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How Intellectual Property Laws Allow For Fashion Dupes, Miranda Nolan May 2023

How Intellectual Property Laws Allow For Fashion Dupes, Miranda Nolan

SLU Law Journal Online

The rise of technology brought an increase in the number of "knockoff" fashion pieces that are easily accessible to consumers. In this article, Miranda Nolan discusses the impact and growth of fast fashion brands that changed fashion for average Americans who are unable to afford luxury brands.


From Venetian Glass To Contemporary Intellectual Property: Revisiting Tailored Patent Regimes (Book Review), Ana Santos Rutschman Jan 2019

From Venetian Glass To Contemporary Intellectual Property: Revisiting Tailored Patent Regimes (Book Review), Ana Santos Rutschman

All Faculty Scholarship

This piece reviews Stefania Fusco's “Murano Glass Vase" and "Lessons from the Past." In Murano Glass Vase, Fusco recounts the history of the glassmaking industry in Venice, framing it as the natural experiment from which the patent system sprang into the world. Fusco emphasizes the mix of exclusionary rights and trade secrecy that formed the backbone of Venetian innovation policy against the backdrop of a heavily regulated and protectionist economy. In “Lessons from the Past,” Fusco draws on original research performed at the Venetian State Archives to further the Murano narrative by looking at how the Venetian government fueled an …


Ukraine And The Evaporating Hyphen Of Market-Democracy, Monica Eppinger Apr 2018

Ukraine And The Evaporating Hyphen Of Market-Democracy, Monica Eppinger

All Faculty Scholarship

This post is part of the series Lessons for Liberalism from the “Illiberal East”

Information wars, fake news, kompromat: surprised Ukrainians have found their lexicon for foreign interference spread as loan-words across a putative new Cold War. Narratives of hegemony long familiar in Ukraine have metastasized, and their protagonists—troll hordes, political technologists, the Paul Manaforts and Victoria Nulands—have been set loose far beyond Ukrainian borders. For those who are anxious that liberalism is stumbling into traps laid by foreign intelligence, stuck trading off with fascism and socialism or otherwise in crisis, Ukraine’s recent history …


International Contracts, William P. Johnson, Sabin Volciuc-Ionescu, Catalin-Sergiu Dinu, Katya Logunov, Adrián Lucio Furman, Adam Rose, Willem Den Hertog Jan 2018

International Contracts, William P. Johnson, Sabin Volciuc-Ionescu, Catalin-Sergiu Dinu, Katya Logunov, Adrián Lucio Furman, Adam Rose, Willem Den Hertog

All Faculty Scholarship

This article identifies some of the key developments for international contracts that occurred in 2017 in a variety of jurisdictions, with particular attention given to commercial relationships that arise in connection with product distribution. Specifically, in this article we cover developments concerning international sales law (the CISG), choice of law in Romania, franchising in Canada, termination of commercial agency in Argentina, a court decision on scope of commercial agency law in the UK, and the creation of a new commercial court in the Netherlands.


Brief Amici Curiae Of Intellectual Property Professors In Support Of Petitioner, No. 18-600, Texas Advanced Optoelectronic Solutions, Inc. V. Renesas Electronics America, Inc., Timothy R. Holbrook, Ann Bartow, Andrew Chin, David C. Hricik, Yvette Joy Liebesman, Lucas Osborn Jan 2018

Brief Amici Curiae Of Intellectual Property Professors In Support Of Petitioner, No. 18-600, Texas Advanced Optoelectronic Solutions, Inc. V. Renesas Electronics America, Inc., Timothy R. Holbrook, Ann Bartow, Andrew Chin, David C. Hricik, Yvette Joy Liebesman, Lucas Osborn

All Faculty Scholarship

To comply with the obligations of the Uruguay Round Agreements, particularly the Agreement on the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS), Congress amended 35 U.S.C. § 271(a) to make it an act of infringement to “offer to sell” a patented invention within the United States. See Uruguay Round Agreements Act, Pub. L. No. 103-465, §§ 531-533, 108 Stat. 4809 (1994).

The Federal Circuit has interpreted this provision in a manner contrary to the presumption against the extraterritorial reach of United States laws. The Federal Circuit has held that location of the ultimate sale contemplated in the offer controls the …


Ex Parte Seizures Under The Dtsa And The Shift Of Ip Rights Enforcement, Yvette Joy Liebesman Jan 2017

Ex Parte Seizures Under The Dtsa And The Shift Of Ip Rights Enforcement, Yvette Joy Liebesman

All Faculty Scholarship

The ex parte seizure provision of the Defend Trade Secrets Act is another step in a long line of legislation that shifts the costs of private enforcement to the public, which already has a toehold in copyright and trademark law. The ex parte provision — which is not incorporated into any state trade secret law — relieves rights owners of two “burdens.” First, it relieves the trade secret owner of the burden of actually having to compete in the marketplace. Second, it relieves the trade secret owner of the burden of the costs associated with the discovery process of a …


Steps Towards An Alignment Of Intellectual Property In South-South Exchanges: A Return To Trips, Ana Santos Rutschman Jan 2015

Steps Towards An Alignment Of Intellectual Property In South-South Exchanges: A Return To Trips, Ana Santos Rutschman

All Faculty Scholarship

Some of the most instrumental players in shaping the course of intellectual property policies in the South are the so-called BRIC countries. The acronym BRIC originally encompassed Brazil, Russia, India and China. In 2011, South Africa formally joined the BRIC countries, which are now referred to either by the original acronym or by BRICS. While categorizations like BRICS attract a fair amount of criticism, with questions surrounding the criteria used to aggregate disparate economies, the concept of emerging economies in the South seeking to advance similar development agendas has become accepted currency in multiple fields, from institutional cooperation to financial …


Analysis Of Incoterms As Usage Under Article 9 Of The Cisg, William P. Johnson Jan 2014

Analysis Of Incoterms As Usage Under Article 9 Of The Cisg, William P. Johnson

All Faculty Scholarship

This Article defines usage, as that term is used in the UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG), in order to consider whether the ICC’s definitions for common delivery terms set forth in the ICC publication Incoterms should be characterized as usage for purposes of the CISG. This Article then describes the misguided approach that to date has been taken by U.S. courts when analyzing the role of Incoterms as usage for contracts governed by the CISG. Finally, this Article proposes a method for proper analysis of Incoterms under the CISG, including the role that Article …


Looking At Regional Trade Agreements Through The Lens Of Gender, Constance Z. Wagner Jan 2012

Looking At Regional Trade Agreements Through The Lens Of Gender, Constance Z. Wagner

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This article focuses on an unresolved issue within international trade law and policy, namely whether there is a need to consider gender-differentiated impacts of trade agreements and if so, how such impacts should be addressed. The author argues in favor of a gender aware approach to trade, discussing this topic within the context of regional trade agreements (“RTAs”), which are being used increasingly as a route to economic integration among nations. While there is evidence of gender-differentiated impacts of trade liberalization, there has been little progress made in advancing an agenda to address gender issues at the level of multilateral …


The Hierarchy That Wasn’T There: Elevating “Usage” To Its Rightful Position For Contracts Governed By The Cisg, William P. Johnson Jan 2012

The Hierarchy That Wasn’T There: Elevating “Usage” To Its Rightful Position For Contracts Governed By The Cisg, William P. Johnson

All Faculty Scholarship

Under domestic U.S. sales law, usage of trade is relevant in ascertaining the meaning of an agreement, and it can be used to supplement, qualify, or explain an agreement. However, usage of trade may not be used under domestic U.S. sales law to contradict a written agreement. Moreover, any course of performance or course of dealing between the parties will prevail over inconsistent usage of trade. The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, or CISG, similarly provides for consideration of usage to establish the terms of the agreement between the parties, as well as to …


Understanding Exclusion Of The Cisg: A New Paradigm Of Determining Party Intent, William P. Johnson Jan 2011

Understanding Exclusion Of The Cisg: A New Paradigm Of Determining Party Intent, William P. Johnson

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The village market of old has become a global market today. The products we use or consume on a daily basis are produced all over the world. Asparagus grown in Peru, coffee beans harvested in Guatemala, shoes made in Italy, and Japanese automobiles are all readily available to consumers throughout the United States. Moreover, U.S. companies—even small U.S. companies—have their products manufactured in foreign jurisdictions where labor is cheap and the necessary raw materials are plentiful. And those U.S. companies who do manufacture their products in the United States nevertheless often obtain their parts, components, raw materials, and supplies from …


Turkey's Accession To The Cisg: The Significance For Turkey And For Sales Transactions With U.S. Contracting Parties, William P. Johnson Jan 2011

Turkey's Accession To The Cisg: The Significance For Turkey And For Sales Transactions With U.S. Contracting Parties, William P. Johnson

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The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) entered into force for Turkey on August 1, 2011. This article considers the significance of Turkey’s accession to the CISG as part of Turkey’s continuing engagement with systems of international trade, especially as relates to sales transactions with U.S. contracting parties. This article urges the Turkish bar to recognize that the CISG is a viable alternative to various potentially applicable bodies of domestic sales law, and the article offers some guidance regarding proper understanding and application of the CISG. This article also offers comparative analysis of some …


United States Of America Experience With And Administrative Practice Concerning Mutual Assistance In Tax Affairs, Henry Ordower Jan 2010

United States Of America Experience With And Administrative Practice Concerning Mutual Assistance In Tax Affairs, Henry Ordower

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This report was part of the project for the 2009 meeting of the European Association of Tax Law Professors in Santiago de Compostela, Spain. The general reporter for the project was Professor Dr. Roman Seer, Ruhr Universität, Bochum, Germany. The report identifies and discusses United States cooperation with the member states of the European Union through treaties and other agreements on matters of sharing tax and taxpayer information and assisting in assembling tax information and collecting tax revenue. The United States report responds to questions that the general reporter posed and provides additional information concerning United States tax procedure.


Corporate Social Responsibility Of Multinational Enterprises And The International Business Law Curriculum, Constance Z. Wagner Jan 2008

Corporate Social Responsibility Of Multinational Enterprises And The International Business Law Curriculum, Constance Z. Wagner

All Faculty Scholarship

The author argues for expanded coverage of corporate social responsibility in the U.S. law school curriculum. Corporate social responsibility is of increasing importance for businesses, particularly for those companies that conduct multinational operations. Current national legal and regulatory regimes fail to adequately address the social and environmental issues that arise in business operations. As a result, intergovernmental organizations, non-governmental organizations and businesses have begun to promulgate voluntary codes ofconduct. These codes touch on such subjects as core labor standards, environmental protection, bribery offoreign government officials in international business and human rights. Examples include the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development …


Gender Dimensions Of Biotechnology Policy And Trade, Constance Z. Wagner Jan 2007

Gender Dimensions Of Biotechnology Policy And Trade, Constance Z. Wagner

All Faculty Scholarship

Gender issues in biotechnology policy and trade are rapidly emerging as some of the most interesting and challenging within these fields. Gender issues have been identified in three important areas impacted by biotechnology, namely agriculture, traditional knowledge, and health. The policy discussion on these matters is still in its early stages and more research will be needed in order to formulate approaches that adequately incorporate a gender perspective. Gendered aspects of biotechnology also raise concerns in international trade law, which have not yet been addressed in the current legal framework at any level, including the World Trade Organization (“WTO”) regime. …


Gender Mainstreaming In International Trade: Catalyst For Economic Development And Political Stability, Constance Z. Wagner Jan 2006

Gender Mainstreaming In International Trade: Catalyst For Economic Development And Political Stability, Constance Z. Wagner

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This paper examines the role of gender mainstreaming in international trade policy and law upon the tenth anniversary of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action (“Beijing Declaration”) and the World Trade Organization (“WTO”). The author notes that these two topics have not been successfully integrated but will need to be if globalization is to proceed in a meaningful, positive way. After tracing the historical development of gender mainstreaming at the international level through the Beijing Declaration, the author outlines the manner in which various intergovernmental organizations within the United Nations system have implemented its mandate. However, gender mainstreaming is …


Another Attack On The Fast Track, Constance Z. Wagner Jan 2000

Another Attack On The Fast Track, Constance Z. Wagner

All Faculty Scholarship

Although the Congressional fight over the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) may have ended when the NAFTA Implementation Act passed by a narrow margin, the controversy surrounding NAFTA has not. In Made in the USA Foundation v. United States, the United Steel Workers of American and others asserted that NAFTA was void because it had been approved as a congressional-executive agreement when it should have been approved as a treaty under Article II, Clause 2 of the U.S. constitution. The author discusses the constitutional law issue raised by the lawsuit, namely the validity of the long-standing U.S. practice of …


The New Wto Agreement On Financial Services And Chapter 14 Of Nafta: Has Free Trade In Banking Finally Arrived?, Constance Z. Wagner Jan 1999

The New Wto Agreement On Financial Services And Chapter 14 Of Nafta: Has Free Trade In Banking Finally Arrived?, Constance Z. Wagner

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This article discusses the U.S. policy rationale for seeking free international trade in financial services and assesses whether U.S. policy goals have been met through recent trade agreement negotiations. Free trade in financial services has been a goal of U.S. trade policy since the early 1980’s. Over a period of fifteen years, the United States concluded several agreements on financial services with key trading partners. The most significant agreements are the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Financial Services (FSA) and Chapter 14 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on Financial Services. In both of these trade agreements, …