Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 31 - 60 of 198

Full-Text Articles in Law

Ownership Concentration: Lessons From Natural Resources, Vanessa Casado-Pérez Aug 2022

Ownership Concentration: Lessons From Natural Resources, Vanessa Casado-Pérez

Faculty Scholarship

Concentration of ownership over land or other resources is both a sign and a cause of inequality. Concentration of ownership makes access to such resources difficult for those less powerful, and it can have negative effects on local communities that benefit from a more distributed ownership pattern. Such concentration goes against the antimonopoly principles behind the homesteading land policies and the legal regimes that regulate many natural resources. This Essay suggests that where concentration is a concern, one might draw lessons for reform by looking to the field of natural resources law, which employs a range of deconcentration mechanisms affecting …


The Post-Pandemic Order: A Blueprint For Balancing Health And Ip Interests In The Age Of Covid Variants, Arjun Padmanabhan, Tanner J. Wadsworth Jun 2022

The Post-Pandemic Order: A Blueprint For Balancing Health And Ip Interests In The Age Of Covid Variants, Arjun Padmanabhan, Tanner J. Wadsworth

Student Scholarship

In December 2021, the World Health Assembly (“WHA”) convened to develop a pandemic response treaty for future pandemics. Unfortunately, as presently envisioned, the resulting pandemic response framework will suffer from many of the same inadequacies that prevented existing frameworks from responding effectively to COVID-19. The threat of new pandemics emerging in the future—and new variants developing in the present—call for a more integrated, robust, comprehensive solution.

This Article lays a blueprint for that solution: a global multilateral Council empowered to(1) investigate developing pandemics; (2) incentivize pharmaceutical companies to rapidly-produce vaccines and share them through voluntary licenses or TRIPS compulsory licensing …


Biotechnology Patent Law Top Ten Of 2020: Valeant Victorious, Falling Eagle, And Successful Slayback, Kevin E. Noonan, Andrew W. Torrance May 2022

Biotechnology Patent Law Top Ten Of 2020: Valeant Victorious, Falling Eagle, And Successful Slayback, Kevin E. Noonan, Andrew W. Torrance

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

This Article discusses the Top 10 BioTechnology Patent Cases of 2020. Suffice it to say that biotechnology patent law will continue to vigorously evolve, and we plan to continue our coverage of its evolution beyond the current trilogy of Biotechnology Patent Law Top Tens. As in previous years, we admit it was difficult to choose precisely ten top biotechnology patent law decisions. There are certainly others we did not include that warrant close attention for their reasonings, rules, and future implications. Nevertheless, both we and our readers can count, so we have done our best to select what we consider …


Can You Dig It? Yes, You Can! But At What Cost?: A Proposal For The Protection Of Domestic Fossils On Private Land, Bridget Roddy May 2022

Can You Dig It? Yes, You Can! But At What Cost?: A Proposal For The Protection Of Domestic Fossils On Private Land, Bridget Roddy

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

Paleontological resources require similar protections to archaeological resources because the threat of looting, improper excavation, and market demand are analogous. Paleontological resources are responsible for informing much of scientists’ understanding of evolution and the history of the planet, just as cultural property helps to inform the evolution of humanity and culture. Once either object is removed from its original context, there is an immediate and invaluable loss of information that could have illuminated important information about the past. When either is removed from the environment in which they were created, a nonrenewable link to the past is lost.

Existing laws …


Bright Stars Or Unreliable Compasses: Navigating Patent Definiteness During The Fourth Industrial Revolution, N. Thane Bauz May 2022

Bright Stars Or Unreliable Compasses: Navigating Patent Definiteness During The Fourth Industrial Revolution, N. Thane Bauz

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

This Article traces the evolution of the definiteness requirement over the course of two centuries. From the time of inventions relating to flour mills, the definiteness requirement evolved into the consequence for drafting uninterpretable claims. Without considering the reasons for this evolution, the Supreme Court in its Nautilus decision returned the standard for assessing definiteness to its root form. Given the consequences are the loss of patent rights, this Article grapples with the Supreme Court’s decision during an era where complex and convergent technologies are more commonplace. The Article also analyzes empirical evidence six years before and six years after …


2019–2020 Colorado Oil And Gas Law Update, William D. Farrar Apr 2022

2019–2020 Colorado Oil And Gas Law Update, William D. Farrar

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

Colorado courts and the state’s legislature were quite active in 2019 and 2020 on the oil and gas administrative law front. Namely, the Colorado General Assembly enacted changes to the Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Act in response to the Colorado Supreme Court’s decision in Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission v. Martinez. While the Martinez case was not principally a substantive oil and gas case, the resulting fallout from the Colorado Supreme Court’s decision made sweeping changes to the state’s statutory laws. The decision will also result in major administrative law changes affecting the Colorado oil & gas …


Northern Rocky Mountain Region: Montana, Wyoming, And Idaho, Stephen R. Brown Apr 2022

Northern Rocky Mountain Region: Montana, Wyoming, And Idaho, Stephen R. Brown

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

This Article examines significant developments in oil and gas law for the Northern Rocky Mountain Region, including Montana, Wyoming, and Idaho.


Perspective On Wildgrass Oil & Gas Committee V. Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission And The Embracing Of Associated Standing, Ralph A. Cantafio, Miles C. Nowak, Cody J. Watson Apr 2022

Perspective On Wildgrass Oil & Gas Committee V. Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission And The Embracing Of Associated Standing, Ralph A. Cantafio, Miles C. Nowak, Cody J. Watson

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

The ongoing litigations between the Wildgrass Oil & Gas Committee (“Wildgrass”) and, among others, the Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission (“COGCC”) serve as a microcosm of the political and legal horizons that define the microscope used to examine Colorado oil and gas development. This set of litigations began administratively with the application for permits before the COGCC and, over the passage of time, weaved its way through the District Court of the City and County of Denver (the “State District Court”), the United States District Court for the District of Colorado (the “Federal District Court”), the Colorado Court of …


Louisiana, Keith B. Hall Apr 2022

Louisiana, Keith B. Hall

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

This article examines significant developments in Louisiana oil and gas law during 2021, beginning with developments arising from court cases, then legislation, and finally regulations.


Texas: Survey Of Selected 2021 Oil And Gas Cases And Statutes, William D. Farrar Apr 2022

Texas: Survey Of Selected 2021 Oil And Gas Cases And Statutes, William D. Farrar

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

The Texas Supreme Court was quite active in 2021, issuing several oil and gas opinions; however, two were quite controversial, drawing numerous amicus curie from industry groups, oil and gas attorneys, and academia. In Concho Resources, Inc. v Ellison, the court held that a subsequently executed, inconsistent instrument, even without words of grant, may divest a record mineral title. And, in Broadway National Bank v. Yates Energy Corp., the court held that prior title holders may divest a current record title holder of their title by executing a correction deed without the joinder of, or notice to, the …


Alabama, Florida, Georgia, And Tennessee, Brandt P. Hill, Hugh Gainer Apr 2022

Alabama, Florida, Georgia, And Tennessee, Brandt P. Hill, Hugh Gainer

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

There were no decisions by federal or state courts in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, or Tennessee between fall 2020 and fall 2021 directly relevant to oil and gas companies or operations. However, there were several decisions that may nonetheless be of interest to the industry, including two opinions by the United States Supreme Court in water-rights cases. We discuss these opinions below.


Appalachian Basin–Pennsylvania, West Virginia, And Ohio–Oil And Gas Law Developments, Ross H. Pifer, Chloe J. Marie Apr 2022

Appalachian Basin–Pennsylvania, West Virginia, And Ohio–Oil And Gas Law Developments, Ross H. Pifer, Chloe J. Marie

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

This article addresses oil and gas case law developments that have occurred within the Appalachian Basin’s primary oil and gas producing states of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Ohio during 2021 by reviewing opinions issued by the highest appellate courts within each of these three states. The oil and gas law topics addressed by these state supreme courts during 2021 have ranged from those occurring upstream, such as leasing, to those occurring downstream, such as approval of a utility rate increase for the extension of a natural gas pipeline.


New Mexico, Sharon T. Shaheen Apr 2022

New Mexico, Sharon T. Shaheen

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

This Article examines significant developments in New Mexico oil and gas law.


Groundwater Laws And Regulations: Survey Of Sixteen U.S. States, Abigail Adams, Jack Beasley, Rebekah Bratcher, Justin Clas, Jackson Field, Ian Gaunt, Ashley Graves, Merrick Hayashi, Jenna Lusk, Matthew Maslanka, Erin Milliken, Connor Pabich, Margaret Reed, A. Wesley Remschel, Lauren Thomas, Ashley Wilde Apr 2022

Groundwater Laws And Regulations: Survey Of Sixteen U.S. States, Abigail Adams, Jack Beasley, Rebekah Bratcher, Justin Clas, Jackson Field, Ian Gaunt, Ashley Graves, Merrick Hayashi, Jenna Lusk, Matthew Maslanka, Erin Milliken, Connor Pabich, Margaret Reed, A. Wesley Remschel, Lauren Thomas, Ashley Wilde

EENRS Program Reports & Publications

This report is the second volume in a continuing project designed to explore and articulate the groundwater laws and regulations of all fifty U.S. states. This particular report presents surveys for sixteen states throughout the country. The first volume featured thirteen state surveys and can be found at: http://www.law.tamu.edu/usgroundwaterlaws.

The purpose of the project is to compile and present the groundwater laws and regulations of every state in the United States that could then be used in a series of comparisons of groundwater governance principles, strategies, issues, and challenges. Professor Gabriel Eckstein at Texas A&M University School of Law and …


Tiny Homes: A Big Solution To American Housing Insecurity, Lisa T. Alexander Mar 2022

Tiny Homes: A Big Solution To American Housing Insecurity, Lisa T. Alexander

Faculty Scholarship

“There’s no place like home,” said Dorothy. Yet, millions of people in the United States may face eviction, foreclosure, or homelessness in 2021 and beyond. America is on the brink of an unprecedented housing crisis in the wake of Covid-19. The federal government, and various states and localities, have taken actions to avert a housing crisis in the aftermath of Covid 19. While these actions have undeniably helped mitigate widespread foreclosure and eviction crises, they do not fully address the more fundamental American housing challenge—an inadequate supply of affordable housing at all income levels, a longstanding problem that Covid-19 has …


Content Moderation Issues Online: Section 230 Is Not To Blame, Reese D. Bastian Feb 2022

Content Moderation Issues Online: Section 230 Is Not To Blame, Reese D. Bastian

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act (“Section 230”) is the glue that holds the Internet—as we know it today—together. Section 230 says, “No provider or user of an interactive computer service shall be treated as the publisher or speaker of any information provided by another information content provider.” Simply put, Section 230 says that websites or platforms are not liable for content posted by third parties. There are many critics who attribute the maladies of the online world to Section 230. Section 230 presents issues such as over-moderation by Interactive Computer Service (“ICS”) providers that can go as far …


Vara Turns Thirty-One: How Amending The Visual Artists Rights Act Of 1990 To Add Guiding Language Can Further Advance The Act’S Purpose, Ana-Victoria Moreno Feb 2022

Vara Turns Thirty-One: How Amending The Visual Artists Rights Act Of 1990 To Add Guiding Language Can Further Advance The Act’S Purpose, Ana-Victoria Moreno

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

Congress passed the Visual Artists Rights Act (“VARA”) in 1990, introducing the doctrine of moral rights into United States law. Moral rights consist of four rights: attribution, disclosure, withdrawal, and integrity. VARA recognizes the rights of attribution and integrity to preserve the integrity of artworks and of the country’s cultural heritage by encouraging artists to create. The passing of VARA has been met with criticism but also with excitement that Congress recognized the importance of artists’ non‌-economic rights. In the thirty‌-one years since the enactment of VARA, caselaw has developed that shows how courts and parties are interpreting its language. …


Is A Website Subject To Title Iii Of The Ada: Why The Text Applies To Only Websites “Of” A Place Of Public Accommodation, Trevor Paul Feb 2022

Is A Website Subject To Title Iii Of The Ada: Why The Text Applies To Only Websites “Of” A Place Of Public Accommodation, Trevor Paul

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act (“ADA”) prohibits discrimination involving the “goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, or accommodations of any place of public accommodation.” The ADA lists examples that qualify as “public accommodations,” but it does not define the word “place.” As a result, the circuit courts since 1995 have been split over whether a “place of public accommodation” is limited to a physical place. Courts have recently addressed whether websites are subject to Title III and have relied primarily on precedent on the interpretation of a “place of public accommodation.” District courts within the Minority Approach have …


Patently Absurd: The Invention Secrecy Order System, Gregory Saltz Feb 2022

Patently Absurd: The Invention Secrecy Order System, Gregory Saltz

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

The current patent application secrecy order system has almost no safeguards to prevent abuse and overreach into private intellectual property rights by the Government. Defense agencies are presently able to have the United States Patent and Trademark Office place secrecy orders on applications by merely deciding for themselves that revelation of information found therein would be detrimental to national security; there are no rules or restrictions on how the agencies go about making this determination. Likewise, the current system contains little in the way of protection for inventors who are left without a meaningful way to challenge these orders. The …


Hotels In Distress: Surviving An Economic Downturn Through Non-Traditional Contracting, Leslie Mckee Feb 2022

Hotels In Distress: Surviving An Economic Downturn Through Non-Traditional Contracting, Leslie Mckee

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

The hospitality industry is no stranger to market fluctuation, but with the onset of a global pandemic, 2020 left its mark as the worst year on record for the industry. With vacancy permeating hotels across the nation, hotel owners faced a year of tough financial decisions, while the unrelenting demands of mortgage payments and operating expenses loomed in the background. Uncertainty became the new normal, and the term “unprecedented” became commonplace as the pandemic lingered beyond initial expectations. The one-year anniversary of the 2019 novel coronavirus (“COVID-19”) pandemic passed without effect as the crisis situation spilled over into a new …


Code Harassment Needs A Texas-Sized Solution, David Seth Morrison Feb 2022

Code Harassment Needs A Texas-Sized Solution, David Seth Morrison

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

Municipal Code Enforcement exists to abate nuisances and resolve conflicts between neighbors. Code enforcement often discovers nuisances through citizen complaints. Cities and code enforcement departments have taken great lengths to protect complainants from retaliation, but these protections have extended too far and created a problem in reverse. Code harassment occurs when people make excessive or false reports to code enforcement departments to harass neighbors. Code enforcement officers do their jobs and investigate the complaints leading to visits and fines. Many people are shocked to find they can do nothing to stop the harassment save leaving their residence because the law …


Questions Of Citizenship And The Nature Of "The Public", Sarah Schindler Dec 2021

Questions Of Citizenship And The Nature Of "The Public", Sarah Schindler

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

This essay is taken from a talk given at a symposium discussing Professor Ken Stahl’s book, Local Citizenship in a Global Age.1 It is not a traditional book review, but rather a series of musings inspired by the ideas in the book.

Professor Stahl’s new book, Local Citizenship in a Global Age, addresses a number of important issues, many of which have been the focus of my prior work: the existence of boundaries, borders, and the spaces in between; who we include in those boundaries and who we exclude; public space, private space, and the lines between them; …


Equality And Closure: The Paradox Of Local Citizenship, Kenneth A. Stahl Dec 2021

Equality And Closure: The Paradox Of Local Citizenship, Kenneth A. Stahl

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

In Bourgeois Utopias, a cultural history of suburbia in America, Robert Fishman states the fundamental paradox about the suburbs: “[H]ow can a form based on the principle of exclusion include every-one?” The promise of the American suburb was that every middle-class family would be able to own a home with a yard, but this egalitarian ideal was illusory because what made the suburbs appealing was precisely what it excluded, namely everything having to do with the city—its congestion, political corruption, and most importantly, its racial diversity. And so, as suburbia was mass-produced and made avail-able with cheap low-interest loans …


Liberalism, Patriotism, And Cosmopolitanism In Local Citizenship In A Global Age, Eric R. Claeys Dec 2021

Liberalism, Patriotism, And Cosmopolitanism In Local Citizenship In A Global Age, Eric R. Claeys

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

In this review Essay, I survey the most valuable lessons from Local Citizenship in a Global Age. But I have some reservations about the book, and I want to mark those off as well. The book comes off as critical of views that seek to control immigration and to establish relatively demanding criteria for noncitizens to become citizens. In my view, two factors contribute to this impression, and the book would have been more satisfying if both had been addressed.


Reclaiming The Streets, Vanessa Casado-Pérez Jul 2021

Reclaiming The Streets, Vanessa Casado-Pérez

Faculty Scholarship

Pedestrians have been getting the short end of the stick in street policies and regulations. Drivers and cars dominate our streets even though automobiles’ externalities kill thousands of people every year. Given the environmental, health, safety, and community effects of cars, municipalities should embrace a policy that puts pedestrians at the center and produces more miles of wider, well-maintained sidewalks. Sidewalks make communities greener, healthier, safer, more socially connected, and even, wealthier. COVID-19 lockdowns have shown both the relevance of sidewalks, as well as the possibility of pedestrians regaining space currently allocated to cars by widening sidewalks.

This Essay identifies, …


California, Joshua L. Baker, Ryan Mahoney May 2021

California, Joshua L. Baker, Ryan Mahoney

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

Oil and gas output in California has declined as the industry faces increasing regulatory and market headwinds. However, California remains a major oil and gas producing jurisdiction at the present. California is the seventh-largest producer of crude oil in the United States and contains the fifth-largest crude oil reserves.


Don't Mess With Texas Solar: Pv Growth Continues Despite Covid-19, Matthew A. Arth May 2021

Don't Mess With Texas Solar: Pv Growth Continues Despite Covid-19, Matthew A. Arth

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

2020 was the year of the unexpected, but one constant in the energy industry remained the exponential growth of solar generation in Texas, which largely continued its expansion as predicted. Electric Reliability Council of Texas’s (“ERCOT”) 2019 State of the Grid Report noted that installed solar generation capacity in ERCOT stood at 2,281 megawatts (MW) at year-end 2019, with over 67,000 MW of further solar capacity under study, exceeding even the amount of wind generation capacity under study. By July 2020, installed capacity of solar generation increased by almost 1 gigawatt (GW) to a total of 3,275 MW, representing approximately …


Ohio, Gregory W. Watts, Matthew W. Onest May 2021

Ohio, Gregory W. Watts, Matthew W. Onest

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

Ohio courts continue applying the Ohio Marketable Title Act to severed oil and gas rights.1 As with many statutes, there are generally two questions that must be answered: (1) does the particular statute apply to the particular facts of the case and (2) if the statute applies in the first instance, how does a court apply the statute to the particular facts of the case? Both questions about Ohio’s Marketable Title Act and severed mineral interests were further examined and explored in 2020.


Baby, Bye, Bye, Bye: How The United States, Italy, & France Use Trademark Anti-Counterfeiting Mechanisms To Combat The Proliferation Of Fake Goods In China, J. Francesca Gross May 2021

Baby, Bye, Bye, Bye: How The United States, Italy, & France Use Trademark Anti-Counterfeiting Mechanisms To Combat The Proliferation Of Fake Goods In China, J. Francesca Gross

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

Christian Louboutin. Manchester United. Agent Provocateur. In a world where trademarks have become more than brand identifiers, counterfeit versions of brands should be easily identifiable. Yet counterfeiting regimes from Asian countries continue to funnel counterfeit goods through the United States and European Union borders. Both regions continue to impose stricter anti-counterfeiting laws and regulations. Nevertheless, companies in the United States, Italy, and France are drastically affected by counterfeiting, losing billions per year in revenue. The International Chamber of Commerce’s (“ICC”) Business Action to Stop Counterfeiting and Piracy (“BASCAP”) and the International Trademark Association (“INTA”) estimate that the value of international …


West Virginia, Michael K. Reer, Valerie Antonette May 2021

West Virginia, Michael K. Reer, Valerie Antonette

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

West Virginia is one of the most prolific energy-producing states in the country. According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, West Virginia ranked seventh among states in production of natural gas in 2018, contributing 1.8 trillion cubic feet. Further, the consistency in permit application appears to support the proposition that West Virginia operators will continue producing significant volumes well in the future. The West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection (“WVDEP”) issued 582 horizontal well permits in 2015, 223 in 2016, 509 in 2017, 433 in 2018, and 467 in 2019.