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The Secret Lives Of Environmental Rights, Sonya Ziaja Apr 2024

The Secret Lives Of Environmental Rights, Sonya Ziaja

Pace Environmental Law Review

Do constitutional environmental rights change hearts and minds? How could they? This Essay describes three possible hypotheses of the relationships among constitutional environmental rights, meaning, and behavior: The Separate Domains Approach, The Constitutive Approach, and The Mutually Constitutive Approach. The theories underlying these hypotheses, and explored in this Essay, may provide some insight into constitutional environmental rights and how they may evolve throughout generations.


State Constitutions In The Woods, Quinn Yeargain Apr 2024

State Constitutions In The Woods, Quinn Yeargain

Pace Environmental Law Review

Before the adoption of environmental rights provisions beginning in the 1970s, most state constitutions did not contain provisions that protected the natural environment from degradation. Instead, to the contrary, many constitutions—especially in western states—contained policies that have long entrenched carbon-intensive infrastructures and have favored extractive industries. But starting in the early 1900s, a handful of states began amending their constitutions to incorporate environmental policy provisions. These additions helped preserve forested lands by giving state governments the power to respond to uncontrolled forest fires and adopt policies to prevent deforestation. Other amendments established fish and game commissions as constitutional entities, safeguarding …


Some Lessons For Crafting A State Constitution-Based Right To A Clean Environment, Heidi Gorovitz Robertson Apr 2024

Some Lessons For Crafting A State Constitution-Based Right To A Clean Environment, Heidi Gorovitz Robertson

Pace Environmental Law Review

While New York most recently added an environmental rights amendment to its constitution, Pennsylvania and Montana have had these amendments in their constitutions since the seventies. Hawaii, Rhode Island, Illinois, and Massachusetts have enacted weaker iterations of rights to a clean environment. Other states, like Maine, have faced challenges that blocked an amendment’s passage. This Article provides an initial analysis of the state environmental rights amendments currently in place, examining their origins, language, placement in the constitutions, and the major judicial decisions impacting their interpretation. It concludes by comparing the existing environmental rights amendments to the proposed amendment that failed …


Indigenizing The Right To A Healthy Environment, Elisabeth Parker, Heather Tanana Apr 2024

Indigenizing The Right To A Healthy Environment, Elisabeth Parker, Heather Tanana

Pace Environmental Law Review

The most severe impacts resulting from environmental degradation are experienced by already-vulnerable populations, including Indigenous peoples. A growing number of countries are formally recognizing the basic human right to a healthy environment, which can help realize environmental and climate justice for these communities. On July 28, 2022, the United Nations General Assembly passed a landmark resolution formally recognizing the human right to a clean, healthy, and sustainable environment. The adoption of this resolution represents a pivotal moment in the understanding and implementation of a human rights-based approach to protecting the environment. However, it is important to recognize that historically, Indigenous …


Green Amendments, Land Use, And Transportation: What Could Go Wrong?, Michael Lewyn Apr 2024

Green Amendments, Land Use, And Transportation: What Could Go Wrong?, Michael Lewyn

Pace Environmental Law Review

As more states amend their constitutions to include a green amendment, the vague nature of these amendments leaves a concerning amount of interpretative power to courts. This article examines how some courts have interpreted green amendments and how these interpretations risk the misuse of green amendments. Additionally, this article examines how such misuse may be avoided.


The Value Of Constitutional Environmental Rights And Public Trusts, John C. Dernbach Apr 2024

The Value Of Constitutional Environmental Rights And Public Trusts, John C. Dernbach

Pace Environmental Law Review

As part of the modern environmental movement of the 1970s, five states (Hawaii, Illinois, Massachusetts, Montana, and Pennsylvania) adopted constitutional amendments recognizing a right to a quality environment, a public trust for public natural resources, or both. Half a century later, there is a renewed interest in constitutional environmental rights, inspired in no small part by the failure of existing laws to adequately address the climate crisis. A sixth state (New York) recognized a constitutional right to a quality environment in 2021, and more than a dozen states are considering such amendments. Still, the great majority of environmental protection at …


130 Years And Counting Into Forever — New York's Forever Wild Constitutional Amendment And Lessons For Modern Green Amendments, Timothy E. Cox Apr 2024

130 Years And Counting Into Forever — New York's Forever Wild Constitutional Amendment And Lessons For Modern Green Amendments, Timothy E. Cox

Pace Environmental Law Review

In the 135 years of New York’s Forever Wild Amendment’s existence, it has been challenged by a range of court cases and thereby interpreted by courts throughout New York. The results of these cases frequently have upheld the heart of Forever Wild: to protect New York’s Forest Preserve land. This Article provides a history of the Forever Wild Amendment, an analysis of the courts’ and New York Attorney General’s interpretations of the Amendment, and a discussion of how this information can guide the future of New York’s Green Amendment.


Administering Environmental Justice: How New York’S Environmental Rights Amendment Could Transform Business As Usual, Rebecca Bratspies Apr 2024

Administering Environmental Justice: How New York’S Environmental Rights Amendment Could Transform Business As Usual, Rebecca Bratspies

Pace Environmental Law Review

Since New York became the latest state to pass an environmental rights amendment, there has been a great deal of analysis regarding how the judi- ciary will interpret the Green Amendment; however, state and local officials need not wait for the courts to enforce the Green Amendment. This Article explores the authority state and local officials have to carry out the purpose of the Green Amendment. Additionally, it discusses what the passage of the Green Amendment means in practice and how, and why, state officials such as the Attorney General should implement the Green Amendment.


Introduction, Marisa Barber Apr 2024

Introduction, Marisa Barber

Pace Environmental Law Review

Introduction


Should Environmental Protection Be Through Anthropocentric Rights?, Christen Maccone Dec 2023

Should Environmental Protection Be Through Anthropocentric Rights?, Christen Maccone

Pace Environmental Law Review

Environmental constitutional rights are increasingly used as a strategy to protect the environment, with more than seventy countries acknowledging environmental rights in their constitutions. However, constitutions are inherently anthropocentric, making environmental rights created therein of- ten inseparable from human rights. This paper will examine how environ- mental constitutional rights are insufficient due to the anthropocentric nature of constitutions and argue for the need for a more biocentric approach.


The Constitutional Public Trust In A Warming World, Sean Lyness Dec 2023

The Constitutional Public Trust In A Warming World, Sean Lyness

Pace Environmental Law Review

The public trust doctrine—a state-specific doctrine that entrusts certain natural resources to the state to hold for the public—most often exists as a common law doctrine. But a handful of states have constitutionalized their version of the public trust. A growing body of jurisprudential evidence shows the constitutional public trust in action—or not—against climate change. This Article examines these cases brought by governmental plaintiffs—states and local governments—investigating whether constitutionalizing the public trust has made a difference. Although the results are nascent, early signs suggest that a constitutional public trust can result in more comprehensive and aggressive law- suits when wielded …


Reading Between The Lines Of The Ira + Iija Power Gaps, Steven Ferrey Dec 2023

Reading Between The Lines Of The Ira + Iija Power Gaps, Steven Ferrey

Pace Environmental Law Review

Two major pieces of legislation enacted during the Biden Administration – the 2021 Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act (IIJA) and the 2022 Inflation Reduction Act (IRA) – devote hundreds of billions of dollars over the next decade to rapidly increase electrification throughout the United States. While this legislation provides substantial investment in infrastructure, it also demands action from different legal regulators. Renewable energy occupies a much larger land footprint than traditional electric power production. And land-use under the Tenth Amendment is within local and state, rather than federal, jurisdiction. To date, U.S. local land use regulation frustrates such national legislation. …


The Green Amendment: Assessing The Latest Tool In The Environmental Tool Belt, Carolyn Drell, Mia Petrucci Dec 2023

The Green Amendment: Assessing The Latest Tool In The Environmental Tool Belt, Carolyn Drell, Mia Petrucci

Pace Environmental Law Review

In the new edition of Maya K. van Rossum’s book, The Green Amendment: The People’s Fight for a Clean, Safe, and Healthy Environment, she presents the case for adopting green amendments protecting environmental rights into state constitutions and the Federal Constitution. This book review examines van Rossum’s arguments and raises legal concerns that prevent green amendments from providing a silver bullet solution to environmental harms. Despite these concerns that will likely resonate with practitioners, van Rossum increases the accessibility to the topic of green amendments for a wider audience, which is ultimately a net win for environmental advocacy.


Determining An Effective Regulatory Framework For Businesses To Report On The Environment, Climate, And Human Rights, Paco Mengual Aug 2023

Determining An Effective Regulatory Framework For Businesses To Report On The Environment, Climate, And Human Rights, Paco Mengual

Pace International Law Review

The objective of this article is to identify the existing dynamics and clarify the reasoning behind reporting on environmental, climate, and human rights information in search of effective and binding frameworks to enhance transparency. To that effect, this article relates the evolution from a corporate sustainable business focus to reporting on environmental social and governance and increasing corporate accountability. It then expands on defining non- financial information and ESG reporting with regards to recent European Union Regulations (SFDR, Taxonomy) as well as the challenges associated with defining sustainable investments. This article aims to compare and understand the various regulatory strategies …


The Green Future And The Golden Past: Issues And Approaches Regarding The Sustainability Of Historical Structures And Sites, Steven Moctezuma Aug 2023

The Green Future And The Golden Past: Issues And Approaches Regarding The Sustainability Of Historical Structures And Sites, Steven Moctezuma

Pace Environmental Law Review

This Article illustrates the harmonies and conflict between historic preservation and environmental law in the context of urgently meeting climate change challenges. The Article presents an overarching analysis of the relationship between historic preservation and environmentalism, discerning unifying aspects and modern conflicts through statutory laws and case studies. It begins with detailing the parallel goals between the two causes, drawing on key similarities between the National Historic Preservation Act and the National Environmental Policy Act, the main tools for ensuring federal review for each field, and highlighting sustainable refurbishment as a prime example on achieving both ends with the same …


The Need To Reconceptualize Wild Animals Post-Covid 19: Miscoordination Of Wildlife Regulations In China’S Food Legal Order, Yi Seul Kim Aug 2023

The Need To Reconceptualize Wild Animals Post-Covid 19: Miscoordination Of Wildlife Regulations In China’S Food Legal Order, Yi Seul Kim

Pace Environmental Law Review

Today, China is one of the largest markets for wild animal trading. Yet, wild animals are in a regulatory grey area. There is an increasing need to revisit how wild animals are simultaneously but differently regulated in the food and wildlife protection regimes. Rarely do attempts to understand these two regimes occur, making this article's analysis of miscoordination in these bodies of law crucial in addressing the hindrance of nationwide food safety improvement efforts.


Virtuous Cycles: The Interaction Of Public And Private Environmental Governance, Elodie O. Currier Aug 2023

Virtuous Cycles: The Interaction Of Public And Private Environmental Governance, Elodie O. Currier

Pace Environmental Law Review

The climate crisis has provoked a call for action from all sides. Private governance, public regulation, and individual behavior are all vital pieces of our path toward decarbonization and climate adaptation. Despite this, some scholars and policymakers argue that private environmental governance undermines public efforts to regulate climate harms. This paper draws on existing scholarship in law, policy, and psychology to answer these critiques, proposing four taxonomies of beneficial public-private collaboration on environmental governance. It then applies these models, tracking the shift in U.S. environmental legislation from “polluter pays” to “beneficiary pays” strategies to show a shift from rivalry to …


The End Externalities Manifesto: Restatement, Loose Ends, And Unfinished Business, J.B. Ruhl Jun 2023

The End Externalities Manifesto: Restatement, Loose Ends, And Unfinished Business, J.B. Ruhl

Pace Environmental Law Review

Professor J.B. Ruhl observes in his article, “The End Externalities Manifesto: Restatement, Loose Ends, and Unfinished Business,” that Elliott and Esty’s proposal for a rights-centric system of environmental law focuses narrowly on a right to recover compensation for harms to human health caused by pollution. He offers suggestions for implementing that proposal, such as using the concept of ecosystem services to trace how harm to ecosystems can cause harm to human health, and he proposes how Elliott and Esty could extend their rights-centric system to a broader conception of human rights and the environment.


Natural Resource Systems And The Evolution Of Environmental Law, Monika Ehrman Jun 2023

Natural Resource Systems And The Evolution Of Environmental Law, Monika Ehrman

Pace Environmental Law Review

Professor Monika Ehrman provides a pragmatic response to Elliott and Esty’s proposal to end all environmental externalities, which she refers to as an “environmental law moonshot.” She examines the value of transforming environmental law and dreaming big as Elliott and Esty recommend, while discussing the practical considerations of doing so. Her considerations include incentivizing technological advancement, compensating environmentally harmed communities to address systemic issues, and breaking down silos in environmental law.


A Balanced Prescription For More Effective Environmental Regulations, W. Kip Viscusi Jun 2023

A Balanced Prescription For More Effective Environmental Regulations, W. Kip Viscusi

Pace Environmental Law Review

Government agencies increasingly base the structure and approval of environmental regulations on a benefit-cost test. For regulations that pass this test, total benefits exceed total costs. Under a benefit-cost framework, the degree of regulatory stringency is set at an economically efficient level whereby the tightness of the regulation is increased up to the point where the incremental benefits equal the incremental costs. Setting regulatory standards to achieve the efficient degree of pollution control does not fully discourage entry into polluting industries, provide compensation to those harmed by pollution, or establish meaningful incentives for effective enforcement. This article proposes that the …


Environmental Law For The 21st Century, E. Donald Elliott, Daniel C. Esty Jun 2023

Environmental Law For The 21st Century, E. Donald Elliott, Daniel C. Esty

Pace Environmental Law Review

In this issue, Professors Elliott and Esty expand on their original proposal and respond to critics.2 They apply their perspectives as practitioners, as well as academics, to develop their vision for environmental law in the 21st century. They establish three legal duties that should apply to entities that release potentially harmful materials into the environment. Professors Elliott and Esty contend that such entities have a duty (1) of research and disclosure to assure the public that any environmental releases are not harmful, (2) to minimize harm if they fail to demonstrate the releases are harmless, and (3) to compensate those …


Introduction, Gabriella Mickel, Samantha Blend Jun 2023

Introduction, Gabriella Mickel, Samantha Blend

Pace Environmental Law Review

No abstract provided.


Repatriating The Buffalo: Nagpra’S Applicability To Yellowstone Bison Management, Saylor Soinski Mar 2023

Repatriating The Buffalo: Nagpra’S Applicability To Yellowstone Bison Management, Saylor Soinski

Pace Environmental Law Review

The American bison—also known as the buffalo—holds great significance to many Native American people and cultures. Although bison populations have grown since their near destruction in the 19th century, the last remaining wild bison are under threat by the National Park Service’s Yellowstone management plan. Native representatives have had only a limited advisory role in creating the plan, and a number of Native individuals and advocacy groups have spoken out against it. This essay explores the possibility of applying the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act to living animals for the first time, categorizing the bison as “objects of …


The Fast Fashion Industry: Formulating The Future Of Environmental Change, Alexa Maratos Mar 2023

The Fast Fashion Industry: Formulating The Future Of Environmental Change, Alexa Maratos

Pace Environmental Law Review

This Note focuses on the harmful environmental impacts the fast fashion industry has created, and continues to create, on our planet. In the 1960s, consumer attitude towards clothing shifted drastically when demand for new, disposable clothing skyrocketed. These choices led fashion retailers to give life to the environmentally detrimental breed of “fast fashion.” Moving production from a domestic to an international level, increasing the amount of clothing collections on a yearly basis, and lack of transparency in supply chain are just a few examples of the dangers this industry has created for our planet. The fast fashion industry in particular …


Examining Uranium Mining In The Canyon Mine, Kasha Halbleib Mar 2023

Examining Uranium Mining In The Canyon Mine, Kasha Halbleib

Pace Environmental Law Review

In November 2020, Energy Fuels changed the name of one of its uranium mines from “Canyon Mine” to “Pinyon Plain Mine” in order to put distance between the mine and its historical controversies. However, changing the name does not change the potential harm the mine can cause. Canyon Mine sits fifteen miles from the rim of the Grand Canyon and is built on land sacred to the nearby Havasupai Tribe. The mine stands to not only destroy the health and well-being of the Havasupai people by contaminating their water supply with radioactive elements, but also to destroy the sacred ties …


The Big Chill: Are Public Participation Rights Being Slapp-Ed?, Rachel E. Deming Mar 2023

The Big Chill: Are Public Participation Rights Being Slapp-Ed?, Rachel E. Deming

Pace Environmental Law Review

This article focuses on the Petition Clause of the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution and addresses a confounding situation caused by Supreme Court precedents that give greater protection to persons who engage in illegal business practices than to citizens who petition their governments. This dichotomy is especially detrimental to environmental protection.

The crux of the conflict lies in which standard courts should use to determine whether the petitioning activity is protected: the subjective Free Speech standard grafted onto Petition Clause activities or the objective standard initially developed by the Supreme Court for petition activities in antitrust cases. The result …


Fatal Fertilizer: Pfas Contamination Of Farmland From Biosolids And Potential Federal Solutions, Molly Carey Mar 2023

Fatal Fertilizer: Pfas Contamination Of Farmland From Biosolids And Potential Federal Solutions, Molly Carey

Pace Environmental Law Review

Farmers across the country are increasingly discovering devastating levels of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) contamination in their soil, water, and farm products from the spread of biosolid fertilizer. Contamination from these “forever chemicals” is causing farmers to close their businesses, lose their incomes and property values, and confront potential ad- verse health effects from toxic exposure. PFAS are not federally regulated, leaving farmers with no options for federal assistance with contamination crises. This article examines federal regulations that govern the spread of biosolids as well as existing and proposed federal regulations of PFAS. To fill in federal regulatory gaps, …


Death By Committee: Reviving Federal Environmental Justice Legislation To Mitigate Disproportionate Impacts On Vulnerable Communities, Sara Babcock Mar 2023

Death By Committee: Reviving Federal Environmental Justice Legislation To Mitigate Disproportionate Impacts On Vulnerable Communities, Sara Babcock

Pace Environmental Law Review

This Note proposes legislation that provides an avenue for protecting the right to a clean and healthy environment by requiring agencies to consider vulnerable communities before initiating large-scale federal projects. Part I lays out the emergence of environmental justice issues in the United States, including its turning point. Part II introduces both successful and failed attempts at federal environmental justice legislation and analyzes why federal environmental justice legislation continuously fails. Part III dis- cusses how executive environmental justice action becomes pointless to the overall progression of environmental justice and examines President Biden’s progress in the first year of his presidency. …


Examining The Role Of Ags In A Just Transition, Bethany Davis Noll, Terri Gerstein Jan 2023

Examining The Role Of Ags In A Just Transition, Bethany Davis Noll, Terri Gerstein

Pace Environmental Law Review

Tackling the climate crisis requires transitioning from fossil fuel to clean energy, which will necessarily have a significant impact on jobs and the economy overall. The impact of this shift has sometimes been feared as a development that will be harmful to workers and the economy. Fossil fuel jobs are seen as good jobs--well-paid jobs with good benefits and protections--while the emerging clean energy industry has not yet uniformly embraced a high-road employment model. But workers’ rights and environmental concerns are not fundamentally incompatible. There are many policies and tools that can be and are being harnessed to bring about …


Bearing The Torch: A Green New Deal For New York State Agriculture, Jack Hornickel Jan 2023

Bearing The Torch: A Green New Deal For New York State Agriculture, Jack Hornickel

Pace Environmental Law Review

No abstract provided.