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Full-Text Articles in Law

Rethinking Genocidal Intent: The Case For A Knowledge-Based Interpretation, Alexander K.A. Greenawalt Jan 1999

Rethinking Genocidal Intent: The Case For A Knowledge-Based Interpretation, Alexander K.A. Greenawalt

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

From its initial codification in the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide to its most recent inclusion in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, the international crime of genocide has been defined as involving an "intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such." The predominant interpetation of this language views genocide as a crime of "specific" or "special" intent, in which the perpetrator deliberately seeks the whole or partial destruction of a protected group. This Note pursues an alternate approach. Relying on both the history of …


The Utility Of International Law For Protecting Women's Health Rights, Vanessa Merton Jan 1997

The Utility Of International Law For Protecting Women's Health Rights, Vanessa Merton

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

There is one area, however, where international law seems to hold promise; certain cultural practices that pose special, direct threats to the lives and health of women (although male infants and children often share women's vulnerability in this regard). I have in mind sexual slavery, coercive prostitution and pornographic exploitation, rape, compulsory marriage, coerced impregnation and its converse, coerced abortion and sterilization; spousal abuse, dowry deaths and coerced suicide, female infanticide and sex-specific abortion. All of these practices are the product not of microbes, poor hygiene, or a lack of health care, but of deliberate human behavior. All these practices …


The Law Of Sustainable Development, Nicholas A. Robinson Jan 1996

The Law Of Sustainable Development, Nicholas A. Robinson

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

I am going to talk briefly, as dictated by the format of this seminar, about the law of sustainable development and how it has been developing. Sustainable development is, today, the guiding theme for both public and private measures to improve social conditions and strengthen economic conditions around the world. It did not become a guiding theme overnight. The recognition that sustainable development is fundamental has been growing gradually. The concept recognizes that the sort of development that was popular in the 1960s and 1970s in the United States of America and elsewhere was, by itself, an inadequate base on …


Defensively Invoking Treaties In American Courts--Jurisdictional Challenges Under The U.N. Drug Trafficking Convention By Foreign Defendants Kidnapped Abroad By U.S. Agents, Thomas Michael Mcdonnell Jan 1996

Defensively Invoking Treaties In American Courts--Jurisdictional Challenges Under The U.N. Drug Trafficking Convention By Foreign Defendants Kidnapped Abroad By U.S. Agents, Thomas Michael Mcdonnell

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This Article unravels the non-self-executing treaty doctrine, examines the invocation of a treaty as a defense to governmental action, and develops a test for when an individual (rather than a government) may assert a treaty defensively in state or federal courts. Lastly, this Article applies this test to state-sponsored kidnapping and the U.N. Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. The parties to this treaty, which was sponsored by the United States, barred one country's law enforcement agents from operating without permission on another country's soil and rejected a provision requiring a country to extradite its own …


Iucn's Proposed Covenant On Environment & Development, Nicholas A. Robinson Jan 1995

Iucn's Proposed Covenant On Environment & Development, Nicholas A. Robinson

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This article examines the genesis and scope of the IUCN draft Covenant. It (a) describes IUCN's interest and experience in preparing the proposed draft Covenant; (b) analyzes the roles the draft Covenant can serve; and (c) identifies some illustrative precedents for the Articles of the draft Covenant.


International Trends In Environmental Impact Assessment, Nicholas A. Robinson Jan 1992

International Trends In Environmental Impact Assessment, Nicholas A. Robinson

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This paper explores the range of legislation that has created the EIA mandate. A more comprehensive study of all EIA laws is under preparation by the Commission on Environmental Law of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, but this study will not be complete until 1992. In the absence of such an exhaustive analysis, this paper sketches the global legislative trends in EIA.


English White Paper Law Reforms: An Outline For Equal Access To Justice?, Jay C. Carlisle Jan 1990

English White Paper Law Reforms: An Outline For Equal Access To Justice?, Jay C. Carlisle

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

It is highly likely that by the end of 1989, legislation proposing the most dramatic changes in the English legal profession in this century will be introduced by the Lord Chancellor of Great Britain in the House of Lords. If Lords approve the legislation, it will be sent to the House of Commons early in 1990 and will become effective by Royal Assent shortly thereafter. The Lord Chancellor's reforms will abolish the barristers' monopoly of audience in higher courts, partially limit the statutory bar on multidisciplinary and multinational partnerships, introduce a modified contingency fee, permit building societies and banks to …


Soviet Environmental Protection: The Challenge For Legal Studies, Nicholas A. Robinson Jan 1989

Soviet Environmental Protection: The Challenge For Legal Studies, Nicholas A. Robinson

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

The five essays by Soviet environmental law specialists published in this volume of the Pace Environmental Law Review provide insights into the contemporary debate in the USSR about how to protect nature. Before commenting on each essay, it is useful to sketch out the problems which the Soviet Union is encountering as it struggles to cope with its substantial pollution and widespread natural resource misuse.


Straight Baselines In International Law: A Call For Reconsideration, Gayl S. Westerman Jan 1988

Straight Baselines In International Law: A Call For Reconsideration, Gayl S. Westerman

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The U.S. - U.S.S.R. Agreement To Protect The Environment: 15 Years Of Cooperation, Nicholas A. Robinson Jan 1988

The U.S. - U.S.S.R. Agreement To Protect The Environment: 15 Years Of Cooperation, Nicholas A. Robinson

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This Article will discuss the origins and operation of the Environmental Bilateral, its functioning in international law, and its contribution to environmental law in each country.


Perestroika And Priroda: Environmental Protection In The Ussr, Nicholas A. Robinson Jan 1988

Perestroika And Priroda: Environmental Protection In The Ussr, Nicholas A. Robinson

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This article reviews the initial Soviet decisions through 1988, applying perestroika to the problem of protecting priroda. Surveyed here is the scope of the ecological problems in the USSR and traditional responses, followed by an examination of the current Soviet policy to restructure its administrative and legal system for environmental protection. These initial reforms will not all result in a direct or immediate improvement of the Soviet environmental protection regime. For instance, the reforms also are stimulating the Soviet "not in my backyard" (NIMBY) phenomenon, or local opposition to the siting of developments ranging from electrical power plants, to facilities …


The Juridical Status Of The Gulf Of Taranto: A Brief Reply, Gayl S. Westerman Jan 1984

The Juridical Status Of The Gulf Of Taranto: A Brief Reply, Gayl S. Westerman

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

The special problem of identifying the juridical nature of coastal indentations is but one aspect of a more fundamental problem: the need to accommodate the legitimate exclusive interests of coastal states in maximizing wealth, power, and national security with the inclusive interests of the community of states in maximizing freedom of the seas. Throughout historical cycles of mares liberum and clausum, this fundamental accommodation has remained the central focus of the international law of the sea. Even today, after thoroughgoing codification efforts in 1958 and 1982: the legal regime of the oceans remains in transition.


Review Of International Product Liability, David S. Cohen Jan 1981

Review Of International Product Liability, David S. Cohen

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Introduction: Emerging International Environmental Law, Nicholas A. Robinson Jan 1981

Introduction: Emerging International Environmental Law, Nicholas A. Robinson

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This Introduction notes the emerging mandate for international environmental law and the concurrent problems of implementation. It focuses on two particular applications of this new mandate: the United States-Panama Joint Environment Commission for the Panama Canal, and the suggested role of the United Nations Environment Programme in developing a system of global environmental hazard alerts.


When Smoke Gets In Your Eyes: Proposed Ratification By The United States Of The Geneva Protocol On Chemical-Biological Warfare, Linda C. Fentiman Jan 1974

When Smoke Gets In Your Eyes: Proposed Ratification By The United States Of The Geneva Protocol On Chemical-Biological Warfare, Linda C. Fentiman

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

In light of the Japanese proposal, the current disarmament talks, the Administration's review of the United States' chemical warfare policy, the Defense Department's request for appropriations for production of binary weapons, and the as yet unratified Convention on Bacteriological Weapons and Toxins, it seems more important than ever for the Senate to give its advice and consent to the ratification of the Geneva Protocol. Since the dispute between the Administration and the Senate Foreign Relations Committee is over the interpretation of the scope of the Protocol's chemical warfare prohibition, it seems particularly appropriate at this time to determine whether or …


Extraterritorial Environmental Protection Obligations Of Foreign Affairs Agencies: The Unfulfilled Mandate Of Nepa, Nicholas A. Robinson Jan 1974

Extraterritorial Environmental Protection Obligations Of Foreign Affairs Agencies: The Unfulfilled Mandate Of Nepa, Nicholas A. Robinson

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This article will focus on the initial Department of State position, as set forth in a legal memorandum which interpreted NEPA as not requiring compliance by a foreign affairs agency. It will then examine the language of the Act and its legislative history. Finally, the article will reveal a pattern of official self-insulation from national environmental policy, illustrated by the Export-Import Bank's continuing refusal to comply with NEPA's requirements. It will suggest that much remains to be done if NEPA is to be fully effective in governing the extraterritorial consequences of the federal government's actions.