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Full-Text Articles in Law

Transatlantic Divisions In Methods Of Inquiry About Law: What It Means For International Law, John Linarelli Jan 2021

Transatlantic Divisions In Methods Of Inquiry About Law: What It Means For International Law, John Linarelli

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It is based on a presentation at a workshop at the University of Leicester on “The Neglected Methodologies of International Law: Empirical, Socio-Legal and Comparative,” on January 31, 2018. The chapter explores a question that many have voiced but which is difficult to answer: why do differences persist in approaches to research and scholarship about international law, as between the United States and Europe, and even within the Anglo-American tradition as between British and American traditions? There are likely many reasons and this is not a study of “causes.” It is an exercise in interpretation. It locates the differences in ...


Challenging Gender Discrimination In Closely Held Firms: The Hope And Hazards Of Corporate Oppression Doctrine, Meredith R. Miller Jan 2021

Challenging Gender Discrimination In Closely Held Firms: The Hope And Hazards Of Corporate Oppression Doctrine, Meredith R. Miller

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The #MeToo Movement has ushered sexual harassment out of the shadows and thrown a spotlight on the gender pay gap in the workplace. Harassment and unfair treatment have, however, been difficult to extinguish. This has been true for all workers, including partners – those women who are owners in their firms and claim that they have suffered harassment or unfair treatment based on gender. That is because a partner’s lawsuit for discrimination often will suffer an insurmountable hurdle: plaintiff’s status as a partner in the firm means that they may not be considered an “employee” under the relevant employment ...


Equality And Access To Credit: A Social Contract Framework, John Linarelli Jan 2021

Equality And Access To Credit: A Social Contract Framework, John Linarelli

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The problems governments face in regulating consumer finance fall into two categories: normative and cognitive. The normative problems have to do with the way that some governments, particularly those adhering to an American model of household finance, have financed social mobility and intergenerational welfare through debt, a tenuous and socially risky policy choice. Credit has a substantial social aspect to it in the United States, where the federal government has in some way engaged in subsidizing about 1/3 of consumer credit, particularly in the residential mortgage market, feeding into a substantial capital markets dimension through government-guaranteed securitization. Most Americans ...


Hands-Off Religion In The Early Months Of Covid-19, Samuel J. Levine Oct 2020

Hands-Off Religion In The Early Months Of Covid-19, Samuel J. Levine

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For decades, scholars have documented the United States Supreme Court’s “hands-off approach” to questions of religious practice and belief, pursuant to which the Court has repeatedly declared that judges are precluded from making decisions that require evaluating and determining the substance of religious doctrine. At the same time, many scholars have criticized this approach, for a variety of reasons. The early months of the COVID-19 outbreak brought these issues to the forefront, both directly, in disputes over limitations on religious gatherings due to the virus, and indirectly, as the Supreme Court decided important cases turning on religious doctrine. Taken ...


The Bar Exam And The Covid-19 Pandemic: The Need For Immediate Action, Patricia E. Salkin, Eileen Kaufman, Claudia Angelos, Sara J. Berman, Mary Lu Bilek, Carol L. Chomsky, Andrea A. Curcio, Marsha Griggs, Joan W. Howarth, Deborah Jones Merritt, Judith Welch Wegner Jan 2020

The Bar Exam And The Covid-19 Pandemic: The Need For Immediate Action, Patricia E. Salkin, Eileen Kaufman, Claudia Angelos, Sara J. Berman, Mary Lu Bilek, Carol L. Chomsky, Andrea A. Curcio, Marsha Griggs, Joan W. Howarth, Deborah Jones Merritt, Judith Welch Wegner

Scholarly Works

The novel coronavirus COVID-19 has profoundly disrupted life in the United States. Schools and universities have closed throughout much of the country. Businesses have shuttered, and employees are working from home whenever possible. Cities and states are announcing lockdowns in which citizens may leave their homes only for vital errands or exercise.

Medical experts advise that at least some of these restraints will continue for 18 months or more—until a vaccine is developed, tested, and administered widely. It is possible that localities will be able to lift some of these restrictions (such as lockdowns and school closures) intermittently during ...


Behavioral Comparative Law: Its Relevance To Global Commercial Law-Making, John Linarelli Jan 2020

Behavioral Comparative Law: Its Relevance To Global Commercial Law-Making, John Linarelli

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This is a book chapter written for a British Society of Legal Scholars funded conference held at Durham University Law School. It develops a framework by which to evaluate the making of commercial law at the global level. It offers an approach to evaluating the process by which primarily intergovernmental organisations produce commercial law. The approach grounds in both behavioural science and comparative law. The focus is mainly but not exclusively on global rule makers such as the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) and the International Institute for the Unification of Private Law (UNIDROIT). It articulates what ...


Debt In Just Societies: A General Framework For Regulating Credit, John Linarelli Jan 2020

Debt In Just Societies: A General Framework For Regulating Credit, John Linarelli

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Debt presents a dilemma to societies: successful societies benefit from a substantial infrastructure of consumer, commercial, corporate, and sovereign debt but debt can cause substantial private and social harm. Pre- and post-crisis solutions have seesawed between subsidizing and restricting debt, between leveraging and deleveraging. A consensus exists among governments and international financial institutions that financial stability is the fundamental normative principle underlying financial regulation. Financial stability, however, is insensitive to equality concerns and can produce morally impermissible aggregations in which the least advantaged in a society are made worse off. Solutions based only on financial stability can restrict debt without ...


Global Legal Pluralism And Commercial Law, John Linarelli Jan 2020

Global Legal Pluralism And Commercial Law, John Linarelli

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Multiple, overlapping, and systemically interactive normative orders regulate commerce, trade, and finance. A diverse set of state and non-state actors produce this plurality of rules governing markets. How these rules operate, what they are, whether some of them deserve recognition as what societies usually conceptualize as law, and their historical lineage, are the subject of significant disagreement and confusion. This chapter offers a taxonomy and classification of the sources of norms and ground clearing on the different kinds of norms at work in the global economy. It surveys the literature on the history of the law merchant, with a focus ...


Covid-19 And Individuals With Developmental Disabilities: Tragic Realities And Cautious Hope, Samuel J. Levine Jan 2020

Covid-19 And Individuals With Developmental Disabilities: Tragic Realities And Cautious Hope, Samuel J. Levine

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The COVID-19 pandemic has cast the United States, along with the rest of the world, into a time of crisis and uncertainty unlike any other in recent memory. Months into the pandemic, there is scant agreement among scientists, government officials, and large segments of the public, both domestic and abroad, as to determining the causes and workings of the virus, designing appropriate and effective responses to the outbreak, and constructing accurate assessments of the future—or even of the present. Indeed, the availability of concrete information about the virus and its effects is grossly inadequate and often replaced by anecdotal ...


Diploma Privilege And The Constitution, Patricia E. Salkin, Claudia Angelos, Sara Berman, Mary Lu Bilek, Carol L. Chomsky, Marsha Griggs, Joan W. Howarth, Eileen Kaufman, Deborah Jones Meritt, Judith Wegner, Andrea Curcio Jan 2020

Diploma Privilege And The Constitution, Patricia E. Salkin, Claudia Angelos, Sara Berman, Mary Lu Bilek, Carol L. Chomsky, Marsha Griggs, Joan W. Howarth, Eileen Kaufman, Deborah Jones Meritt, Judith Wegner, Andrea Curcio

Scholarly Works

The COVID-19 pandemic and resulting shutdowns are affecting every aspect of society. The legal profession and the justice system have been profoundly disrupted at precisely the time when there is an unprecedented need for legal services to deal with a host of legal issues generated by the pandemic, including disaster relief, health law, insurance, labor law, criminal justice, domestic violence, and civil rights. The need for lawyers to address these issues is great but the prospect of licensing new lawyers is challenging due to the serious health consequences of administering the bar examination during the pandemic.

State Supreme Courts are ...


Access Law Schools & Diversifying The Profession, Deseriee A. Kennedy Jan 2020

Access Law Schools & Diversifying The Profession, Deseriee A. Kennedy

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Lawyers do not reflect the racial diversity in the United States. The legal profession continues to struggle with ways to achieve and maintain racial diversity. Law schools play a critical role in the path to practice, and therefore an examination of the barriers to the profession they created is warranted. This essay critiques the over-reliance on standardized testing in law school admissions and advocates for an open admissions process that prioritizes racial and academic diversity. It suggests that the benefits of minimizing the role of standardized tests far outweigh any perceived costs in legal education. This essay concludes that the ...


Death Need Not Part Owners And Their Pets: Regulating Pet Cemeteries Through Zoning Regulation, Patricia E. Salkin, Sydney Gross Jan 2020

Death Need Not Part Owners And Their Pets: Regulating Pet Cemeteries Through Zoning Regulation, Patricia E. Salkin, Sydney Gross

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Pet ownership in the United States has grown substantially over the years. In the past, when a family pet died, it was typically buried in the back yard or cremated by the local veterinarian who might return the ashes to the owner if requested. Today the relationship between people and their pets is different. In many cases pets are treated like members of the family, and a growing number of people wish to be buried alongside their pet either in a burial ground for human remains or for animal remains. Others wish to inter their pets in a specially designated ...


Relationships And Ethics In The Land Use Game, Patricia E. Salkin, Thomas Brown, Aisha Scholes Jan 2019

Relationships And Ethics In The Land Use Game, Patricia E. Salkin, Thomas Brown, Aisha Scholes

Scholarly Works

Ethical considerations in the land use decision making process can be organized into a number of categories, including, first and foremost, the broad subject of conflicts of interest.1 Players in the land use game can find themselves in real or perceived conflicts situations based on personal financial interests resulting from investments, including businesses and real estate holdings (such as the location of their property vis-à-vis the location of the subject property before the Board), employment for themselves or members of their immediate family, and memberships in nonprofit organizations that may be either passive or active (e.g., simply dues ...


Disciplinary Regulation Of Prosecutorial Discretion: What Would A Rule Look Like?, Samuel J. Levine Jan 2019

Disciplinary Regulation Of Prosecutorial Discretion: What Would A Rule Look Like?, Samuel J. Levine

Scholarly Works

This Essay is the third part of a larger project examining the potential role of professional discipline in the regulation and supervision of prosecutors’ charging decisions. The first two parts of the project argued that courts have both the authority and the ability to exercise effective disciplinary review of charging decisions through the adoption of ethics rules and their enforcement in the disciplinary process. This Essay takes the next step in the project, considering the nature of rules that courts might adopt, by exploring potential rules targeting two improprieties: arbitrary and capricious charging decisions, and discriminatory charging decisions.


The Constitution As Poetry, Samuel J. Levine Jan 2019

The Constitution As Poetry, Samuel J. Levine

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Building upon a body of scholarship that compares constitutional interpretation to biblical and literary interpretation, and relying on an insight from a prominent nineteenth century rabbinic scholar, this Article briefly explores similarities in the interpretation of the Torah—the text of the Five Books of Moses—and the United States Constitution. Specifically, this Article draws upon Rabbi Naftali Zvi Yehudah Berlin’s (“Netziv”) intriguing suggestion that the interpretation of the text of the Torah parallels the interpretation of poetry. According to Netziv, this parallel accounts for the practice of interpreting the Torah expansively in ways that derive substantive legal rules ...


Introduction: Singapore Convention Reference Book, Harold Abramson Jan 2019

Introduction: Singapore Convention Reference Book, Harold Abramson

Scholarly Works

No abstract provided.


The New Singapore Mediation Convention: The Process And Key Choices, Harold Abramson Jan 2019

The New Singapore Mediation Convention: The Process And Key Choices, Harold Abramson

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No abstract provided.


Singapore Mediation Convention Reference Book, Harold Abramson (Faculty Editor) Jan 2019

Singapore Mediation Convention Reference Book, Harold Abramson (Faculty Editor)

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No abstract provided.


Advanced Artificial Intelligence And Contract, John Linarelli Jan 2019

Advanced Artificial Intelligence And Contract, John Linarelli

Scholarly Works

The aim of this article is to inquire whether contract law can operate in a state of affairs in which artificial general intelligence (AGI) exists and has the cognitive abilities to interact with humans to exchange promises or otherwise engage in the sorts of exchanges typically governed by contract law. AGI is a long way off but its emergence may be sudden and come in the lifetimes of some people alive today. How might contract law adapt to a situation in which at least one of the contract parties could, from the standpoint of capacity to engage in promising and ...


A Brief Reflection On The History Of The Practice And Contemporary Regulatory Efforts, Tiffany C. Graham Jan 2019

A Brief Reflection On The History Of The Practice And Contemporary Regulatory Efforts, Tiffany C. Graham

Scholarly Works

No abstract provided.


Another Look At Lawyer Discretion To Assist Clients In Unlawful Conduct: A Response To Professor Tremblay, Samuel J. Levine Jan 2018

Another Look At Lawyer Discretion To Assist Clients In Unlawful Conduct: A Response To Professor Tremblay, Samuel J. Levine

Scholarly Works

Professor Paul Tremblay’s At Your Service: Lawyer Discretion to Assist Clients in Unlawful Conduct, identifies and explores an apparent gap in the law governing the work of lawyers: the question of whether lawyers may assist clients in unlawful conduct that is not criminal or fraudulent. After introducing the issue through three illustrative scenarios, which he labels “lawbreaking stories,” Professor Tremblay engages in an extensive analysis of the applicable substantive law, relying primarily on ethics codes, which directly regulate the work of lawyers, with additional reference to other sources of law. Having reached the considered conclusion that the law does ...


How To Build A Better Bar Exam, Eileen Kaufman, Andrea Anne Curcio, Carol L. Chomsky Jan 2018

How To Build A Better Bar Exam, Eileen Kaufman, Andrea Anne Curcio, Carol L. Chomsky

Scholarly Works

As a licensing exam, the purpose of the bar exam is consumer protection–-ensuring that new lawyers have the minimum competencies required to practice law effectively. As critics point out, however, the exam, and particularly the multiple-choice question portion of the exam, has significant flaws because it assesses legal knowledge and analysis in an artificial and unrealistic context, and the closed-book format rewards the ability to memorize thousands of legal rules, a skill unrelated to law practice.

This essay discusses how to improve the exam by changing its multiple-choice content and format. We use two law licensing exams to illustrate ...


Fashioning An Effective Negotiation Style: Choosing Between Good Practices, Tactics, And Tricks, Harold I. Abramson Jan 2018

Fashioning An Effective Negotiation Style: Choosing Between Good Practices, Tactics, And Tricks, Harold I. Abramson

Scholarly Works

This article addresses two long standing issues in negotiations. First, what choices should we make to be effective? This article offers a schema for classifying the choices into one of three categories and in so doing, classifies choices based on likely benefits and degree of risk when fashioning an effective negotiation style. The second question is how to distinguish between negotiation style, the subject of this article, and our natural conflict style. By highlighting the distinction between how we want to negotiate (negotiation style) and how we naturally negotiate (conflict style), this article offers a way to become the negotiator ...


Afterword: What's Next? Into A Third Decade Of Latcrit Theory, Community, And Praxis, Steven W. Bender, Francisco Valdes, Jorge R. Roig, Jasmine Gonzalez Rose, Saru Matambanadzo, Roberto Corrada, Shelley Cavalieri, Tayyab Mahmud, Zsea Bowmani, Anthony E. Varona Jan 2018

Afterword: What's Next? Into A Third Decade Of Latcrit Theory, Community, And Praxis, Steven W. Bender, Francisco Valdes, Jorge R. Roig, Jasmine Gonzalez Rose, Saru Matambanadzo, Roberto Corrada, Shelley Cavalieri, Tayyab Mahmud, Zsea Bowmani, Anthony E. Varona

Scholarly Works

In this multi-vocal Afterword, we reflect-personally and collectively to help chart renewed agendas toward and through a third decade of LatCrit theory, community, and praxis. This personal collective exercise illustrates and reconsiders the functions, guideposts, values, and postulates for our shared programmatic work a framework for our daily work as individuals and teams through our portfolio of projects, which in turn emerged as a "reflection and projection of LatCrit theory, community and praxis." These early anchors expressly encompassed (1) a call to recognize and accept the inevitable political nature of U.S. legal scholarship; (2) a concomitant call toward anti-subordination ...


Transforming Justice, Lawyers And The Practice Of Law, Marjorie A. Silver Jan 2017

Transforming Justice, Lawyers And The Practice Of Law, Marjorie A. Silver

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This is the Preface and Introduction to Transforming Justice, Lawyers and the Practice of Law, an anthology of writings by participants in the Project for Integrating Spirituality, Law and Politics (PISLAP) and others actively engaged in transforming law, legal education and social justice. It showcases the abundant ways in which lawyers, judges, law professors and others are employing more communitarian, peaceful and healing ways to resolve conflicts, plan legal relationships and achieve justice. It is written for lawyers, law professors, law students and others who share similar goals and are eager to learn new ways to practice law and create ...


Recent Applications Of The Supreme Court's Hands-Off Approach To Religious Doctrine: From Hosanna-Tabor And Holt To Hobby Lobby And Zubik, Samuel J. Levine Jan 2017

Recent Applications Of The Supreme Court's Hands-Off Approach To Religious Doctrine: From Hosanna-Tabor And Holt To Hobby Lobby And Zubik, Samuel J. Levine

Scholarly Works

In each of the past four terms, the United States Supreme Court has decided a case with important implications for the interpretation and application of the Religion Clauses of the United States Constitution: Hosanna-Tabor Evangelical Lutheran Church & Sch. v. EEOC, Burwell v. Hobby Lobby, Inc., Holt v. Hobbs, and, most recently, Zubik v. Burwell. Although the Court’s decisions in these cases addressed—and seemed to resolve—a number of questions central to Free Exercise and Establishment Clause jurisprudence, including recognition of the “ministerial exception” and religious rights of a corporate entity, the decisions left a number of questions unanswered ...


The Potential Utility Of Disciplinary Regulation As A Remedy For Abuses Of Prosecutorial Discretion, Samuel J. Levine Jan 2017

The Potential Utility Of Disciplinary Regulation As A Remedy For Abuses Of Prosecutorial Discretion, Samuel J. Levine

Scholarly Works

This Essay is part of a larger project exploring the possibility that, contrary to much of the prevailing scholarship, judicial supervision of the prosecutor’s charging decision—through both expansive judicial interpretation of current ethics rules and judicial enactment and enforcement of more extensive ethics rules—might serve as a viable and effective mechanism for meaningful review and regulation.

In a forthcoming article, Bruce Green and I identify and respond to some of the reasons scholars have generally steered clear of considering the option that judges might play a more robust role in supervising prosecutors’ charging discretion by implementing enhanced ...


Introduction, Legal Scholarship In Jewish Law, Samuel J. Levine Jan 2017

Introduction, Legal Scholarship In Jewish Law, Samuel J. Levine

Scholarly Works

In recent years, Jewish law has gained significant prominence in American legal scholarship, producing a substantial body of literature exploring the Jewish legal system, both on its own terms and in comparative perspective. In particular, the past few decades have seen a marked increase in the number of articles published in American law reviews addressing substantive, procedural, and conceptual aspects of Jewish law, often in the context of broader considerations of important, unsettled, and controversial issues in American legal thought.

In the past, a number of scholars have compiled bibliographies collecting and, at times, briefly annotating, lists of selected works ...


A Reply To The National Conference Of Bar Examiners: More Talk, No Answers, So Keep On Shopping, Suzanne Darrow Kleinhaus Jan 2017

A Reply To The National Conference Of Bar Examiners: More Talk, No Answers, So Keep On Shopping, Suzanne Darrow Kleinhaus

Scholarly Works

In Let the Games Begin: Jurisdiction-Shopping for the Shopaholics (Good Luck With That) Mark Albanese defends the National Conference of Bar Examiners’ grading practices as essential to assuring reliability given the variability in grading between UBE jurisdictions. In addressing the claim that it is possible to achieve different outcomes on the same test by the same candidate if taken in different UBE jurisdictions, he describes how NCBE monitors jurisdiction variation to ensure grading consistency. Those of us concerned, however, with the possibility that the jurisdiction in which a candidate takes the Uniform Bar Examination (UBE) may make the difference between ...


Are Legal Disputes Just About The Money? Answers From Mediators On The Front Line, Harold I. Abramson, Bennett Picker, Bill Marsh, Birgit Sambeth Glasner, Jerry Weiss Jan 2017

Are Legal Disputes Just About The Money? Answers From Mediators On The Front Line, Harold I. Abramson, Bennett Picker, Bill Marsh, Birgit Sambeth Glasner, Jerry Weiss

Scholarly Works

Are most disputes in mediation just about money? That’s an old and familiar question that many lawyers still seem to reply to with an emphatic “yes.” Mediated cases are frequently viewed as a clash of binary claims, subject only to a sorting out of financial winners and losers. This popular vision was challenged by an ABA panel of experienced commercial mediators. Together they explored the opportunities for breaking out of this confining legalmold. Years of practice have taught them that many disputes are not just about money, even when money is the presenting issue.