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Touro University Jacob D. Fuchsberg Law Center

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Articles 1 - 30 of 3022

Full-Text Articles in Law

Table Of Contents Jan 2024

Table Of Contents

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Green Amendments Land Use And Transportation: What Could Go Wrong?, Michael Lewyn Jan 2024

Green Amendments Land Use And Transportation: What Could Go Wrong?, Michael Lewyn

Scholarly Works

Numerous states have amended their constitutions to include a green amendment (that is, an amendment providing that the state's citizens have a right to a healthy environment). Unfortunately, the vagueness of these amendments leaves an enormous amount of interpretative power to courts. This article examines how some courts have interpreted green amendments and how these interpretations risk the misuse of green amendments. Additionally, this article examines how such misuse may be avoided.


Sign Your Name On The Dotted Line . . . Is Netflix’S Squid Game Something More Than Mere Child’S Play?, Samantha Karpman Jan 2024

Sign Your Name On The Dotted Line . . . Is Netflix’S Squid Game Something More Than Mere Child’S Play?, Samantha Karpman

Touro Law Review

Prior to watching Netflix’s hit show, Squid Game, I was proud to say that I was someone who was a true connoisseur of reality television. Like millions of Americans who tune in to their favorite “trash TV” show, I would always look forward to turning on my TV at the end of a long day, sitting back in my pajamas, and binge-watching my favorite reality television shows. And, unlike many viewers, I was not ashamed to say this was one of my favorite hobbies. However, after watching Squid Game, my passion for reality television also grew into a concern for …


Blocking Faith: How American Muslims Are Chilled Through The New Anti-Muslim Statutes And The Security Agencies’ Surveillance In The Era Of Digital Policing, Ahmed Al Rawi Jan 2024

Blocking Faith: How American Muslims Are Chilled Through The New Anti-Muslim Statutes And The Security Agencies’ Surveillance In The Era Of Digital Policing, Ahmed Al Rawi

Touro Law Review

This Article explores the legal repercussions resulting from the new wave of anti-Muslim statutes and the state monitoring operations on American Muslims’ First Amendment rights. This Article argues that the U.S. government security agencies’ surveillance operations (actions) that target American Muslims’ religious activities and the new anti-Muslim statutes (laws) established in various states are clear violations of Muslim Americans’ First Amendment rights.


Mental Health In Prison: The Unintended But Catastrophic Effects Of Deinstitutionalization, Felicia Mulholland Jan 2024

Mental Health In Prison: The Unintended But Catastrophic Effects Of Deinstitutionalization, Felicia Mulholland

Touro Law Review

Prisons and jails are not adequately equipped to manage the ever-growing population of mentally ill inmates. Despite deinstitutionalization efforts, prisons have steadily become the new psychiatric hospitals and unfortunately, because of the lack of treatment and the ability to properly supervise this population of inmates, these individuals are dying by their own hands at an alarming rate. This Note argues that the lack of proper care for mentally ill inmates is a violation of their constitutional right, despite their incarcerated status. The Department of Corrections and Community Supervision (DOCCS) should incorporate more concrete and universal rules and regulations for the …


Masthead Jan 2024

Masthead

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Pandemics Of Limitation Of Rights, Rinat Kitai-Sangero Jan 2024

Pandemics Of Limitation Of Rights, Rinat Kitai-Sangero

Touro Law Review

This Article discusses the limitation of rights due to pandemics. It analyzes from a constitutional standpoint the holding of the German Federal Constitutional Court (Das BUNDESVERFASSUNGSGERICHT) from April 2022 as a symptom of moral panic disguised through an analytical process. Though it focuses on this case, it sheds light on the moral panic that characterized many countries’ approaches during the COVID-19 pandemic. On April 27, 2022, the German Federal Constitutional Court held that a provision to provide proof of vaccination against COVID-19, recovery from COVID-19, or a medical exemption to COVID-19 vaccination as a condition of employment in the health …


Community Caretaking Exception Saves Lives . . . The Supreme Court Disagrees, Gabriella Lorenzo Jan 2024

Community Caretaking Exception Saves Lives . . . The Supreme Court Disagrees, Gabriella Lorenzo

Touro Law Review

As many are aware, the Fourth Amendment protects the people against unreasonable searches and seizures. A warrant is necessary for said activities. While there are a few exceptions to the warrant requirement, the Supreme Court recently held that the community caretaking exception does not extend to the home. Extending this exception to the home would allow police officers to enter and engage in functions that are unrelated to the investigation of a crime. Essentially, this exception would allow police to aid individuals and prevent serious, dangerous situations to protect the community. This Note discusses why the Supreme Court erred in …


The Categorical Imperative: In Search Of The Mythical Perfect Privilege Log So Devoutly To Be Wished, Jared S. Sunshine Jan 2024

The Categorical Imperative: In Search Of The Mythical Perfect Privilege Log So Devoutly To Be Wished, Jared S. Sunshine

Touro Law Review

Though evidentiary privilege is amongst the most perplexing fields of the law, privilege logs are assuredly amongst the most vexing. With vastly increased discovery in the age of electronically stored information, the burdens incurred by individually articulating claims of privilege on every document have grown gargantuan. In desperate search of efficiencies, many commentators and courts have looked to “categorical” privilege logs that assert claims over generic groups of similar material rather than over each item seriatim. Disputes, however, have remained distressingly acrimonious, as these new categorical logs have proven no cure-all for the fundamental divergence of interests between litigants in …


International Arbitration Of Sep Frand Royalties, Steven Pepe, Samuel Brenner, Michael Morales Jan 2024

International Arbitration Of Sep Frand Royalties, Steven Pepe, Samuel Brenner, Michael Morales

Touro Law Review

Standard-essential patent royalty disputes have typically been litigated in U.S. federal district courts, but patent owners have recently started to file suit in courts across the globe, leading to issues of comity, anti-suit injunctions, and increased litigation costs. International arbitration provides a unique forum for parties to litigate these royalty disputes and avoid, or at least lessen the burden, of these issues. This Article explores the advantages and disadvantages of using international arbitration to resolve standard-essential patent royalty disputes.


“It’S The End Of The World As We Know It” –Redrafting Amendment To Federal Rule Of Criminal Procedure 26 To Allow Remote Testimony, Alisson Sandoval Jan 2024

“It’S The End Of The World As We Know It” –Redrafting Amendment To Federal Rule Of Criminal Procedure 26 To Allow Remote Testimony, Alisson Sandoval

Touro Law Review

During the COVID-19 pandemic, when society fought an aggressive and deadly virus, our connection to the outside world became predominantly virtual. Videoconference technology became essential in state and federal civil judicial proceedings. In light of the unprecedented challenges presented by the pandemic and its long-lasting impact on the criminal justice system, this Article argues for amending Federal Rule of Criminal Procedure 26 to permit remote witness testimony when a witness is unavailable.


Interpreting Ethics Rules, Samuel J. Levine Jan 2024

Interpreting Ethics Rules, Samuel J. Levine

Scholarly Works

This Article explores the interpretation of ethics rules through the prism of two rules that have been the subject of ongoing controversy and contention: Rule 4.2, the “no-contact” rule, which prohibits a lawyer from communicating with a represented client absent the consent of that client’s lawyer, and Rule 8.4(g), which prohibits various forms of discrimination and harassment. Each of these rules provides a model for a wider examination of different interpretive approaches to ethics rules, grounded in different attitudes toward the features and functions of ethics codes. Specifically, the debate revolving around Rule 4.2 illustrates competing approaches to interpreting a …


Do Americans Support More Housing?, Michael Lewyn Jan 2024

Do Americans Support More Housing?, Michael Lewyn

Scholarly Works

An analysis of opinion poll data on housing issues. The article finds that Americans generally believe that their community needs more housing of all types, but are more closely divided about whether such housing should be in their own neighborhoods. The article further finds that members of minority groups, lower-income Americans, and younger Americans are more pro-housing than older, affluent whites.


Franchising Law In The United States Between Theory And Practice: Heads Up For Foreign Investors, Radwa Elsaman Jan 2024

Franchising Law In The United States Between Theory And Practice: Heads Up For Foreign Investors, Radwa Elsaman

Touro Law Review

As a dynamic vehicle for fostering investment opportunities, both domestically and internationally, franchising spans a diverse array of industrial sectors, encompassing both goods and services. The United States plays a highly influential role in global franchise industry promotion, with a vast majority of International Franchise Association members representing American companies. Present data underscores that franchising has extended its reach to virtually every sector of the American economy. Notably, the United States stands among just four common law nations that have established dedicated franchise legislation, operating at both state and federal levels. This framework includes provisions for pre-sale disclosure, registration of …


In A New York State Of Mind: The Corporate Trustee’S Toolkit For Effectuating Non-Judicial Trust Modifications In The Empire State, Michael J. Borger Jan 2024

In A New York State Of Mind: The Corporate Trustee’S Toolkit For Effectuating Non-Judicial Trust Modifications In The Empire State, Michael J. Borger

Touro Law Review

When the need to effectuate a non-judicial trust modification of a New York trust arises, the law in its current form provides corporate trustees with a tremendous amount of power and flexibility to amend, revoke, and establish new trusts with more favorable provisions. Depending upon the facts and circumstances of a particular situation (i.e., whether the settlor is alive, whether minor beneficiaries hold an interest in the trust, and whether there is dissension and discord among the beneficiaries, etc.) there are various statutes that will help a corporate trustee implement a sound strategy to modify a trust to attain favorable …


The Author-Ity Of Ai: Navigating The Legal Landscape Of Artificial Intelligence Authorship, John R. Sepúlveda Jan 2024

The Author-Ity Of Ai: Navigating The Legal Landscape Of Artificial Intelligence Authorship, John R. Sepúlveda

Touro Law Review

This Article discusses the problems that arise when trying to protect works that involve generative AI. It will detail how authorship currently is interpreted under U.S. law and how the courts and the U.S. Copyright Office interpret the authorship requirement. This Article will also present some practical tips on how to navigate current U.S. law and obtain a copyright registration.


Foreword: The Life, Work & Legacy Of Felix Frankfurter, The Justice Known As “Ff”, Rodger D. Citron Jan 2024

Foreword: The Life, Work & Legacy Of Felix Frankfurter, The Justice Known As “Ff”, Rodger D. Citron

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


John Marshall And Felix Frankfurter: An Icon And A Disappointment?, William E. Nelson Jan 2024

John Marshall And Felix Frankfurter: An Icon And A Disappointment?, William E. Nelson

Touro Law Review

This article shows how Chief Justice John Marshall first developed the doctrine of judicial restraint in Marbury v. Madison to assure the public that the Supreme Court would not engage in politically oriented judicial review as colonial courts had in holding Parliament’s 1765 Stamp Act unconstitutional. Justice Felix Frankfurter, in contrast, adopted judicial restraint differently—by reading the scholarship of James Bradley Thayer. This article also shows that Frankfurter did not abandon his commitment to judicial restraint when during his years on the bench it began to serve conservative purposes rather than the progressive purposes it had once served.


The Law Professor As Public Intellectual: Felix Frankfurter And The Public And Its Government, R. B. Bernstein Jan 2024

The Law Professor As Public Intellectual: Felix Frankfurter And The Public And Its Government, R. B. Bernstein

Touro Law Review

Professor R.B. Bernstein was a legal historian with a J.D. from Harvard Law School who taught at the Colin Powell School for Civic and Global Leadership at City College of New York and New York Law School. He presented the paper below on Professor Felix Frankfurter’s The Public and Its Government, published in 1930. A little more than two months after the conference, sadly, Professor Bernstein passed. His brother Steven Bernstein provided the Touro Law Review with the draft of the paper that Professor Bernstein was preparing to submit for publication. We have added footnotes and made only minor revisions. …


Courting Citation Consistency: Justice Frankfurter And West Coast Hotel Co. V. Parrish, Helen J. Knowles-Gardner Jan 2024

Courting Citation Consistency: Justice Frankfurter And West Coast Hotel Co. V. Parrish, Helen J. Knowles-Gardner

Touro Law Review

This Article examines the three U.S. Supreme Court opinions authored by Justice Felix Frankfurter that cited the landmark decision in West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish (1937). I describe the three Parrish-citing opinions as: (1) “perfunctory”—Mayo v. Lakeland Highlands Canning Co. (1940) (Frankfurter, J., joined by Black and Douglas, JJ., dissenting); (2) “ugly”—Winters v. New York (1948) (Frankfurter, J., joined by Jackson and Burton, JJ., dissenting); and (3) “good”—American Federation of Labor v. American Sash & Door Co. (1949) (Frankfurter, J., concurring). Whatever one might think about the substance of these opinions, there is absolutely no doubt of the following. …


Mediating Pluralism: Felix Frankfurter’S Commitment To Majoritarian Democracy, Dalia Tsuk Jan 2024

Mediating Pluralism: Felix Frankfurter’S Commitment To Majoritarian Democracy, Dalia Tsuk

Touro Law Review

This Article explores parallels between Frankfurter’s faith in democracy, that is, his trust in the legislative and executive branches as reflected in his jurisprudence of judicial restraint, and Frankfurter’s vision for Jewish (and other) immigrants’ integration into the American polity, namely his conviction that immigrants should shed vestiges of their birth cultures and assimilate into their adopted culture. The Article argues that Frankfurter’s commitment to judicial restraint was his means of mediating the pluralist dilemma, that is, the need to accommodate within the law diverse cultures and values; just as Felix Frankfurter, the first-generation Jewish American, wanted to sidestep ethnic …


Lost In The Thicket, Brad Snyder Jan 2024

Lost In The Thicket, Brad Snyder

Touro Law Review

As part of a symposium on his biography of Felix Frankfurter, Democratic Justice, Brad Snyder revisits Baker v. Carr and explores the contrasts between Justice William Brennan’s judicially supremacist majority opinion and Frankfurter’s departmentalist dissent and unheeded warnings about empowering the judiciary. As Frankfurter wrote in his Baker dissent, he placed more faith in the U.S. Congress, as opposed to the judiciary, to protect democracy.


“Improve Your Privileges While They Stay”: A Guide To Improve The Privileges Of U.S. Citizenship For Everybody, Joshua J. Schroeder Jan 2024

“Improve Your Privileges While They Stay”: A Guide To Improve The Privileges Of U.S. Citizenship For Everybody, Joshua J. Schroeder

Touro Law Review

In 1767, the young Phillis Wheatley wrote from her position of slavery in the Wheatley home of Boston to “ye sons of Science” at Harvard College, telling them to “improve your privileges while they stay.” She beheld the startling privileges of learning and discovery bestowed upon an elite group of young, rich white men in Boston and celebrated their privileges. Neither did she scorn those whose luck had placed a bounty of privilege upon their laps, for she likely planned to share in that bounty herself, one day. When she was only 13 or 14, Wheatley sublimely encouraged grown men …


Felix Frankfurter: Liberal Lawyer, Conservative Justice, Jed S. Rakoff Jan 2024

Felix Frankfurter: Liberal Lawyer, Conservative Justice, Jed S. Rakoff

Touro Law Review

The Hon. Jed S. Rakoff gave the first presentation at the conference, providing an introduction to Justice Felix Frankfurter by describing some of his accomplishments and situating his tenure on the Supreme Court in the context of the Court’s historically conservative orientation.


The Mad Hatter’S Quip: Looking For Logic In The Independent State Legislature Theory, Nicholas Maggio, Foreword By Brendan Buschi Jan 2024

The Mad Hatter’S Quip: Looking For Logic In The Independent State Legislature Theory, Nicholas Maggio, Foreword By Brendan Buschi

Touro Law Review

The Supreme Court is set to hear a case that threatens the bedrock of America’s democracy, and it is not clear how it will shake out. The cumbersomely named “Independent State Legislature Theory” is at the heart of the case Moore v. Harper, which is before the Supreme Court this term. The theory holds that state legislatures should be free from the ordinary bounds of state judicial review when engaged in matters that concern federal elections. Despite being defeated a myriad of times at the Supreme Court, the latest challenge stems from a legal battle over North Carolina’s redistricting maps. …


Mental Hygiene Law Article 81 Proceedings In New York State And The Associated Deprivation Of One’S Civil Rights And Autonomy: Are We Really Helping?, Giulia R. Marino Jan 2024

Mental Hygiene Law Article 81 Proceedings In New York State And The Associated Deprivation Of One’S Civil Rights And Autonomy: Are We Really Helping?, Giulia R. Marino

Touro Law Review

New York State Mental Hygiene Law Article 81 affords a population that is vulnerable to abuse and exploitation an opportunity to have their personal and/or property management needs met by the least restrictive means available, often entailing a severe deprivation of their rights.1 But what is meant by the term “least restrictive means available,” how is this determined, and how are these “means” implemented and monitored? Is this deprivation of an individual’s rights the only way they can be helped, or is this unnecessarily harmful? Are there other ways to protect the vulnerable in our society without taking away these …


Masthead Jan 2024

Masthead

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Table Of Contents Jan 2024

Table Of Contents

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Subjectively Speaking, The Applicable Standard For Deficient Medical Treatment Of Pretrial Detainees Should Be One Of Objective Reasonableness, Benjamin R. Black Jan 2024

Subjectively Speaking, The Applicable Standard For Deficient Medical Treatment Of Pretrial Detainees Should Be One Of Objective Reasonableness, Benjamin R. Black

Touro Law Review

There is no uniformity amongst the circuits when it comes to pretrial detainees claims for inadequate medical care. The circuits are currently grappling with this problem, applying two separate tests to pretrial detainees’ 42 U.S.C. § 1983 claims depending on the jurisdiction in which the incident arose. The test that should be applied across all circuits is one of objective reasonableness. However, some circuits do not see it that way, applying the deliberate indifference standard, also known as the subjective standard test. The circuits applying the subjective standard are relying on case law that does not properly analyze the rights …


Is Jacobson V. Massachusetts Viable After A Century Of Dormancy? A Review In The Face Of Covid-19, Sawan Talwar Jan 2024

Is Jacobson V. Massachusetts Viable After A Century Of Dormancy? A Review In The Face Of Covid-19, Sawan Talwar

Touro Law Review

The COVID-19 pandemic has stretched us into the vast unknowns, emotionally, logically, politically, and legally. Relying on their police power, governments inched into the darkness of the powers’ fullest extent, leaving many to wonder whether the exercise of this power was constitutional. This Article examines the extent of the police power that both the federal and state governments have, and how Jacobson v. Massachusetts1 was the “silver bullet” for governments across the United States. Further, this Article provides an overview of police power, and the status of COVID-19 mandates. This Article additionally examines quarantine case law and provides an analysis …