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University of Baltimore Law

2014

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Articles 1 - 30 of 115

Full-Text Articles in Law

Recent Journalism Awards Won By "Old," "New," And "Hybrid" Media, Robert H. Lande, Thomas J. Horton, Virginia Callahan Dec 2014

Recent Journalism Awards Won By "Old," "New," And "Hybrid" Media, Robert H. Lande, Thomas J. Horton, Virginia Callahan

All Faculty Scholarship

This compares the quality of the "old" media to that of the "new" media by determining how often each type of media source wins major journalism awards. It divides media sources into three categories: old, new and hybrid. New media is limited to publications that were started purely as online news publications. Old media is classified in the traditional sense to include such newspapers as the New York Times. Hybrid media combines elements of both new and old media. Our research compares the number of Pulitzer Prizes and other major journalism awards won by these three types of media sources ...


Legal Formalism, Procedural Principles, And Judicial Constraint In American Adjudication, Christopher J. Peters Oct 2014

Legal Formalism, Procedural Principles, And Judicial Constraint In American Adjudication, Christopher J. Peters

All Faculty Scholarship

American proponents of legal formalism, such as Supreme Court Justice

Antonin Scalia, worry (quite reasonably) that unfettered judicial discretion

poses a threat to democratic legitimacy, and they offer formalism – the mechanical

implementation of determinate legal rules – as a solution to this threat. I argue

here, however, that formalist interpretive techniques are neither sufficient nor

necessary to impose meaningful constraint on judges. Both the text and the

“original meaning” of legal rules are endemically under determinate, leaving much

room for judicial discretion in the decision of cases. But meaningful judicial

constraint can and does flow from other sources in American adjudication ...


Sacred Cows, Holy Wars: Exploring The Limits Of Law In The Regulation Of Raw Milk And Kosher Meat, Kenneth Lasson Oct 2014

Sacred Cows, Holy Wars: Exploring The Limits Of Law In The Regulation Of Raw Milk And Kosher Meat, Kenneth Lasson

All Faculty Scholarship

In a free society law and religion seldom coincide comfortably, tending instead to reflect the inherent tension that often resides between the two. This is nowhere more apparent than in America, where the underlying principle upon which the first freedom enunciated by the Constitution's Bill of Rights is based ‒ the separation of church and state – is conceptually at odds with the pragmatic compromises that may be reached. But our adherence to the primacy of individual rights and civil liberties ‒ that any activity must be permitted if it is not imposed upon others without their consent, and if it does ...


Integrating Subchapters K And S And Beyond, Walter D. Schwidetzky Oct 2014

Integrating Subchapters K And S And Beyond, Walter D. Schwidetzky

All Faculty Scholarship

This Article builds upon a similar, lengthier effort that I published in the Tax Lawyer in 2009. While there is overlap, this Article contains much new material. Important case law and tax proposals from the House Ways and Means Committee have come out in the interim. Due to space limitations, unlike my Tax Lawyer effort, this Article attempts to avoid prolixity. It assumes the reader has good knowledge of both Subchapters S and K and the tax entity selection process. If you are not that reader, a review of my Tax Lawyer article or Professor Mann's article in this ...


Alms To The Rich: The Facade Easement Deduction, Wendy G. Gerzog Oct 2014

Alms To The Rich: The Facade Easement Deduction, Wendy G. Gerzog

All Faculty Scholarship

This article presents the case for repeal of the façade easement deduction. Proponents of this benefit argue that the deduction encourages historic preservation by reimbursing property owners for relinquishing their right to alter the façade of their property in a way inconsistent with that conservation goal; however, this article shows that there are many reasons to urge its repeal: the revenue loss, the small number of beneficiaries, the financial demographics of that group of beneficiaries; the dubious industries that are supported by the deduction; and the continual marked overvaluation and abuse despite Congressional, court, and administrative review and expense.

After ...


Commentaries On The Iaals' Honoring Families Initiative White Paper, Barbara A. Babb Oct 2014

Commentaries On The Iaals' Honoring Families Initiative White Paper, Barbara A. Babb

All Faculty Scholarship

Family courts are not likely to disappear, as they currently constitute the largest proportion of trial court filings in most states. It appears as though family courts have become an emergency room for family problems. Thus, we need to enhance our efforts to improve the family justice system. In order to revamp family courts most effectively, there must be a focus on the creation of unified family courts that are grounded in therapeutic jurisprudence and the ecology of human development. This framework allows for a more responsive and holistic approach to families' legal and underlying nonlegal needs. The goal of ...


Non-Price Competition In “Substitute" Drugs: The Ftc's Blind Spot, Gregory Dolin Oct 2014

Non-Price Competition In “Substitute" Drugs: The Ftc's Blind Spot, Gregory Dolin

All Faculty Scholarship

As the recent case of United States v. Lundbeck illustrates, the Federal Trade Commission’s lack of knowledge in medical and pharmacological sciences affects its evaluation of transactions between medical and pharmaceutical companies that involve transfers of rights to manufacture or sell drugs, causing the agency to object to such transactions without solid basis for doing so. This article argues that in order to properly define a pharmaceutical market, one must not just consider the condition that competing drugs are meant to treat, but also take into account whether there are “off-label” drugs that are used to treat a relevant ...


The Debilitating Effect Of Exclusive Rights: Patents And Productive Inefficiency, William Hubbard Sep 2014

The Debilitating Effect Of Exclusive Rights: Patents And Productive Inefficiency, William Hubbard

All Faculty Scholarship

Are we underestimating the costs of patent protection? Scholars have long recognized that patent law is a double-edged sword. While patents promote innovation, they also limit the number of people who can benefit from new inventions. In the past, policy makers striving to balance the costs and benefits of patents have analyzed patent law through the lens of traditional, neoclassical economics. This Article argues that this approach is fundamentally flawed because traditional economics rely on an inaccurate oversimplification: that individuals and firms always maximize profits. In actuality, so-called "productive inefficiencies" often prevent profit maximization. For example, cognitive biases, bounded rationality ...


Dna Helps Clear Man's Name From Rape Charge After 24 Years, Colin Starger Jul 2014

Dna Helps Clear Man's Name From Rape Charge After 24 Years, Colin Starger

All Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Comments To The U.S. Sentencing Commission Concerning Antitrust Fines, Robert H. Lande Jul 2014

Comments To The U.S. Sentencing Commission Concerning Antitrust Fines, Robert H. Lande

All Faculty Scholarship

This Comment was submitted to the US Sentencing Commission on behalf of the American Antitrust Institute. It makes three important points, all of which concern the US Sentencing Commission's Antitrust Guidelines' cartel overcharge presumption.

First, the evidence demonstrates there currently is significant underdeterrence of price fixing and other anticompetitive forms of collusion. Second, the general approach to calculating cartel fines embodied in the US Sentencing Commission Guidelines, under which the enforcers and ultimately the courts calculate antitrust fines based upon a very specific presumed overcharge, is sound and in the public interest. Third, the 10% cartel overcharge presumption in ...


The Federal Rules At 75: Dispute Resolution, Private Enforcement Or Decision According To Law?, James Maxeiner Jul 2014

The Federal Rules At 75: Dispute Resolution, Private Enforcement Or Decision According To Law?, James Maxeiner

All Faculty Scholarship

This essay is a critical response to the 2013 commemorations of the 75th anniversary of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure were introduced in 1938 to provide procedure to decide cases on their merits. The Rules were designed to replace decisions under the “sporting theory of justice” with decisions according to law. By 1976, at midlife, it was clear that they were not achieving their goal. America’s proceduralists split into two sides about what to do.

One side promotes rules that control and conclude litigation: e.g., plausibility pleading, case management, limited discovery ...


Keynote Speech: A Letter From The Original Cause Lawyer, F. Michael Higginbotham Jul 2014

Keynote Speech: A Letter From The Original Cause Lawyer, F. Michael Higginbotham

All Faculty Scholarship

This symposium speech is a short piece which talks about why there is a need for law students to become cause lawyers, the symposium being: cause lawyers and cause lawyering in the sixty years after Brown v. Board of Education. The writer creates an allegorical scene where he's snowed in in his home during a snowstorm, lightning strikes his computer, and the computer comes to life in the form a message being typed, and "channeled" to him by Thurgood Marshall. The former Justice of the Supreme Court proceeds to state the many reasons why there is still a need ...


Families Matter: Recommendations To Improve Outcomes For Children And Families In Court, Barbara A. Babb, Gloria Danziger Jun 2014

Families Matter: Recommendations To Improve Outcomes For Children And Families In Court, Barbara A. Babb, Gloria Danziger

All Faculty Scholarship

The Families Matter initiative was designed as a major, multi-year undertaking to develop legal practice methods and approaches to reduce the destructive consequences of the family legal process. The initiative was intended to respond to the need for deep and meaningful reform of the family law process.

Convened in June 2010 by the University of Baltimore School of Law Sayra and Neil Meyerhoff Center for Families, Children and the Courts (CFCC), the Families Matter Symposium brought together an interdisciplinary group of family law experts for two days at the University of Baltimore to identify problems regarding the practice of family ...


Should Section 5 Guidelines Focus On Economic Efficiency Or Consumer Choice?, Robert H. Lande May 2014

Should Section 5 Guidelines Focus On Economic Efficiency Or Consumer Choice?, Robert H. Lande

All Faculty Scholarship

FTC Commissioner Joshua Wright is right that it would be desirable for the Commission to issue Section 5 antitrust guidelines. This article will demonstrate, however, that the best way to formulate Section 5 guidelines is to focus them on the goal of protecting consumer choice, rather than to embrace Commissioner Wright's proposal to neuter the FTC Act by confining it in an economic efficiency straitjacket. Only if Section 5 guidelines were formulated appropriately would they improve consumer welfare during the Commission's second century.


Flawed Coalitions And The Politics Of Crime, David Jaros May 2014

Flawed Coalitions And The Politics Of Crime, David Jaros

All Faculty Scholarship

Bipartisanship can be dangerous. In the late 1970s, liberal and conservative forces united to discard two centuries of federal sentencing practice and usher in an era of fixed guidelines that would reshape the criminal justice landscape. In the decades that followed, liberals would come to bitterly regret their alliance with conservative sentencing reformers. The guideline regime established by the Sentencing Reform Act ultimately advanced hardline conservative criminal justice goals that were antithetical to the objectives of many of the Act’s former liberal supporters.

Researchers have shown that a particular cognitive bias — cultural cognition — can explain why intense partisan conflicts ...


What's Wrong With A Federal Inheritance Tax?, Wendy G. Gerzog Apr 2014

What's Wrong With A Federal Inheritance Tax?, Wendy G. Gerzog

All Faculty Scholarship

Scholars have proposed a federal inheritance tax as an alternative to the current federal transfer tax, but there are serious flaws with that idea. In existing inheritance tax systems, those problems include: (1) different tax rates and exemptions based on the decedent’s relationship to the beneficiary; (2) the lack of a tax on lifetime gratuitous transfers, including gifts with retained interests or control; and (3) the persistence of most current valuation distortion abuses. In any inheritance tax model, moreover, there would be significantly decreased compliance rates and increased administrative costs because by focusing on the transferees instead of the ...


Learning Critical Legal Theory Across The Curriculum: An Innovative Course In Applied Feminism, Michele E. Gilman Apr 2014

Learning Critical Legal Theory Across The Curriculum: An Innovative Course In Applied Feminism, Michele E. Gilman

All Faculty Scholarship

In law schools, we are so accustomed to a single professor teaching each substantive class that we rarely question this method of teaching. Imagine instead a class taught by fourteen professors, each of whom teaches for one week to share their substantive expertise through the lens of critical legal theory. At the University of Baltimore School of Law, we offer such a course, entitled Special Topics in Applied Feminism. Throughout the semester, students are exposed to feminist legal perspectives on a wide range of substantive topics, including tax law, international law, immigration law, employment law, and many others.

The course ...


Race And Immigration, Then And Now: How The Shift To "Worthiness" Undermines The 1965 Immigration Law's Civil Rights Goals, Elizabeth Keyes Apr 2014

Race And Immigration, Then And Now: How The Shift To "Worthiness" Undermines The 1965 Immigration Law's Civil Rights Goals, Elizabeth Keyes

All Faculty Scholarship

This essay looks at how far immigration reform has come from the explicit civil rights character of the 1965 immigration law that reshaped America. The optimism surrounding that law’s dismantling of national-origins barriers to immigration proved to be overstated in the intervening decades, as the factors determining an immigrant’s “worth and qualifications” too often became proxies for race. After briefly looking at work done by critical race theorists tracing some of ways race and immigration have long intersected in immigration legal history, the article closely examines modern-day immigration reform proposals, particularly the Senate bill that remains the most ...


Federalism And Phantom Economic Rights In Nfib V. Sibelius, Matthew Lindsay Apr 2014

Federalism And Phantom Economic Rights In Nfib V. Sibelius, Matthew Lindsay

All Faculty Scholarship

Few predicted that the constitutional fate of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act would turn on Congress’ power to lay and collect taxes. Yet in NFIB v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court upheld the centerpiece of the Act — the minimum coverage provision (MCP), commonly known as the “individual mandate” — as a tax. The unexpected basis of the Court’s holding has deflected attention from what may prove to be the decision’s more constitutionally consequential feature: that a majority of the Court agreed that Congress lacked authority under the Commerce Clause to penalize people who decline to purchase health insurance ...


The Proposed Damages Directive: The Real Lessons From The United States, Robert H. Lande Mar 2014

The Proposed Damages Directive: The Real Lessons From The United States, Robert H. Lande

All Faculty Scholarship

Europeans should be doubly cautious when they study the U.S. experience with private antitrust enforcement. Nevertheless, there are ten specific lessons they can learn. None, however, is consistent with the conventional wisdom in the international competition community that U.S.-style private enforcement has been a disaster. Each should help Europe objectively consider the Commission's proposed Directive concerning private enforcement of Competition law.


Pass-Through Entity Reform: Is A Major Overhaul Necessary?, Walter D. Schwidetzky Mar 2014

Pass-Through Entity Reform: Is A Major Overhaul Necessary?, Walter D. Schwidetzky

All Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Academic Extremism Threatens Democratic Values (Commentary), Kenneth Lasson Jan 2014

Academic Extremism Threatens Democratic Values (Commentary), Kenneth Lasson

All Faculty Scholarship

Veritas vos liberabit, chanted the scholastics of yesteryear — "the truth will set you free." It's hard to see how that mantra could be echoed by latter-day counterparts in the academy. Consider the recent resolution by the American Studies Association that advocated an academic boycott of Israel. Its argument — that Israeli universities are complicit in state policies violating Palestinians' human rights — belies the truth: Israel has long been the most diverse, inclusive and tolerant of any Middle Eastern country.


Van Alen: A Reasonable Consistency, Wendy G. Gerzog Jan 2014

Van Alen: A Reasonable Consistency, Wendy G. Gerzog

All Faculty Scholarship

In Van Alen, the Tax Court held that the duty of consistency required that two of the decedent’s children use the section 2032A basis valuation figures to determine gain on the sale of their interest in the decedent’s ranch, which was left to them in trust. The siblings had argued that their stepmother erroneously completed their father’s estate tax return.


Student Comment: “Love Is Patient, Love Is Kind”: A Comparative Study Helping The United States Reach Marriage Equality, Nicole Rush Jan 2014

Student Comment: “Love Is Patient, Love Is Kind”: A Comparative Study Helping The United States Reach Marriage Equality, Nicole Rush

University of Baltimore Journal of International Law

This paper evaluates same-sex marriage policies in three industrialized countries: the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Canada. In assessing the legislative and judicial history of same-sex marriage policies in each country, as well as other influential factors leading to these policies, this research helps to create a roadmap to reach a nationwide policy for the United States. By comparing the current history of the United States’ same-sex marriage policies to that of the aforementioned countries, it is possible to develop a plan to achieve marriage equality in the U.S.


Interim Measures In Inter-State Proceedings Before The European Court Of Human Rights: Ukraine V. Russia, Stefan Kirchner Jan 2014

Interim Measures In Inter-State Proceedings Before The European Court Of Human Rights: Ukraine V. Russia, Stefan Kirchner

University of Baltimore Journal of International Law

Over the course of the year 2014, the situation in Ukraine has turned from a domestic political issue involving protests, killings, and the ouster of the former president, into a military confrontation with Russia. At the time of writing (August 2014), Russia has annexed Crimea and is supporting separatists, who are in a state of civil war against the Ukrainian state, in Eastern parts of the country. This conflict is ongoing and an unknown number of civilians have been killed, notably the passengers of the Malaysia Airlines flight MH17, which is thought to have been shot down over the conflict ...


Emerging Issues: The Underlying Economics Of The South China Sea Conflict, Christopher Stock Jan 2014

Emerging Issues: The Underlying Economics Of The South China Sea Conflict, Christopher Stock

University of Baltimore Journal of International Law

The countries of southeastern Asia and China are currently in a territorial dispute over the Spratly and Paracel island chains in the South China Sea. The South China Sea encompasses roughly 1.4 million square miles of the Pacific Ocean, spanning throughout most of southeastern Asia. A majority of the islands located within the sea are uninhabited and have never had an indigenous population, which makes it nearly impossible to track the lineage to determine sovereignty over the islands. Because there has never been an indigenous population on a majority of the islands, there are now competing claims for many ...


University Of Baltimore Journal Of International Law Volume 3 No. 1 (2014-2015) Front Matter Jan 2014

University Of Baltimore Journal Of International Law Volume 3 No. 1 (2014-2015) Front Matter

University of Baltimore Journal of International Law

No abstract provided.


Emerging Issues: Overthrowing The Government: What Boko Haram Means For Women, Kimberly R. Frazier Jan 2014

Emerging Issues: Overthrowing The Government: What Boko Haram Means For Women, Kimberly R. Frazier

University of Baltimore Journal of International Law

Boko Haram has been active since 2002, however, most of the world became familiar with the Islamic terrorist group in April of 2014 after they kidnapped approximately 276 girls from a boarding school in northeastern Nigeria.1 The group’s leader, Abubakar Shekau, announced in a video that the kidnapping was an act of retaliation after Nigerian security forces kidnapped the wives and children of Boko Haram leaders.2 He also stated that the girls would be forced to convert to Islam and sold into the slave market to begin their new lives as “servants.”3 The kidnapping was not ...


University Of Baltimore Journal Of Land And Development Volume 3 Number 2 (Spring 2014) Jan 2014

University Of Baltimore Journal Of Land And Development Volume 3 Number 2 (Spring 2014)

University of Baltimore Journal of Land and Development

No abstract provided.


The Greening Of Public Private Partnerships: What Design Professionals And Contractors Need To Know For Green Building's Next Legal Frontier, Tracy L. Steedman, Stephen Del Percio, Matthew L. Kimball Jan 2014

The Greening Of Public Private Partnerships: What Design Professionals And Contractors Need To Know For Green Building's Next Legal Frontier, Tracy L. Steedman, Stephen Del Percio, Matthew L. Kimball

University of Baltimore Journal of Land and Development

America is at a pivotal moment in maintaining and modernizing its public infrastructure. Our nation's roads, bridges, water systems and energy networks have long been in poor repair. Much of the country's public infrastructure was put into place over fifty years ago, and many of these systems are simply overwhelmed or worn out. Infrastructure that is in poor condition or disrepair is mostly a hidden problem until it inconveniently stops working or worse, when ghastly consequences ensue from catastrophic failures.