerners used maps to galvanize opposition to the expansion of slavery beyond the South. These dramatic and urgent anti-slavery maps served as powerful models for two of the most ambitious challenges to American law in the twentieth century: prohibition and woman's suffrage. Both movements began with regional strengths-suffrage in the West, prohibition in the South. Suffragists and prohibitionists widely circulated maps to highlight those legislative achievements and thereby generate further momentum for their respective causes. After 1913, both the suffrage and prohibition …


Sanctuary Cities And The Power Of The Purse: An Executive Dole Test, Douglas M. Spencer Jan 2021

Sanctuary Cities And The Power Of The Purse: An Executive Dole Test, Douglas M. Spencer

Publications

A constitutional clash is brewing. Cities and counties are flexing their muscles to frustrate national immigration policy while the federal Executive is threatening to interfere with local law enforcement decision making and funding. Although the federal government generally has plenary authority over immigration law, the Constitution forbids the commandeering of state and local officials to enforce federal law against their will. One exception to this anti-commandeering principle is the Spending Clause of Article I that permits Congress to condition the receipt of federal funds on compliance with federal law. These conditions, according to more than 30 years of Supreme Court …


American Common Market Redux, Richard Collins Jan 2021

American Common Market Redux, Richard Collins

Publications

The Tennessee Wine case, decided in June of 2019, had a major effect on the path of the law for an issue not argued in it. The Supreme Court affirmed invalidity of a protectionist state liquor regulation that discriminated against interstate commerce in violation of the dormant commerce clause doctrine. Its holding rejected a vigorous defense based on the special terms of the Twenty-first Amendment that ended Prohibition—an issue of interest only to those involved in markets for alcoholic drinks. However, the Court’s opinion removed serious doubts about validity of the Doctrine itself, even though the petitioner and supporting amici …


Working Mothers And The Postponement Of Women's Rights From The Nineteenth Amendment To The Equal Rights Amendment, Julie C. Suk Jan 2021

Working Mothers And The Postponement Of Women's Rights From The Nineteenth Amendment To The Equal Rights Amendment, Julie C. Suk

University of Colorado Law Review

The Nineteenth Amendment's ratification in 1920 spawned new initiatives to advance the status of women, including the proposal of another constitutional amendment that would guarantee women equality in all legal rights, beyond the right to vote. Both the Nineteenth Amendment and the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) grew out of the long quest to enshrine women's equal status under the law as citizens, which began in the nineteenth century. Nearly a century later, the ERA remains unfinished business with an uncertain future. Suffragists advanced different visions and strategies for women's empowerment after they got the constitutional right to vote. They divided …


Contesting The Legacy Of The Nineteenth Amendment: Abortion And Equality From Roe To The Present, Mary Ziegler Jan 2021

Contesting The Legacy Of The Nineteenth Amendment: Abortion And Equality From Roe To The Present, Mary Ziegler

University of Colorado Law Review

Beyond the question of suffrage, the Nineteenth Amendment raised the issue of what it would take for women in America to achieve equal citizenship. The meaning of both the Nineteenth Amendment and equality for women remain especially contested in broader conflicts about abortion-and of how those conflicts have changed in fundamental ways in the decades since Roe v. Wade. For some time, fetal rights were pitted against the kinds of concerns about equality for women that drove reformers to seek the vote in 1920. But by the early 1990s, the terms of the conflicts had changed, with both sides claiming …