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Full-Text Articles in Law

Single-Firm Event Studies, Securities Fraud, And Financial Crisis: Problems Of Inference, Andrew Baker May 2016

Single-Firm Event Studies, Securities Fraud, And Financial Crisis: Problems Of Inference, Andrew Baker

Andrew Baker

Lawsuits brought pursuant to section 10(b) of the Securities and Exchange Actdepend on the reliability of a statistical tool called an event study to adjudicate issues ofreliance, materiality, loss causation, and damages. Although judicial acceptance of theevent study technique is pervasive, there has been little empirical analysis of the ability ofevent studies to produce reliable results when applied to a single company’s security.
Using data from the recent financial crisis, this Note demonstrates that the standardmodelevent study used in most court proceedings can lead to biased inferences sanctionedthrough the Daubert standard of admissibility for expert testimony. In particular, in thepresence …


The Incentive Problems With The All-Or-Nothing Crowdfunding Model, Garry A. Gabison Jan 2016

The Incentive Problems With The All-Or-Nothing Crowdfunding Model, Garry A. Gabison

Garry A. Gabison

This paper discusses how the all-or-nothing model can dis-incentivize crowd investors to perform due diligence over the fraud or failure risks of crowdfunding campaign. Specifically, the major upside of this model is that a project cannot be funded without a critical mass investing. If enough individual in this critical mass of crowd investors perform its due diligence to check whether projects will become successful then the model function; instead, this paper argues that this model incentivizes the crowd to produce noisy information that cannot be relied. In the all-or-nothing model, sequential investments encourages rational investors not perform due diligence because …


Lessons From The Efforts To Manage The Shift Away From Defined Benefit Plans To Defined Contribution Plans In Australia, The United Kingdom, And The United States, Elizabeth F. Brown Jan 2016

Lessons From The Efforts To Manage The Shift Away From Defined Benefit Plans To Defined Contribution Plans In Australia, The United Kingdom, And The United States, Elizabeth F. Brown

Elizabeth F Brown

This is an earlier version of this Article that was published in the 53 American Business Law Journal 315 (Summer 2016). Please see that journal for the final version of this Article. This Article examines what lessons may be learned from examining how Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States have tried to manage the shift away from defined benefit plans towards defined contribution plans. This shift has fundamentally changed the relationship between workers and the financial industry. While defined contribution plans provide employees with some advantages over defined benefit plans (e.g., portability, early vesting, greater autonomy), they also …


Foiled By The Banks? How A Lender's Decision May Support Or Undermine A Jurisdiction's Environmental Policies That Promote Green Buildings, Darren Prum Jan 2016

Foiled By The Banks? How A Lender's Decision May Support Or Undermine A Jurisdiction's Environmental Policies That Promote Green Buildings, Darren Prum

Darren A. Prum

In a report from the United Nations Environmental Program that addressed climate change, the authors point out that the built environment in both emerging and developed countries accounts for more than forty percent of the global energy usage while also emitting at least one third of the world’s greenhouse gasses. They further assert that the built environment offers an unsurpassed opportunity to supply cost effective, lasting, and meaningful reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In response to such a call to action, many state and local governments turned to a variety of policies to ensure that the real estate developments within …


The Nature Of Banking Pay Late Penalties And The Possibility Of Its Adjustment In The Banking System In Iran, Masoud Ostovan Oct 2015

The Nature Of Banking Pay Late Penalties And The Possibility Of Its Adjustment In The Banking System In Iran, Masoud Ostovan

masoud ostovan

The nature of banking pay late penalties and the possibility of its adjustment in the banking system in Iran.


Tax Treatment Of Derivative Instruments, Oluwaseun Viyon Ojo Oct 2015

Tax Treatment Of Derivative Instruments, Oluwaseun Viyon Ojo

Oluwaseun Viyon Ojo

The article provides an analysis of the various types of derivative instruments traded on the capital markets. As derivative instruments become frequently tradable in the Nigerian Financial market in the near projected future, it is expedient that the concerned companies plan adequately for the tax implications of such transactions and the appropriate tax authorities know how to treat the instrument of derivatives for the purpose of imposition of relevant taxes. This paper therefore dealt with the treatment of these instruments under the Capital Gains Tax Act (CGTA) and Companies Income Tax Act (CITA), though there are no specific rules for …


Puzzles In Controlling Shareholder Regimes And China: Shareholder Primacy And (Quasi) Monopoly, Sang Yop Kang Aug 2015

Puzzles In Controlling Shareholder Regimes And China: Shareholder Primacy And (Quasi) Monopoly, Sang Yop Kang

Sang Yop Kang

Professor Mark Roe explained that the shareholder wealth maximization norm (“the norm”) is not fit for a country with a (quasi) monopoly, because the norm encourages managers to maximize monopoly rents, to the detriment of the national economy. This Article provides new findings and counter-intuitive arguments as to the tension created by the norm and (quasi) monopoly by exploring three key corporate governance concepts that Roe did not examine—(1) “controlling minority structure” (CMS), where dominant shareholders hold a fractional ownership in their controlled-corporations, (2) “tunneling” (i.e., illicit transfer of corporate wealth to controlling shareholders), and (3) Chinese state-owned enterprises (SOEs). …


Conflicted Counselors: Retaliation Protections For Attorney-Whistleblowers In An Inconsistent Regulatory Regime, Jennifer M. Pacella Aug 2015

Conflicted Counselors: Retaliation Protections For Attorney-Whistleblowers In An Inconsistent Regulatory Regime, Jennifer M. Pacella

Jennifer M. Pacella, Esq.

Attorneys, especially in-house counsel, are subject to retaliation by employers in much the same way as traditional whistleblowers, often experiencing retaliation and loss of livelihood for reporting instances of wrongdoing about their clients. Although attorney-whistleblowing undoubtedly invokes ethical concerns, attorneys who “appear and practice” before the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) are required by federal law to act as internal whistleblowers under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (“SOX”) and report evidence of material violations of the law within the organizations that they represent. An attorney’s failure to comply with these obligations will result in SEC-imposed civil penalties and disciplinary action. Recent federal …


Democratizing Startups, Seth C. Oranburg Aug 2015

Democratizing Startups, Seth C. Oranburg

Seth C Oranburg

The Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 intends to “help entrepreneurs raise the capital they need to put Americans back to work and create an economy that’s built to last.” The goal is to “democratize startups” by making capital available to diverse entrepreneurs in new geographies. Yet the net effect of securities regulations and market conditions is the opposite. Startup companies are encouraged to stay private so capital is consolidating in large, mature firms instead of recycling into new startups. Evidence of consolidation is that once-rare “Unicorns” (billion-dollar startups) now number over 111. More money is going into huge …


The Customary Practice Of Gerawee In Afghanistan: A Case For Transitioning To Real Equity-Based Finance, Haroun Rahimi Aug 2015

The Customary Practice Of Gerawee In Afghanistan: A Case For Transitioning To Real Equity-Based Finance, Haroun Rahimi

Haroun Rahimi

The customary practice of Gerawee, in principle, refers to a specific form of synthetic loan. It is a pledge-lease transaction that enables owners of immovable properties to obtain financing based on the market value of those properties in exchange for either paying regular payments in form of rent or transferring the right to lease those properties to a financer. The practice has been developed to help debtors and creditors avoid the prohibition of interest bearing loans under Shari’ah. Despite the efforts of some Muslim jurists to justify the practice under Shari’ah, it is widely criticized. In particular, Afghan muftis …


An Approach To The Regulation Of Spanish Banking Foundations, Miguel Martínez Jun 2015

An Approach To The Regulation Of Spanish Banking Foundations, Miguel Martínez

Miguel Martínez

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the legal framework governing banking foundations as they have been regulated by Spanish Act 26/2013, of December 27th, on savings banks and banking foundations. Title 2 of this regulation addresses a construct that is groundbreaking for the Spanish legal system, still of paramount importance for the entire financial system insofar as these foundations become the leading players behind certain banking institutions given the high interest that foundations hold in the share capital of such institutions.


Avenues To Foreign Investment In China’S Shipping Industry—Have Lease Financing Arrangements And The Free Trade Zones Opened Markets For Foreign Non-Bank Investment?, Rick Beaumont Jun 2015

Avenues To Foreign Investment In China’S Shipping Industry—Have Lease Financing Arrangements And The Free Trade Zones Opened Markets For Foreign Non-Bank Investment?, Rick Beaumont

Rick Beaumont

No abstract provided.


Avenues To Foreign Investment In China’S Shipping Industry—Have Lease Financing Arrangements And The Free Trade Zones Opened Markets For Foreign Non-Bank Investment?, Rick Beaumont May 2015

Avenues To Foreign Investment In China’S Shipping Industry—Have Lease Financing Arrangements And The Free Trade Zones Opened Markets For Foreign Non-Bank Investment?, Rick Beaumont

Rick Beaumont

No abstract provided.


The Moral Undercurrent Beneath The Regulatory Regime Of Investor Protection, Huhnkie Lee May 2015

The Moral Undercurrent Beneath The Regulatory Regime Of Investor Protection, Huhnkie Lee

Huhnkie Lee

No abstract provided.


Interessi Corrispettivi E Moratori, Tasso-Soglia Usura E Clausola Penale, Valerio Sangiovanni May 2015

Interessi Corrispettivi E Moratori, Tasso-Soglia Usura E Clausola Penale, Valerio Sangiovanni

Valerio Sangiovanni

No abstract provided.


Mortgage Foreclosure In Buckhead, Terika L. Haynes Mar 2015

Mortgage Foreclosure In Buckhead, Terika L. Haynes

Terika L Haynes

The purpose of the quantitative ex post facto study was to determine whether a relationship exists between home occupancy type, purchase price, residency duration, and the incidence of mortgage foreclosure of homeowners residing in single-family residential homes in the eight zip codes (30305, 30309, 30318, 30319, 30324, 30326, 30327, and 30342) within the Buckhead community, a high-income community located in Atlanta, Georgia. The possible relationships were explored and evaluated by conducting an archival analysis to examine the Georgia Public Notice Statewide Database of public foreclosure records, Fulton County Property Assessor records, and Fulton County tax data for 2009. The occupancy …


The Law And Ethics Of High-Frequency Trading, Steven R. Mcnamara Mar 2015

The Law And Ethics Of High-Frequency Trading, Steven R. Mcnamara

Steven R. McNamara

Michael Lewis’s recent book Flash Boys has resurrected the controversy concerning “high-frequency trading” (HFT) in the stock markets. While HFT has been important in the stock markets for about a decade, and may have already peaked in terms of its economic significance, it touched a nerve with a public suspicious of financial institutions in the wake of the financial crisis of 2008-2009. In reality, HFT is not one thing, but a wide array of practices conducted by technologically adept electronic traders. Some of these practices are benign, and some even bring benefits such as liquidity and improved price discovery to …


Recovery Of Damages For Lost Profits: The Historical Development, Robert M. Lloyd, Nicholas J. Chase Mar 2015

Recovery Of Damages For Lost Profits: The Historical Development, Robert M. Lloyd, Nicholas J. Chase

Robert M Lloyd

ABSTRACT Recovery of Damages for Lost Profits: The Historical Development The rule of Hadley v. Baxendale is widely considered the most important rule of contract damages. In fact, however, the rule that damages must be proven with reasonable certainty is far more important in the modern practice of law. The reasonable certainty rule originated in Roman law and came to the common law through the civil law of Western Europe, developing first in the United States and spreading from the United States to England. The rule of Hadley v. Baxendale developed much in the same way, and, contrary to popular …


Bolsas Y Mercados En La República Argentina. Análisis Del Nuevo Régimen De Mercado De Capitales Instaurado Con La Lmc Y Las Normas Dictadas En Su Consecuencia. Novedades Y Puntos Controvertidos, Luciano Antico Mar 2015

Bolsas Y Mercados En La República Argentina. Análisis Del Nuevo Régimen De Mercado De Capitales Instaurado Con La Lmc Y Las Normas Dictadas En Su Consecuencia. Novedades Y Puntos Controvertidos, Luciano Antico

Luciano Antico

Muchos fueron los cambios que trajo consigo la Ley N° 26.831 y su reglamentación en materia de bolsas y mercados en la República Argentina. El cambio más trascendental, quizás, la reestructu¬ración jurídica del sistema institucional de bolsas y mercados: reducción de la autorregulación (lo que trajo consigo más poder de la CNV y control directo sobre los mercados y sus agentes), la desmutualización de los mercados (lo que permitió el ingreso de nuevos participantes en el sis¬tema) y la redistribución de las funciones que cumplían las bolsas y los mercados, con la absor¬ción por parte de la CNV de ciertas …


Broker-Dealer: A Fiduciary By Any Other Name?, William Alan Nelson Ii Mar 2015

Broker-Dealer: A Fiduciary By Any Other Name?, William Alan Nelson Ii

William Alan Nelson II

Broker-dealers, unlike investment advisers, are not regulated as fiduciaries when providing investment advice, even though broker-dealers are holding themselves out as financial advisors and offering virtually identical services to investors. The lack of consistent regulation of financial service providers arises from the structure in which advice historically has been delivered. Financial services regulation since the Great Depression has developed along roughly dual tracks: laws governing the sale of financial products, which may or may not require that the products be suitable for the customer, and laws governing investment advice, which impose a fiduciary requirement on the adviser to act solely …


Bridgefunding Is Crowdfunding For Startups Across The Private Equity Gap, Seth C. Oranburg Feb 2015

Bridgefunding Is Crowdfunding For Startups Across The Private Equity Gap, Seth C. Oranburg

Seth C Oranburg

Title III of the JOBS Act of 2012, which attempts to encourage entrepreneurship by allowing startups and small business to sell stock to the general public over the Internet through “crowdfunding,” is completely backwards. Its ceiling should be a floor—the $1 million limit should be inverted. By capping startups at raising $1 million from crowdfunding, the JOBS Act does not address the private equity gap, a fundamental problem in startup markets, and exposes unsophisticated investors to risk and fraud. This Article presents a regulatory framework premised on “bridgefunding,” an approach that this article develops to protect new investors by encouraging …


Law, Fugitive Capital, And Karl Polanyi's The Great Transformation, Walter J. Kendall Lll Feb 2015

Law, Fugitive Capital, And Karl Polanyi's The Great Transformation, Walter J. Kendall Lll

Walter J. Kendall lll

No abstract provided.


“Whimsy Little Contracts” With Unexpected Consequences: An Empirical Analysis Of Consumer Understanding Of Arbitration Agreements, Jeff Sovern Feb 2015

“Whimsy Little Contracts” With Unexpected Consequences: An Empirical Analysis Of Consumer Understanding Of Arbitration Agreements, Jeff Sovern

Jeff Sovern

Arbitration clauses have become ubiquitous in consumer contracts. These arbitration clauses require consumers to waive the constitutional right to a civil jury, access to court, and, increasingly, the procedural remedy of class representation. Because those rights cannot be divested without consent, the validity of arbitration agreements rests on the premise of consent. Consumers who do not want to arbitrate or waive their class rights can simply decline to purchase the products or services covered by an arbitration agreement. But the premise of consent is undermined if consumers do not understand the effect on their procedural rights of clicking a box …


International Tax Cooperation, Taxpayers’ Rights And Bank Secrecy: Brazilian Difficulties To Fit Global Standards, Carlos Otávio Ferreira De Almeida Feb 2015

International Tax Cooperation, Taxpayers’ Rights And Bank Secrecy: Brazilian Difficulties To Fit Global Standards, Carlos Otávio Ferreira De Almeida

Carlos Otávio Ferreira de Almeida

This paper analyses the conflict between two constitutionally protected rights: privacy and transparency. The latter has been invoked increasingly often by international organizations committed to tackling harmful tax practices, and the former has been recognized as a crucial human right. In an interconnected world, domestic laws are not capable of countering cross-border tax evasion strategies, so that transparency has become one of the most important topics in international tax cooperation, but it is doubtful whether tax authorities can access banking data in order to obtain information to exchange. The judicial reserve clause upheld by the Brazilian Supreme Court represents a …


A Whole New World: Income Tax Considerations Of The Bitcoin Economy, Benjamin W. Akins Jd, Llm, Jennifer L. Chapman Jd, Cpa, Jason M. Gordon Jd, Mba Feb 2015

A Whole New World: Income Tax Considerations Of The Bitcoin Economy, Benjamin W. Akins Jd, Llm, Jennifer L. Chapman Jd, Cpa, Jason M. Gordon Jd, Mba

Benjamin W. Akins

Bitcoin is a virtual, cryptocurrency growing rapidly in influence throughout the world. Numerous characteristics associated with the bitcoin system, including low transaction costs and greater user privacy, make it appealing as a medium of electronic payment. The number of users of bitcoin, including merchants accepting the currency as a form of payment, has grown considerably in recent years. Estimates indicate that there are more than 60,000 active bitcoin users as of September 2012, with nearly 11 million bitcoins in existence. According to the latest estimates, bitcoin market capitalization is roughly $9 billion. The growth of bitcoin as an accepted currency …


Optimized Theft: Why Some Controlling Shareholders “Generously” Expropriate From Minority Shareholders, Sang Yop Kang Jan 2015

Optimized Theft: Why Some Controlling Shareholders “Generously” Expropriate From Minority Shareholders, Sang Yop Kang

Sang Yop Kang

Although controlling shareholder agency problems have been well studied so far, many questions still remain unanswered. In particular, an important puzzle in a bad-law jurisdiction is: why some controlling shareholders (“roving controllers”) loot the entire corporate assets at once, and why others (“stationary controllers”) siphon a part of corporate assets on a continuous basis. To solve this conundrum, this Article provides analytical frameworks exploring the behaviors and motivations of controlling shareholders. To begin with, I reinterpret Olson’s political theory of “banditry” in the context of corporate governance in developing countries. Based on a new taxonomy of controlling shareholders (“roving controllers” …


The New Wild West: Preventing Money Laundering In The Bitcoin Network, Kavid Singh Jan 2015

The New Wild West: Preventing Money Laundering In The Bitcoin Network, Kavid Singh

Kavid Singh

Bitcoin is the most popular online decentralized currency in the world. Created by an enigmatic figure, Satoshi Nakamoto, in 2009, its propagation and use has caused heated controversy. On the legal side of its use, businesses both large and small have started to accept bitcoins as a form of payment. On the illegal side of its use, large quantities of bitcoins worth hundreds of millions of dollars have been stolen from businesses and large Bitcoin currency exchanges. The aim of this article is to introduce workable federal regulation that will help deter money laundering, a pervasive problem in the world …


Tmi About Pmi: A Basic Guide To Private Mortgage Insurance, Marie Sarantakis Jan 2015

Tmi About Pmi: A Basic Guide To Private Mortgage Insurance, Marie Sarantakis

Marie Sarantakis

Purchasing a home for the first time can be an intimidating and overwhelming experience for the average consumer. In an economic downturn, Private Mortgage Insurance (PMI) is a commonly utilized mechanism that affords homebuyers the ability to purchase a residence with a minimal down payment while insulating the lender as the beneficiary of the policy. PMI is an often dreaded and misunderstood expense. This basic guide provides a rudimentary understanding of PMI for a real estate novice.


Cuenta Corriente Bancaria En El Código Civil Y Comercial, Martin Paolantonio Jan 2015

Cuenta Corriente Bancaria En El Código Civil Y Comercial, Martin Paolantonio

Martin Paolantonio

Análisis del Contrato de Cuenta Corriente Bancaria en el Código Civil y Comercial


Underwriting Sustainable Homeownership: The Federal Housing Administration And The Low Down Payment Loan, David J. Reiss Jan 2015

Underwriting Sustainable Homeownership: The Federal Housing Administration And The Low Down Payment Loan, David J. Reiss

David J Reiss

The United States Federal Housing Administration (“FHA”) has been a versatile tool of government since it was created during the Great Depression. The FHA was created in large part to inject liquidity into a moribund mortgage market. It succeeded wonderfully, with rapid growth during the late 1930s. The federal government repositioned it a number of times over the following decades to achieve a variety of additional social goals. These goals included supporting civilian mobilization during World War II; helping veterans returning from the War; stabilizing urban housing markets during the 1960s; and expanding minority homeownership rates during the 1990s. It …