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The Intellectual Property Of Covid-19, Ana Santos Rutschman Jan 2021

The Intellectual Property Of Covid-19, Ana Santos Rutschman

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The response to COVID-19 is indissolubly tied to intellectual property. In an increasingly globalized world in which infectious disease pathogens travel faster and wider than before, the development of vaccines, treatments and other forms of medical technology has become an integral part of public health preparedness and response frameworks. The development of these technologies, and to a certain extent the allocation and distribution of resulting outputs, is informed by intellectual property regimes. These regimes influence the commitment of R&D resources, shape scientific collaborations and, in some cases, may condition the widespread availability of emerging technologies. As seen throughout this ...


Intellectual Property As A Determinant Of Health, Ana Santos Rutschman Jan 2021

Intellectual Property As A Determinant Of Health, Ana Santos Rutschman

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Public health literature has long recognized the existence of determinants of health, a set of socio-economic conditions that affect health risks and health outcomes across the world. The World Health Organization defines these determinants as “forces and systems” consisting of “factors combin[ing] together to affect the health of individuals and communities.” Frameworks relying on determinants of health have been widely adopted by countries in the global South and North alike, as well as international institutional players, several of which are direct or indirect players in transnational intellectual property (IP) policymaking. Issues raised by the implementation of IP policies, however ...


The Law Of Employee Data: Privacy, Property, Governance, Matthew T. Bodie Jan 2021

The Law Of Employee Data: Privacy, Property, Governance, Matthew T. Bodie

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The availability of data related to the employment relationship has ballooned into an unruly mass of personal characteristics, performance metrics, biometric recordings, and creative output. The law governing this collection of information has been awkwardly split between privacy regulations and intellectual property rights, with employees generally losing on both ends. This Article rejects a binary approach that either carves out private spaces ineffectually or renders data into isolated pieces of ownership. Instead, the law should implement a hybrid system that provides workers with continuing input and control without blocking efforts at joint production. In addition, employers should have fiduciary responsibilities ...


Offensive Mark Owners Have An Enforcement Problem, Yvette Joy Liebesman Jan 2021

Offensive Mark Owners Have An Enforcement Problem, Yvette Joy Liebesman

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In Iancu v. Brunetti, the Supreme Court held that the Lanham Act 2(a) bars for "immoral" or "scandalous" marks are facially unconstitutional viewpoint discrimination, and thus violate a trademark owner’s First Amendment rights. Brunetti, as well as its predecessor, Matal v. Tam, focused entirely on how the government might generate viewpoint discrimination at the point of trademark registration. The Court did not consider whether enforcement of trademarks—via courts of law, Customs and Border Protection, or the International Trade Commission—is government speech, and thus exempt from First Amendment free speech scrutiny. Yet the Court’s seminal holding ...


Regulatory Malfunctions In The Drug Patent Ecosystem, Ana Santos Rutschman Jan 2020

Regulatory Malfunctions In The Drug Patent Ecosystem, Ana Santos Rutschman

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Patent protection for several of the world’s best-selling and most promising drugs — biologics — has begun waning. Over the next few years, many other drugs in this category will lose critical patent protection. In principle, this should open the United States market to competition, as more manufacturers are now able to produce relatively cheaper versions of these expensive drugs, known as biosimilars. That, however, has not been the case. This Article examines this problem in the context of the articulation between anticompetitive behaviors and regulatory interventions in the biopharmaceutical arena, and argues for a novel solution: a timelier response provided ...


Vaccines And Ip Preparedness In The Coronavirus Outbreak, Ana Santos Rutschman Jan 2020

Vaccines And Ip Preparedness In The Coronavirus Outbreak, Ana Santos Rutschman

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The COVID-19 pandemic has shed renewed light on the importance of research and development (R&D) on biopharmaceutical products needed to prevent or lessen the burden posed by outbreaks of infectious diseases. Among these, the need for new vaccines has become of paramount importance. While a race to develop different types of vaccines unfolds at unusual speed, there are still significant shortcomings in the ecosystem that leads to the production and dissemination of vaccines targeting infectious diseases like COVID-19.


Property And Intellectual Property In Vaccine Markets, Ana Santos Rutschman Jan 2020

Property And Intellectual Property In Vaccine Markets, Ana Santos Rutschman

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As biopharmaceutical forms of technology, vaccines constitute one of the most important tools for the promotion and maintenance of public health. Tolstoy famously wrote that “[h]appy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.” Vaccine markets offer perhaps one of the most extreme embodiments of Tolstoy’s principle in the field of biopharmaceutical innovation. Vaccines are often described as one of the most unprofitable types of biopharmaceutical goods, under-incentivized from a research and development (R&D) perspective, and routinely failing to attract sufficient investment from traditional funders in biopharma. In this sense, and despite ...


The Ai Author In Litigation, Yvette Joy Liebesman, Julie Cromer Young Jan 2020

The Ai Author In Litigation, Yvette Joy Liebesman, Julie Cromer Young

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Many scholars have posited whether a computer possessing Artificial Intelligence (AI) could be considered an author as defined per the Copyright Act of 1976. What was once a thought experiment is now becoming reality. To date, scholarship has focused primarily been on whether an AI meets the requirements of authorship from a purely objective legal framework or whether an AI could be an author based on the doctrines of incentives, independent creation, and creativity.

However, a burden inherent in the rights and liabilities of authorship is the ability to be held liable if that author’s expressive work is infringing ...


The Intellectual Property Of Vaccines: Takeaways From Recent Infectious Disease Outbreaks, Ana Santos Rutschman Jan 2020

The Intellectual Property Of Vaccines: Takeaways From Recent Infectious Disease Outbreaks, Ana Santos Rutschman

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This Essay examines the ways in which intellectual property regimes influence incentives for the development of new vaccines for infectious diseases. Charting the tension between market forces and public health imperatives, the Essay considers an emerging solution to the long-standing problem of insufficient incentives for vaccine research and development: the rise of public-private partnerships in the health space. The Essay provides a short case study on CEPI, a large-scale public-private partnership dedicated exclusively to funding research on vaccines for infectious diseases. In exploring how the interaction between intellectual property rules and practices affect vaccine innovation, the Essay offers illustrations from ...


From Venetian Glass To Contemporary Intellectual Property: Revisiting Tailored Patent Regimes (Book Review), Ana Santos Rutschman Jan 2019

From Venetian Glass To Contemporary Intellectual Property: Revisiting Tailored Patent Regimes (Book Review), Ana Santos Rutschman

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This piece reviews Stefania Fusco's “Murano Glass Vase" and "Lessons from the Past." In Murano Glass Vase, Fusco recounts the history of the glassmaking industry in Venice, framing it as the natural experiment from which the patent system sprang into the world. Fusco emphasizes the mix of exclusionary rights and trade secrecy that formed the backbone of Venetian innovation policy against the backdrop of a heavily regulated and protectionist economy. In “Lessons from the Past,” Fusco draws on original research performed at the Venetian State Archives to further the Murano narrative by looking at how the Venetian government fueled ...


Vaccine Licensure In The Public Interest: Lessons From The Development Of The U.S. Army Zika Vaccine, Ana Santos Rutschman Jan 2018

Vaccine Licensure In The Public Interest: Lessons From The Development Of The U.S. Army Zika Vaccine, Ana Santos Rutschman

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Vaccines developed by the public sector are key to preventing future outbreaks of infectious diseases. However, the licensure of these vaccines to private-sector companies under terms that do not ensure both their availability and affordability compromises their development. This Essay analyzes the recent attempted licensing deal for a Zika vaccine between the U.S. Army and Sanofi, a French pharmaceutical company. The proposed grant of an exclusive license to Sanofi triggered widespread concern because none of its substantive terms were disclosed. While § 209 of the Patent Act imposes limitations on exclusive licensure, the Army released no information supporting its finding ...


Ip Preparedness For Outbreak Diseases, Ana Santos Rutschman Jan 2018

Ip Preparedness For Outbreak Diseases, Ana Santos Rutschman

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Outbreaks of infectious diseases will worsen, as illustrated by the recent back-to-back Ebola and Zika epidemics. The development of innovative drugs, especially in the form of vaccines, is key to minimizing future outbreaks, yet current intellectual property (IP) regimes are ineffective in supporting this goal.

IP scholarship has not adequately addressed the role of IP in the development of vaccines for outbreak diseases. This Article fills that void. Through case studies on the recent Ebola and Zika outbreaks, it provides the first descriptive analysis of the role of IP from the pre- to the post-outbreak stages, specifically identifying IP inefficiencies ...


Brief Of Intellectual Property Law Scholars As Amici Curiae In Support Of Neither Party, Westerngeco Llc V. Ion Geophysical Corp., No. 16-1011, Us Supreme Court, Timothy R. Holbrook, Ann Bartow, Dan L. Burk, Donald P. Harris, David C. Hricik, Amy L. Landers, Yvette Joy Liebesman, Lee Ann W. Lockridge, Jason Rantanen Jan 2018

Brief Of Intellectual Property Law Scholars As Amici Curiae In Support Of Neither Party, Westerngeco Llc V. Ion Geophysical Corp., No. 16-1011, Us Supreme Court, Timothy R. Holbrook, Ann Bartow, Dan L. Burk, Donald P. Harris, David C. Hricik, Amy L. Landers, Yvette Joy Liebesman, Lee Ann W. Lockridge, Jason Rantanen

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This amici curiae brief was filed on behalf of Intellectual Property Law Scholars in WesternGeco LLC v. Ion Geophysical Corp. in the U.S. Supreme Court. The question presented is:

"Whether the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit erred in holding that lost profits arising from prohibited combinations occurring outside of the United States are categorically unavailable in cases in which patent infringement is proven under 35 U.S.C. § 271(f)."

In RJR Nabisco, Inc. v. European Community, 136 S. Ct. 2090 (2016), the Supreme Court articulated a two-step method for assessing the extraterritorial reach of ...


Brief Amici Curiae Of Intellectual Property Professors In Support Of Petitioner, No. 18-600, Texas Advanced Optoelectronic Solutions, Inc. V. Renesas Electronics America, Inc., Timothy R. Holbrook, Ann Bartow, Andrew Chin, David C. Hricik, Yvette Joy Liebesman, Lucas Osborn Jan 2018

Brief Amici Curiae Of Intellectual Property Professors In Support Of Petitioner, No. 18-600, Texas Advanced Optoelectronic Solutions, Inc. V. Renesas Electronics America, Inc., Timothy R. Holbrook, Ann Bartow, Andrew Chin, David C. Hricik, Yvette Joy Liebesman, Lucas Osborn

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To comply with the obligations of the Uruguay Round Agreements, particularly the Agreement on the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS), Congress amended 35 U.S.C. § 271(a) to make it an act of infringement to “offer to sell” a patented invention within the United States. See Uruguay Round Agreements Act, Pub. L. No. 103-465, §§ 531-533, 108 Stat. 4809 (1994).

The Federal Circuit has interpreted this provision in a manner contrary to the presumption against the extraterritorial reach of United States laws. The Federal Circuit has held that location of the ultimate sale contemplated in the offer controls ...


Revisiting Innovative Technologies To Determine Substantial Similarity In Musical Composition Infringement Lawsuits, Yvette Joy Liebesman Jan 2018

Revisiting Innovative Technologies To Determine Substantial Similarity In Musical Composition Infringement Lawsuits, Yvette Joy Liebesman

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A music video by Sir Mashalot2 combines six award-winning popular country-western songs,3 demonstrating the amazing similarity among the tunes. Not mentioned by the mash-up4 artist is that none of the songs are infringing on any of the others. While all copied the same chord progressions, none copied any protected copyrightable expression, and thus none of the authors of the melodies are infringing.

It is often difficult to determine if there has been unlawful copying of a song. Currently, a judge or jury relies on music experts who analyze the songs based on a limited number of characteristics ...


Redefining The Intended Copyright Infringer, Yvette Joy Liebesman Jan 2017

Redefining The Intended Copyright Infringer, Yvette Joy Liebesman

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In the mid-1970s, Paul Edmond Dowling and William Samuel Theaker ran an “extensive bootleg record operation.”1 The two men made unauthorized “phonorecords of unreleased [Elvis] Presley recordings. . . [using] material from a variety of sources, including studio outtakes, acetates, soundtracks from Presley motion pictures, and tapes of Presley concerts and television appearances.”2 Dowling was a huge Elvis Presley fan, so he “handled the ‘artistic’ end of the operation, contributing his knowledge of the Presley subculture, seeking out and selecting the musical material, designing the covers and labels, and writing the liner notes.”3 Theaker, who lived in Los Angeles ...


Patent Venue Exceptionalism After Tc Heartland V. Kraft, Ana Santos Rutschman Jan 2017

Patent Venue Exceptionalism After Tc Heartland V. Kraft, Ana Santos Rutschman

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In late 2016, the Supreme Court granted certiorari in TC Heartland, LLC v. Kraft Foods Group Brands LLC,1 a case addressing the interpretation of the special patent venue and the general venue statutes. The case was brought by Heartland, a sweetener manufacturer organized as a limited liability company under Indiana law and headquartered in Indiana.2 In 2014, Kraft sued Heartland for infringement of three patents on liquid water enhancers. Although Kraft is headquartered in Illinois, the lawsuit was brought in the District of Delaware, where Heartland is not registered to do business and does not have a regular ...


Trademark Exhaustion And The Internet Of Resold Things, Yvette Joy Liebesman Jan 2016

Trademark Exhaustion And The Internet Of Resold Things, Yvette Joy Liebesman

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Over the past ten years, casual resellers have migrated from garage sales, swap meets, and classified ads to eBay and Craigslist, turning side hobbies into lucrative businesses. Today, 30 million new ads are posted on Craigslist every month, and six million new listings are posted daily on eBay.1 The explosive online market has affected the sales of new goods, troubling manufacturers2 who seek to curtail the growth of this secondary market through several avenues—some legitimate, and others not so much. For example, to combat diversion to resellers outside of its official distribution chain, Tiffany, Inc., the well-known ...


Steps Towards An Alignment Of Intellectual Property In South-South Exchanges: A Return To Trips, Ana Santos Rutschman Jan 2015

Steps Towards An Alignment Of Intellectual Property In South-South Exchanges: A Return To Trips, Ana Santos Rutschman

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Some of the most instrumental players in shaping the course of intellectual property policies in the South are the so-called BRIC countries. The acronym BRIC originally encompassed Brazil, Russia, India and China. In 2011, South Africa formally joined the BRIC countries, which are now referred to either by the original acronym or by BRICS. While categorizations like BRICS attract a fair amount of criticism, with questions surrounding the criteria used to aggregate disparate economies, the concept of emerging economies in the South seeking to advance similar development agendas has become accepted currency in multiple fields, from institutional cooperation to financial ...


Kamil Kubik: The Artist And Copyright Observed, Elizabeth Townsend Gard, Yvette Joy Liebesman Jan 2015

Kamil Kubik: The Artist And Copyright Observed, Elizabeth Townsend Gard, Yvette Joy Liebesman

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For over 60 years — from the time he fled his native Czechoslovakia in 1948 until his death in August 2011 — Kamil Kubik created amazing oil paintings and pastels. Many of his works were also printed as lithographs and serigraphs, for sale at more affordable prices than the four-to-five figures that he received for the originals. He was not dependent on the sale of these prints, which was a good thing — most of the original works were unprotected by copyright, and many of the prints were unauthorized reproductions.

Copyright law is the key law that protects the artistic and economic interests ...


When Does Copyright Law Require Technology Blindness? Aiken Meets Aereo, Yvette Joy Liebesman Jan 2015

When Does Copyright Law Require Technology Blindness? Aiken Meets Aereo, Yvette Joy Liebesman

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Within the Copyright Act, innovation and technological advances are the bases for the enactment or amendment of many sections. Technology is often fundamental to the language of the section, and the underlying technology matters even when it is paired with a technology-neutral section. And because technology matters, how it functions could be essential in resolving a copyright infringement dispute.

One such provision, 17 U.S.C. § 110(5), allows small businesses to “publicly perform” copyrighted music via a radio, as long as certain conditions regarding the equipment used are met. Only small businesses are eligible, and the proprietors can only ...


When Does Copyright Law Require Technology Blindness? Aiken Meets Aereo, Yvette Joy Liebesman Jan 2015

When Does Copyright Law Require Technology Blindness? Aiken Meets Aereo, Yvette Joy Liebesman

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Within the Copyright Act, innovation and technological advances are the bases for the enactment or amendment of many sections. Technology is often fundamental to the language of the section, and the underlying technology matters even when it is paired with a technology-neutral section. And because technology matters, how it functions could be essential in resolving a copyright infringement dispute.

One such provision, 17 U.S.C. § 110(5), allows small businesses to “publicly perform” copyrighted music via a radio, as long as certain conditions regarding the equipment used are met. Only small businesses are eligible, and the proprietors can only ...


Steps Towards And Alignment Of Intellectual Property In South-South Exchanges: A Return To Trips, Ana Santos Rutschman Jan 2015

Steps Towards And Alignment Of Intellectual Property In South-South Exchanges: A Return To Trips, Ana Santos Rutschman

All Faculty Scholarship

Some of the most instrumental players in shaping the course of intellectual property policies in the South are the so-called BRIC countries. The acronym BRIC originally encompassed Brazil, Russia, India and China. In 2011, South Africa formally joined the BRIC countries, which are now referred to either by the original acronym or by BRICS. While categorizations like BRICS attract a fair amount of criticism, with questions surrounding the criteria used to aggregate disparate economies, the concept of emerging economies in the South seeking to advance similar development agendas has become accepted currency in multiple fields, from institutional cooperation to financial ...


Rethinking Trademark Functionality As A Question Of Fact, Yvette Joy Liebesman Jan 2014

Rethinking Trademark Functionality As A Question Of Fact, Yvette Joy Liebesman

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Trade dress functionality stands for a reasonable premise: features which are essential to the use or purpose of an article, which affect the cost or quality of the article, or whose exclusive use would put competitors at a significant non-reputation-related disadvantage, are not protectable as signifiers of source or sponsorship. Functionality has broad implications, as a product’s shape can be its most identifiable feature.

The problems plaguing the functionality doctrine have been examined from a substantive point of view; however until the standard by which functionality is determined is changed, these problems are likely to continue to persist. When ...


The Mark Of A Resold Good, Yvette Joy Liebesman, Benjamin Wilson Jan 2012

The Mark Of A Resold Good, Yvette Joy Liebesman, Benjamin Wilson

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Over the past ten years, the Internet has revolutionized the resale market ― casual resellers have migrated from garage sales, swap meets, and classified ads, to eBay and Craigslist, turning hobbies into lucrative businesses. This has affected the sales of new goods and troubled manufacturers, who seek to curtail the growth of this secondary market.

Most of these on-line resales should be protected by the first-sale doctrine, a well-known defense to infringement claims that applies across patent, copyright, and trademark law. Simply stated, once a manufacturer sells a product, it may not interfere with secondary sales of that product. Yet in ...


Downstream Copyright Infringers, Yvette Joy Liebesman Jan 2011

Downstream Copyright Infringers, Yvette Joy Liebesman

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The advent of on-line music sales has been a boon to the recording industry as well as for musicians and the general public. Previously unknown artists have found new avenues to showcase their work, and consumers have easy access to an enormous variety of musical genres.

Yet an unintended consequence of the ability to sell songs through internet downloads is a novel, and until now, unnoticed way to infringe on copyrights - which, unless remedied, could lead to new classes of defendants never contemplated or desired to be ensnared in the Copyright Act’s protections for artists, musicians and authors. Unlike ...


The Wisdom Of Legislating For Anticipated Technological Advancements, Yvette Joy Liebesman Jan 2010

The Wisdom Of Legislating For Anticipated Technological Advancements, Yvette Joy Liebesman

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The past four decades have been witness to the realization of ideas which, when first contemplated, seemed to resemble the prose of science fiction writers. Some seemingly far-fetched notions, such as robot pets, anti-sleeping pills, and ugly unisex jumpsuits, are now readily available. However, there are currently no colonies on the moon, and we are all still waiting to order our personal jetpacks from Amazon.com. Some are likely to remain in the realm of science fiction and will only be realized with the help of movie and television special effects artists. Yet through these entertaining glimpses into a potential ...


Experimenting With Territoriality: Pan-European Music License And The Persistence Of Old Paradigms, Ana Santos Rutschman Jan 2009

Experimenting With Territoriality: Pan-European Music License And The Persistence Of Old Paradigms, Ana Santos Rutschman

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This article tells the story of what could have been an interesting and important shift in our approach to territoriality in the digitalized world. Europe had the chance to be the cradle of an unprecedented copyright experience – the creation of a quasi pan- continental license in the music field – but it might have lost that opportunity in the midst of non-binding recommendations and resolutions. This article argues this loss is due to the overreaching persistence of old paradigms, namely the principle of territoriality.


Using Innovative Technologies To Analyze For Similarity Between Musical Works In Copyright Infringement Disputes, Yvette Joy Liebesman Jan 2007

Using Innovative Technologies To Analyze For Similarity Between Musical Works In Copyright Infringement Disputes, Yvette Joy Liebesman

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Courts continue to struggle with discerning the level of substantial similarity between musical compositions in infringement analyses, which is related to their difficulty in determining the portion that is available for the public to use, and where that permission stops. This paper argues that, under the current policies regarding copyright protection and unauthorized copying, the current test is inadequate and a new infringement test should be considered. Two alternatives are proposed. The first test uses objective mapping of a song’s artistic elements. The second considers the link between wave motion theory of physics and music and proposes comparing the ...


Open Access In Law Teaching: A New Approach To Legal Education, Matthew T. Bodie Jan 2006

Open Access In Law Teaching: A New Approach To Legal Education, Matthew T. Bodie

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The "open access" movement seeks to change our approach to the distribution of scholarship in the fields of science, medicine, the social sciences, and law. This Essay argues for the application of these principles to legal education itself. Open access would mean greater flexibility, interaction, and innovation in the creation of course materials. It would lead to new teaching methods and new forms of feedback between student and professor. Open access centers on particular legal subject areas could facilitate national and international collaboration. Ultimately, the open access law school would ameliorate the growing standardization and commodification of legal education by ...