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Environmental Governance At The Edge Of Democracy, Joshua Ulan Galperin Jan 2021

Environmental Governance At The Edge Of Democracy, Joshua Ulan Galperin

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Private environmental governance describes the affirmative efforts of private organizations to deliver public environmental goals, such as climate change mitigation, without government leadership or control. The scholarship on private environmental governance has grown quickly over its short life, but has largely described, catalogued, and quantified private environmental governance. This article begins the project of more fully theorizing private environmental governance. It is the first to explore and critique its political and democratic roles and responsibilities.

This article argues that despite the promise that private environmental governance is private and therefore “beyond politics,” it in fact calls loudly for democratic consideration. …


Constitutionalizing Nature's Law: Dignity And The Regulation Of Biotechnology In Switzerland, James Toomey Jan 2020

Constitutionalizing Nature's Law: Dignity And The Regulation Of Biotechnology In Switzerland, James Toomey

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

The Swiss Constitution was amended by referendum in 1992 to include two unique provisions: Article 119, which imposes strict limits on genetic and reproductive technologies in humans in order to protect ‘human dignity’, and Article 120, which commits the Swiss federal government to limiting genetic technologies in non-human species on the basis of the ‘dignity of the creature’. This article analyzes the role of ‘dignity’ as a limit on biotechnologies in the Swiss constitutional order. It concludes that the understanding of dignity the constitution embraces codifies a contestable metaphysical theory of value at the constitutional level. Specifically, the Swiss constitutional …


Pennsylvania Gas: Trusts, Takings, And Judicial Temperaments, Joshua Ulan Galperin Nov 2018

Pennsylvania Gas: Trusts, Takings, And Judicial Temperaments, Joshua Ulan Galperin

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Perhaps it is their role in our survival, or our economic growth, or the environment. Whatever the reason, energy and natural resource conflicts seems to be unique in the way they can drive significant doctrinal change even outside of energy and natural resource law. Pennsylvania has been a fountainhead of these conflicts. In 1921, Pennsylvania’s Kohler Act and lesser known Fowler Act, which sought to protect surface owners from anthracite coal mine subsidence and to increase tax revenue from anthracite mining, ignited the legal wrangling that eventually led to Pennsylvania Coal Co. v. Mahon. That U.S. Supreme Court decision transformed …


No Farms No Food? A Response To Baylen Linnekin, Joshua Ulan Galperin May 2018

No Farms No Food? A Response To Baylen Linnekin, Joshua Ulan Galperin

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

You have likely seen the bumper sticker, bold white text on a green background, reading “No Farms No Food.” The sticker is a product of, and in fact a tagline for, the American Farmland Trust. On the one hand, the point is obvious: As American Farmland Trust puts it, “[e]very meal on our plates [c]ontains ingredients grown on a farm. We all need farms to survive.” On the other hand, what seems like a plain statement on its face, “no farms no food,” is not so simple. Farms produce affordable food, they produce vast quantities of food, they produce healthy …


Foreword: Private, Environmental, Governance, Joshua Ulan Galperin Apr 2018

Foreword: Private, Environmental, Governance, Joshua Ulan Galperin

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This essay is the invited foreword to the 2017 J.B & Maurice C. Shapiro Environmental Law Symposium issue of the George Washington Journal of Energy and Environmental Law. The 2017 symposium was dedicated to the issue of private environmental governance. This essay recognizes the incredible growth of private environmental governance as an area of study in the legal academy. In addition to introducing the various contributions to the symposium issue, this essay proposes that rather than merely studying "private environmental governance" as an independent concept, scholars should look closely at the individual components, "private," "environmental," and "governance," to better understand …


Pragmatism, Pragtivism, And Private Environmental Governance, Joshua Ulan Galperin Apr 2018

Pragmatism, Pragtivism, And Private Environmental Governance, Joshua Ulan Galperin

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This essay is an edited version of a talk presented at the 2017 J.B. & Maurice C. Shapiro Environmental Law Symposium on Private Environmental Governance at the George Washington University. It is adapted from a longer article entitled Trust Me, I’m A Pragmatist: A Partially Pragmatic Critique of Pragmatic Activism, in 42 Colum. J. Envtl. L. 425 (2017).


Board Rooms And Jail Cells- Assessing Ngo Approaches To Private Environmental Governance, Joshua Ulan Galperin Jan 2018

Board Rooms And Jail Cells- Assessing Ngo Approaches To Private Environmental Governance, Joshua Ulan Galperin

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Staff of the Nature Conservancy often find themselves in corporate board rooms. Staff of Greenpeace often find themselves in jail cells. The Nature Conservancy (TNC) prides itself on its non-confrontational, collaborative deal making, partnering closely with corporations like chemical giant Dow and agricultural lightning rod Monsanto. Both Dow and Monsanto, in fact, are members of TNC’s Business Council along with the likes of BP, Shell, and Cargill. Greenpeace, on the other hand, prides itself on direct action, civil disobedience, and non-violent confrontation. Greenpeace has launched combative operations against Dow, Monsanto, and other TNC collaborators. While business partners praise TNC’s cooperative …


Defining And Closing The Hydraulic Fracturing Governance Gap, Joshua Ulan Galperin, Grace Heusner, Allison Sloto Jan 2017

Defining And Closing The Hydraulic Fracturing Governance Gap, Joshua Ulan Galperin, Grace Heusner, Allison Sloto

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

As recent examples in Texas and Colorado have shown, if local governments ban fracking, they risk pushback from state governments. This pushback, in turn, can result in preemption making an outright local ban on fracking self-defeating because it could ultimately result in less local control over the impacts of hydraulic fracturing. Given this potentially self-defeating nature of local fracking bans, local governments should address the impacts of fracking through more traditional local governance mechanisms that do not pose as great a risk to local authority.

On this premise, this Article seeks to make the case for the importance of, and …


Value Hypocrisy And Policy Sincerity: A Food Law Case Study, Joshua Ulan Galperin Jan 2017

Value Hypocrisy And Policy Sincerity: A Food Law Case Study, Joshua Ulan Galperin

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

t is tempting to say that in 2017 there is a unique problem of hypocrisy in politics, where words and behaviors are so often in opposition. In fact, hypocrisy is nothing new. A robust legal and psychological literature on the importance of procedural justice demonstrates a longstanding concern with developing more just governing processes. One of the important features of this scholarship is that it does not focus only on the consequences of policymaking, in which behaviors, but not words, are relevant. Instead, it respects the intrinsic importance of fair process, lending credence not only to votes but also to …


Teaching Substantive Environmental Law And Practice Skills Through Interest Group Role-Playing, Karl S. Coplan Jan 2016

Teaching Substantive Environmental Law And Practice Skills Through Interest Group Role-Playing, Karl S. Coplan

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Most law students take their first introductory course in environmental law during their second year of law school. The traditional first-year curriculum does little to prepare students for the complex statutory and regulatory models for most environmental regulation. Law students at the end of their first year often have had little exposure to statutory interpretation. Further, they often have no exposure to administrative law and regulatory implementation. These students may expect statutes to provide clear statements of rules rather than guidelines for administrative rulemaking. They also tend to view the lawmaking and interpretive process through the traditional lens of congressional …


Options For Adaption To Climate Change, Richard L. Ottinger, Pianpian Wang, Kristin M. Motel Jul 2014

Options For Adaption To Climate Change, Richard L. Ottinger, Pianpian Wang, Kristin M. Motel

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

In order to tackle climate change, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (“IPCC”) provided a portfolio of measures: mitigation, adaptation and constant research. Although Article 10 of the Kyoto Protocol underlined the importance of adaptation, adaptation to climate change had been obtained limited attention in the early negotiations of climate talks. In 2010, Cancun Session of Conference of Parties (“COP”) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (“UNFCCC”) highlighted the equal importance of adaptation just as mitigation. Since then, increasing attention has been drawn to adaptation practice by the international society. Typically, adaptation can be broken down into …


Lessons From A Lawyer’S Life, Leslie Carothers May 2014

Lessons From A Lawyer’S Life, Leslie Carothers

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

The author, scholar-in-residence at Pace Law School, received the 2013 ABA Award for Distinguished Achievement in Environmental Law and Policy. A pioneer in the early years of environmental protection, she expands in this space on her remarks in accepting the honor, drawing insights for today’s environmental professionals.


The Resilience Principle, Nicholas A. Robinson Jan 2014

The Resilience Principle, Nicholas A. Robinson

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Resilient self-help is essential in coping with life’s upsets. This essay explores the prospect of recognizing Resilience as a Principle of Law. The propositions set forth here were debated at two conferences held in Brasilia, in December of 2013. The first, for legislators, was convened in the Senate of Brazil by the National Congress’ Joint Permanent Committee on Climate Change, and the second, for judges, was convened by the Federal Judicial Council’s Judicial Studies Center (Conselho da Justiça Federal Centro de Estudos Judiciários) and the High Court of Brazil (Superior Tribunal de Justiça). This eJournal of the IUCN Academy of …


In Memoriam: David Sive (1922-2014) And Joseph Sax (1936-2014), Nicholas A. Robinson Jan 2014

In Memoriam: David Sive (1922-2014) And Joseph Sax (1936-2014), Nicholas A. Robinson

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

In 1995, Professor of Law David Sive and Pace’s Law Faculty established this lectureship, in honor of Lloyd K. Garrison, to commemorate Scenic Hudson Preservation Conference v. Federal Power Commission.1 Known as the Storm King case, this ruling inaugurated what we today call environmental law. Two individuals above all others guided and framed the jurisprudential foundations for environmental law. We honor these founders today. Their lives were intertwined.


Keynote: Sustaining Society In The Anthropocene Epoch, Nicholas A. Robinson Jan 2014

Keynote: Sustaining Society In The Anthropocene Epoch, Nicholas A. Robinson

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This paper explores the argument that human transformation of Earth's systems is eclipsing the international law-making of nation states. Globally the processes of trade law or environmental law often progress transnationally, with little direction by national governments. Intergovernmental and non-governmental international organizations act with autonomy, apart from nations. To be clear, nation states still are the major players in world order, but trends of sustainable development or social networked communications transcend individual nations. Whether viewed as environmental law or sustainability law, this body of law exists at once globally and locally; it is different in kind from the Westphalia legacy …


Fundamental Principles Of Law For The Anthropocene?, Nicholas A. Robinson Jan 2014

Fundamental Principles Of Law For The Anthropocene?, Nicholas A. Robinson

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

A wide array of questions arises from global change to confront environmental law. The IPCC has examined social decisions affecting the climate in the design of human settlements, transport systems, industrialisation, agriculture and silviculture, waste management, provisions for energy, and virtually all other socio-economic dimensions of human life. The AR-5, too, cannot avoid raising issues of human ethics and values at local and regional scales. Such issues reach environmental policy and law directly. The IPCC’s AR-5 report furthers widespread public debate about the human dimensions of climate change, and how social theory relates to environmental change. Already, climate change has …


The Charter Of The Forest: Evolving Human Rights In Nature, Nicholas A. Robinson Jan 2014

The Charter Of The Forest: Evolving Human Rights In Nature, Nicholas A. Robinson

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Carta de Foresta, the Charter of the Forest of 1217, is among the first statutes in environmental law of any nation. Crafted to reform patently unjust governance of natural resources in 13th century England, the Charter of the Forest became a framework through which to reconcile competing environmental claims, then and into the future. The Charter confirmed the rights of “free men.” Kings resisted conceding these rights. When confronted with violation of the Charter, barons and royal councils obliged kings repeatedly to reissue the Forest Charter and pledge anew to obey its terms.


Plain Meaning, Precedent, And Metaphysics: Interpreting The “Addition” Element Of The Clean Water Act Offense, Jeffrey G. Miller Jan 2014

Plain Meaning, Precedent, And Metaphysics: Interpreting The “Addition” Element Of The Clean Water Act Offense, Jeffrey G. Miller

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

The Clean Water Act (CWA) prohibits addition of any pollutant to navigable waters from any point source by any person without a permit. Surprisingly, the first element of this prohibition, “addition,” remains undefined. It has been interpreted broadly by regulators and judges to expand the prohibition to such an extent that it threatens to capture innocent people. EPA in particular has confused “addition” with “navigable waters” to such an extent that it threatens to eviscerate half of the CWA’s regulatory strategies and programs: water quality standards and the § 404 program protecting wetlands. This Article examines the interpretation of “addition” …


Eating Invaders: Managing Biological Invasions With Fork And Knife?, Joshua Ulan Galperin, Sara Kuebbing Oct 2013

Eating Invaders: Managing Biological Invasions With Fork And Knife?, Joshua Ulan Galperin, Sara Kuebbing

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

As the public, academy, government, and private sector all turn increased attention to food systems, new ideas constantly emerge for healthy, sustainable, and just innovations in growing, marketing, and eating food. “Invasivory” — eating invasive species — is one such idea. Biological invasions occur when humans transport an organism from its ecosystem of origin into a new ecosystem and that organism adapts to its new location, spreading widely from the site of introduction. Invasive species can cause significant ecological, economic, and public health damage. Crops, homes, and native species are all at risk. “Invasivores,” as the proponents of invasivory are …


Global Environmental Law: Food Safety & China, Jason J. Czarnezki Jan 2013

Global Environmental Law: Food Safety & China, Jason J. Czarnezki

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This article makes the case for food security law and policy as a component of global environmental law in recognition of the global economy, trade liberalization, and concerns for food safety and environmental harm. It further describes rule of law as a significant force in mitigating food safety concerns and pollution in China. Part II explores global food safety concerns in the context of United States-China relations, while Part III discusses the U.S. Food & Drug Administration's on-the-ground presence in China as an example of the emergence of cooperative agreements in global environmental governance. Part IV shows how increased rule …


The Importance Of Information And Participation Principles In Environmental Law In Brazil, David N. Cassuto, Romulo S.R. Sampaio Jan 2013

The Importance Of Information And Participation Principles In Environmental Law In Brazil, David N. Cassuto, Romulo S.R. Sampaio

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This article explores the two different kinds of uncertainty, ‘hard’ uncertainty (unknown unknowns) and ‘soft’ uncertainty (known unknowns), in the context of environmental law decision making. First, the authors argue that these different categories should not be treated the same when facing decisions under uncertainty. To deal with these different uncertainties, a tiered risk analysis process is called for, using participatory techniques to turn hard uncertainty into (more manageable) soft uncertainty as well as to increase the legitimacy of environmental decision making, even in cases of hard uncertainty. This methodology can and should apply to all instances of domestic, transnational …


Reflecting On Measured Deliberations, Nicholas A. Robinson Jan 2012

Reflecting On Measured Deliberations, Nicholas A. Robinson

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

“Environmental law is essential for the protection of natural resources and ecosystems and reflects our best hope for the future of our planet”. This declaration, made by participants at the Rio+20 World Congress on Justice, Governance and Law for Environmental Sustainability, reflects the maturing of environmental law around the world. Usually implicitly, but often explicitly, the deliberations at Rio+20 in June 2012 addressed the dual needs for more effective implementation of existing environmental norms and enacting further laws to stem global degradation of the environment. Rio+20 recommended that, in the autumn of 2012, the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) act …


Changing Times--Changing Practice: New Roles For Lawyers In Resolving Complex Land Use And Environmental Disputes, John R. Nolon, Jessica A. Bacher Jan 2009

Changing Times--Changing Practice: New Roles For Lawyers In Resolving Complex Land Use And Environmental Disputes, John R. Nolon, Jessica A. Bacher

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Following this introduction is a discussion of the many excellent papers by academics, practitioners, and students contained in this themed Kheel edition of the Pace Environmental Law Review. The article continues with an analysis of the practice of law and how it is affected by the advent of environmental interest dispute resolution.


Advancing Environmental Law At Pace: A Personal Memoir, A Continuing Challenge, Nicholas A. Robinson Sep 2007

Advancing Environmental Law At Pace: A Personal Memoir, A Continuing Challenge, Nicholas A. Robinson

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

How did an unaccredited law school, admitting its first students in 1976, become renowned as a national and international leader in environmental education in less than three decades? What did Pace have to attract some of America’s brightest and best college graduates to pursue their careers in environmental law in White Plains? Why did Yale Law School’s Dean Anthony Kronman, in 1999, call Pace’s program one to which “other law schools look with admiration and envy…one of the best in the country, indeed the world…”

Each generation of alumni intimately knows the answer to these questions, but through the lenses …


Keynote Address: We Must Take America Back, Robert F. Kennedy, Jr. Jan 2007

Keynote Address: We Must Take America Back, Robert F. Kennedy, Jr.

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

I want to talk about what is happening in the United States, and the connection between the environment and democracy, and the corrosive impact of excessive corporate power and the impact to democracy everywhere. But particularly I want to focus on American democracy.


Harnessing The Treaty Power In Support Of Environmental Regulation Of Activities That Don't "Substantially Affect Interstate Commerce", Katrina Fischer Kuh Jan 2004

Harnessing The Treaty Power In Support Of Environmental Regulation Of Activities That Don't "Substantially Affect Interstate Commerce", Katrina Fischer Kuh

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This Article proposes a framework for applying the treaty power that would accomplish the goal of environmental regulation. This framework would be applied where the President has signed, and Congress has ratified, a treaty and Congress has enacted domestic legislation in some way satisfying the goals or requirements of the treaty. Under this framework, the inquiry into whether the treaty power could appropriately be used by Congress in excess of its Article I, Commerce Clause powers would be indexed to the strength of (1) the contract-like nexus between the necessarily reciprocal requirements and the goals of the treaty and the …


Urban Environmental Law: Emergent Citizens' Rights For The Aesthetic, The Spiritual, And The Spacious, Nicholas A. Robinson Jan 1976

Urban Environmental Law: Emergent Citizens' Rights For The Aesthetic, The Spiritual, And The Spacious, Nicholas A. Robinson

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

While articles on the urban environment often deal with statutory and administrative action, this article presents a different perspective, that of citizen enforcement and the judicial consequences of such a development. Illustrative of the emergent role of courts in enforcing citizens' claims are the areas of historic preservation, noise regulation, and the use of environmental impact statements.


Environmental Law--Introduction, Nicholas A. Robinson Jan 1974

Environmental Law--Introduction, Nicholas A. Robinson

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Despite the vast mountain ranges, rivers, parks, coasts and forests within the bounds of its jurisdiction, the Second Circuit has had little occasion to decide many cases in the area of environmental law. Nonetheless, sufficient decisions do exist to indicate tentative outlines of the Second Circuit's disposition to date of such cases. On balance, the Second Circuit has carefully and conservatively hewed to the mandate of Congress in its construction of statutes, has mediated the competing demands of development and environmental protection, and has cautiously supported conservationists while sharply criticizing some of their tactics in administrative proceedings. This characterization can …


New Dimensions In Corporate Counseling In Environmental Law, Nicholas A. Robinson Jan 1974

New Dimensions In Corporate Counseling In Environmental Law, Nicholas A. Robinson

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This article's thesis is that attorneys cannot wait any longer to begin practicing environmental law. The bar has a responsibility to insure that our laws are obeyed and implemented. In advising a client regarding compliance with environmental laws, the legal counselor has unique opportunities to advance not only the client's interests, but also the public's interest in environmental protection.