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Land-Value Taxation As A Method Of Encouraging Growth In Baltimore, Michael Safko Jan 2015

Land-Value Taxation As A Method Of Encouraging Growth In Baltimore, Michael Safko

University of Baltimore Journal of Land and Development

The events that occurred last May have left many residents of Baltimore wondering what can be done to rebuild their city better than it was before.1 One particular suggestion is the elimination of all current property taxes along with the implementation of a land-value tax (LVT).2 An LVT would tax property owners based on the unimproved land they own, rather than on the improvements and structures that have been built on the land.3 The argument follows that this method of taxation would incentivize property owners to develop their land, rather than leave it undeveloped so they can pay less in …


The Failure Of Environmental International Law During Times Of War, Blake Lara Jan 2015

The Failure Of Environmental International Law During Times Of War, Blake Lara

University of Baltimore Journal of Land and Development

Throughout history, war and armed conflict have maintained a continuous presence around the world. Though the reasons for war change, various nations emerge and subside, and populations alter, one of the constant elements of war is its degrading effect on the environment. In addition to indirect effects on the environment that ultimately result from war, nations have used the environment as both a weapon and target of war. For example, during the Peloponnesian War, the Spartans salted Athenian lands to make them infertile. In the Franco-Dutch War from 1672 to 1678, dikes and damns were destroyed in order to create …


The Federal Rules At 75: Dispute Resolution, Private Enforcement Or Decision According To Law?, James Maxeiner Jul 2014

The Federal Rules At 75: Dispute Resolution, Private Enforcement Or Decision According To Law?, James Maxeiner

All Faculty Scholarship

This essay is a critical response to the 2013 commemorations of the 75th anniversary of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure were introduced in 1938 to provide procedure to decide cases on their merits. The Rules were designed to replace decisions under the “sporting theory of justice” with decisions according to law. By 1976, at midlife, it was clear that they were not achieving their goal. America’s proceduralists split into two sides about what to do.

One side promotes rules that control and conclude litigation: e.g., plausibility pleading, case management, limited discovery, cost indemnity …


Egypt, Lila Meadows, Nadia Adib Bamieh, Janet E. Lord Jan 2014

Egypt, Lila Meadows, Nadia Adib Bamieh, Janet E. Lord

All Faculty Scholarship

This chapter is a factbook summarizing disability laws, organisations, and statistics in Egypt as of 2014.


Building A Government Of Laws: Adams And Jefferson 1776–1779, James Maxeiner Jan 2014

Building A Government Of Laws: Adams And Jefferson 1776–1779, James Maxeiner

All Faculty Scholarship

America’s rule of law is not working well because many American lawyers confound their rule of law with common law and with common law methods. They overlook the contribution of good legislation to good government. They fixate on judges, judge-made law and procedure. America’s founders, in particular, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, did not. They were not entranced by common law and by common law methods. This chapter shows how in the first few years of American independence, Adams popularized the term “government of laws” and how Jefferson drafted statutes for a government of laws. Neither of them assigned common …


Price-Fixing: Hefty Penalties On Big-Biz Cartels Will Provide Level Playing Field To Small Businesses, John M. Connor, Robert H. Lande Aug 2012

Price-Fixing: Hefty Penalties On Big-Biz Cartels Will Provide Level Playing Field To Small Businesses, John M. Connor, Robert H. Lande

All Faculty Scholarship

Cartels are illegal in India, as they are almost everywhere. They are subject to heavy fines. Why, then, do businesses frequently try to fix prices? Because doing so usually is profitable. On average cartels raise prices by more than 20%, and probably face less than a 25% chance of being caught and convicted. Based upon a sample of 75 international cartels, the authors calculate that the expected profits from price fixing almost always exceed the penalties. No wonder businesses often try to fix prices.


Consumer Choice As The Best Way To Describe The Goals Of Competition Law, Robert H. Lande Aug 2012

Consumer Choice As The Best Way To Describe The Goals Of Competition Law, Robert H. Lande

All Faculty Scholarship

This article is both a short introduction to the Consumer Choice explanation for Competition Law or Antitrust Law, and also a short advocacy piece suggesting that Consumer Choice is the best way to articulate the goals of European Competition Law and United States Antitrust Law.

This article briefly:

  1. defines the consumer choice approach to antitrust or competition law and shows how it differs from other approaches;
  2. shows that the antitrust statutes and theories of violation embody a concern for optimal levels of consumer choice;
  3. shows that the United States antitrust case law embodies a concern for optimal levels of consumer …


Law – Made In Germany: Global Standort Or Global Standard?, James Maxeiner Jan 2012

Law – Made In Germany: Global Standort Or Global Standard?, James Maxeiner

All Faculty Scholarship

Earlier this year the Federal Ministry of Justice released the second edition of the brochure, Law - Made in Germany. For those readers who do not know the brochure, it is the product of an umbrella group of German professional organizations known as the Bündnis für das deutsche Recht. A purpose of the Bündnis, as stated at its founding in 2008, and of the brochure, is to improve the position of German law in the ― "international competition of legal systems" (internationalen Wettbewerb der Rechtsordnungen). Catalyst for founding of the Bündnis and for publication of Law - Made in Germany …


Parochialism, Cosmopolitanism, And The Foundations Of International Law, Mortimer N.S. Sellers Jan 2012

Parochialism, Cosmopolitanism, And The Foundations Of International Law, Mortimer N.S. Sellers

Books

Summary: "This book determines the boundary between parochial and cosmopolitan justice. To what extent should law recognize or support the political, historical, cultural, and economic differences among nations? Ten lawyers and philosophers from five continents consider whether certain states or persons deserve special treatment or exemptions or heightened duties under international law. Parochialism and cosmopolitanism are the two faces of international law, which recognizes our common humanity by protecting us in our differences"-- Provided by publisher.


Failure Of The Current Anti-Corruption Strategy In Afghanistan, Hugh Barrett Mcclean Aug 2011

Failure Of The Current Anti-Corruption Strategy In Afghanistan, Hugh Barrett Mcclean

All Faculty Scholarship

Corruption has come to the forefront in Afghanistan as the United States tries to balance efforts to back anti-corruption strategies while maintaining a positive relationship with the Karzai government. Stalled corruption cases suggest corruption in Afghanistan is systemic and not limited to a particular governing body or official. It is clear that corruption exists in both the upper and lower echelons of Afghan society, and will continue to exist until the U.S.-backed anti-corruption teams are accepted by the Afghan government. The strengthening of key institutions continues to be the recommended international model. As demonstrated in the United States, the integration …


Civilizing American Civil Justice: International Insights, James Maxeiner, Gyooho Lee, Armin Weber Jan 2011

Civilizing American Civil Justice: International Insights, James Maxeiner, Gyooho Lee, Armin Weber

All Faculty Scholarship

In 1776, when Americans declared independence from Britain, they also declared their rights. Their declarations of rights count “open courts” as among the best means for constitutional development. Open courts should secure to every man, without regard to wealth, a just remedy for every wrong suffered, according to the law of the land, by fair and speedy procedure.

Since 1776 Americans have invested heavily in creating open courts. They have been disappointed by returns that fall “far short of perfection” (Maurice Rosenberg). They have found reform to be an “unending effort to perfect the imperfect” (Jay Tidmarsh).

That Americans have …


"Consumer Choice" Is Where We Are All Going - So Let's Go Together, Neil W. Averitt, Robert H. Lande, Paul Nihoul Jan 2011

"Consumer Choice" Is Where We Are All Going - So Let's Go Together, Neil W. Averitt, Robert H. Lande, Paul Nihoul

All Faculty Scholarship

Globalisation of business makes it important for firms to predict how their behaviour is likely to be treated in the roughly 200 nations that have competition laws. In that context, a crucial question is: are we in a position to develop a common intellectual framework that would give coherence to policy statements made on specific competition related issues and, at the same time, be acceptable, broadly, in a variety of legal systems, not necessarily based on identical assumptions? We believe that the answer is “yes.” A concept is emerging as a possible source of unification for competition policies around the …


Speeches: The Cicl Lecture On International And Comparative Law, Mortimer N.S. Sellers Jan 2011

Speeches: The Cicl Lecture On International And Comparative Law, Mortimer N.S. Sellers

University of Baltimore Law Review

No abstract provided.


Pleading And Access To Civil Procedure: Historical And Comparative Reflections On Iqbal, A Day In Court And A Decision According To Law, James Maxeiner Apr 2010

Pleading And Access To Civil Procedure: Historical And Comparative Reflections On Iqbal, A Day In Court And A Decision According To Law, James Maxeiner

All Faculty Scholarship

The Iqbal decision confirms the breakdown of contemporary American civil procedure. We know what civil procedure should do, and we know that our civil procedure is not doing it. Civil procedure should facilitate determining rights according to law. It should help courts and parties apply law to facts accurately, fairly, expeditiously and efficiently. This article reflects on three historic American system failures and reports a foreign success story.

Pleadings can help courts do what we know courts should do: decide case on the merits, accurately, fairly, expeditiously and efficiently. Pleadings facilitate a day in court when focused on deciding according …


The Rule Of Law In Comparative Perspective, Mortimer N.S. Sellers, Tadeusz Tomaszewski Mar 2009

The Rule Of Law In Comparative Perspective, Mortimer N.S. Sellers, Tadeusz Tomaszewski

Books

This new volume on The Rule of Law in Comparative Perspective compares the different conceptions of the rule of law that have developed in different legal cultures. Lawyers and legal scholars from various legal systems describe the social purposes and practical applications of the rule of law, and how it might be improved in the varied circumstances of their own courts and politics.

This book will be of interest to lawyers, judges, public officials, and to all those wishing to improve the fundamental structures of their own legal systems, by bringing equal justice to every person subject to the power …


The Influence Of Marcus Tullius Cicero On Modern Legal And Political Ideas, Mortimer N.S. Sellers Jan 2009

The Influence Of Marcus Tullius Cicero On Modern Legal And Political Ideas, Mortimer N.S. Sellers

All Faculty Scholarship

Marcus Tullius Cicero is the father of modern law and politics. Cicero's influence was significant throughout subsequent European history, but never so much nor so directly as in the emergence of modernity and in the development of modern law and constitutional government. The early moderns became faithful apostles of Cicero's thought and ideals because their world and political circumstances were in many ways closer to those of Cicero than to those of any intervening centuries. The influence of Cicero's legal and political ideas on the modern world illustrates the decisive importance that the study of history can have on legal …


Learning From Others: Sustaining The Internationalization And Globalization Of U.S. Law School Curriculums, James Maxeiner Dec 2008

Learning From Others: Sustaining The Internationalization And Globalization Of U.S. Law School Curriculums, James Maxeiner

All Faculty Scholarship

This address has three principal points: (1) An overview of how we are going about internationalizing the law school curriculum today in the United States; (2) Whether we are making as much progress as we should and how learning from others is central to sustaining our progress such as it is; and (3) What some of the obstacles to such learning are.


Some Realism About Legal Certainty In The Globalization Of The Rule Of Law, James Maxeiner Oct 2008

Some Realism About Legal Certainty In The Globalization Of The Rule Of Law, James Maxeiner

All Faculty Scholarship

The rule of law is at the heart of globalization. It promises both international and domestic routes to peace, security, democracy, human rights and sustainable development worldwide. A central tenet of the rule of law is legal certainty. For most modern jurists, it is a matter of course that legal certainty is a systemic goal, even if that goal is not always fully realized. But for American jurists who count themselves legal realists, legal certainty is not even a flawed goal; it is a childish myth. This address seeks to raise awareness of this fundamental difference and to show its …


Legal Methods As A Point Of Reference For Comparative Studies Of Procedural Law, James Maxeiner Sep 2007

Legal Methods As A Point Of Reference For Comparative Studies Of Procedural Law, James Maxeiner

All Faculty Scholarship

This paper addresses the importance of comparative legal methods for study of comparative procedure.


Comments, Cynthia Dipasquale, Seeking Options For Human Trafficking Victims, Elizabeth Keyes Aug 2007

Comments, Cynthia Dipasquale, Seeking Options For Human Trafficking Victims, Elizabeth Keyes

All Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Can Appropriation Riders Speed Our Exit From Iraq?, Charles Tiefer Jul 2006

Can Appropriation Riders Speed Our Exit From Iraq?, Charles Tiefer

All Faculty Scholarship

To explore the implications of riders - provisions added to appropriation bills that "ride" on the underlying bill - on the United States' continued military force in Iraq, the author draws three hypotheticals, each focusing on the debate surrounding the policy and political disputes raised by the use of such riders. A "withdrawal" rider, which would authorize funding only if there exists a plan to withdraw American ground troops by a set deadline, remains the most important - and controversial - rider. Riders may also significantly affect wartime policies, like those that limit the President's use of reservists in combat …


When Are Agreements Enforceable? Giving Consideration To Professor Barnett's Consent Theory Of Contract, James Maxeiner Jan 2006

When Are Agreements Enforceable? Giving Consideration To Professor Barnett's Consent Theory Of Contract, James Maxeiner

All Faculty Scholarship

This address considers five points: (1) the place of theory in American contract law; (2) the basic elements of Professor Barnett's theory are; (3) how these elements are similar to Continental law; (4) what it says about the American legal world that Barnett's theory has been discussed without reference to Continental systems; and, finally, (5) why I believe the American model is not a good one for a future European Civil Code but also hope that such a Code will become law.


Essay: Referring To Foreign Law In Constitutional Interpretation: An Episode In The Culture Wars, Mark Tushnet Jan 2006

Essay: Referring To Foreign Law In Constitutional Interpretation: An Episode In The Culture Wars, Mark Tushnet

University of Baltimore Law Review

No abstract provided.


Are Your Click-Wrap Agreements Valid?—Internet Contracting In The Global Electronic Age: Comparative Perspectives For Taiwan, James Maxeiner Nov 2003

Are Your Click-Wrap Agreements Valid?—Internet Contracting In The Global Electronic Age: Comparative Perspectives For Taiwan, James Maxeiner

All Faculty Scholarship

Addresses the issue of standard terms in click-wrap and shrink-wrap licenses generally and in some detail how the laws of Taiwan, Germany, the European Union, the United States and Japan.


Conflicts In The Regulation Of Hostile Business Takeovers In The United State And The European Union, Barbara Ann White Oct 2003

Conflicts In The Regulation Of Hostile Business Takeovers In The United State And The European Union, Barbara Ann White

All Faculty Scholarship

This essay focuses on hostile business takeovers to illustrate the significance that cultural differences among nations can play in developing a harmonized European Union law. After 12 years of development, the EU Directive regulating hostile takeovers, to everyone’s surprise, was voted down in the EU Parliament in 2001. The EU Parliament consists of the member nations and the movement to defeat the Directive was led by Germany, which had just suffered a brutal hostile takeover of its largest company by British raiders.

The “harmonization” efforts within the EU (i.e., establishing uniform laws among the member nations) mirrors the federalism movement …


American Law Schools As A Model For Japanese Legal Education? A Preliminary Question From A Comparative Perspective, James Maxeiner Jan 2003

American Law Schools As A Model For Japanese Legal Education? A Preliminary Question From A Comparative Perspective, James Maxeiner

All Faculty Scholarship

Law faculties in Japan are asking whether and how they should remake themselves to become law schools. One basic issue has been framed in terms of whether such programs should be professional or general. One Japanese scholar put it pointedly: "[a] major issue of the proposed reform is whether Japan should adopt an American model law school, i.e., professional education at the graduate level, while essentially doing away with the traditional Japanese method of teaching law at university." American law schools are seen as having as their fundamental goal "to provide the training and education required for becoming an effective …


The Professional In Legal Education: Foreign Perspectives, James Maxeiner Jan 2003

The Professional In Legal Education: Foreign Perspectives, James Maxeiner

All Faculty Scholarship

Japan is about to change its system of legal education. In April 2004 Japan will introduce law schools. Law schools are to occupy an intermediary place between the present undergraduate faculties of law and the national Legal Training and Research Institute. The law faculties are to continue to offer general undergraduate education in law, while the law schools in combination with the national Institute are to provide professional legal education. A principal goal of the change is to produce more lawyers. Law schools are charged with providing "practical education especially for fostering legal professionals." But just what is professional legal …


U.S. “Methods Awareness” (Methodenbewußtsein) For German Jurists, James Maxeiner Jan 1998

U.S. “Methods Awareness” (Methodenbewußtsein) For German Jurists, James Maxeiner

All Faculty Scholarship

The purpose of this contribution is to help develop Methods Awareness in German jurists unfamiliar with American law. It shows how distant from German understanding present-day American practice is. It proceeds from Fikentscher's thumbnail sketch of German Prevailing Teaching: "this method starts from norm-thinking, therefore thinks in rules, that are applied to the case at hand." It refers to the core elements of this teaching, namely the place of the legal norm (Rechtssatz) in the legal order (Rechtsordnung) and its application to a particular set of facts (i.e., subsumption), and discusses the significance of these concepts in American law. It …


Why Are U.S. Lawyers Not Learning From Comparative Law?, Ernst C. Stiefel, James Maxeiner Jan 1997

Why Are U.S. Lawyers Not Learning From Comparative Law?, Ernst C. Stiefel, James Maxeiner

All Faculty Scholarship

Address the problem of comparative law in the United States. Explains why comparative law matters. Gives reasons why U.S. lawyers are not learning from comparative law. These include lack of skills, lack of institutional supports, and legal structures that resist comparative law and an attitude that comparative law has little to teach.


Freedom Of Information And The Eu Data Protection Directive, James Maxeiner Oct 1995

Freedom Of Information And The Eu Data Protection Directive, James Maxeiner

All Faculty Scholarship

The EU Data Protection Directive attempts to balance protection of privacy and freedom of information acquisition. It does this by authorizing Member States to provide exemptions and derogations in their individual legislation.