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Exposing The Glass Ceiling And Social Exclusion Of Arabs In The Israeli Labor Market, Neta Nadiv Aug 2023

Exposing The Glass Ceiling And Social Exclusion Of Arabs In The Israeli Labor Market, Neta Nadiv

Pace International Law Review

This article presents the conservative claim that the public sector ought to lead by example to influence social employment patterns, across the public and private sectors. The hypothesis is that affirmative action plans are instrumental in establishing change in employment processes and are additionally essential in advancing the social concept of employment diversity. In the absence of a clear obligation and set requirements for the inclusion of Arab employees in Israel, an under-represented group, it is likely no significant change in employment patterns will be seen. This article details how current affirmative action plans advocate for integration merely on paper …


Bargaining For Integration, Shirley Lin Dec 2021

Bargaining For Integration, Shirley Lin

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requires employers to restructure exclusionary environments upon the request of their employees with disabilities so that they may continue working. Under a virtually unexamined aspect of the mandate, however, the parties must negotiate in good faith over every accommodation request. This “interactive process,” while decentralized and potentially universal, occurs on a private, individualized basis.

Although the very existence of the mandate has been heavily debated, the scholarship has yet to acknowledge that the ADA is actually ambivalent to individuals’ relative power to effect organizational change through bargaining. This Article is the first to critique …


The Ground On Which We All Stand: A Conversation About Menstrual Equity Law And Activism, Bridget J. Crawford, Margaret E. Johnson, Marcy L. Karin, Laura Strausfeld Esq., Emily Gold Waldman Apr 2020

The Ground On Which We All Stand: A Conversation About Menstrual Equity Law And Activism, Bridget J. Crawford, Margaret E. Johnson, Marcy L. Karin, Laura Strausfeld Esq., Emily Gold Waldman

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This essay grows out of a panel discussion among five lawyers on the subject of menstrual equity activism. Each of the authors is a scholar, activist or organizer involved in some form of menstrual equity work. The overall project is both enriched and complicated by an intersectional analysis.

This essay increases awareness of existing menstrual equity and menstrual justice work; it also identifies avenues for further inquiry, next steps for legal action, and opportunities that lie ahead. After describing prior and current work at the junction of law and menstruation, the contributors evaluate the successes and limitations of recent legal …


Dehumanization 'Because Of Sex': The Multiaxial Approach To The Title Vii Rights Of Sexual Minorities, Shirley Lin Jan 2020

Dehumanization 'Because Of Sex': The Multiaxial Approach To The Title Vii Rights Of Sexual Minorities, Shirley Lin

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Although Title VII prohibits discrimination against any employee “because of such individual’s . . . sex,” legal commentators have not yet accurately appraised Title VII’s trait and causation requirements embodied in that phrase. Since 2015, most courts assessing the sex discrimination claims of LGBT employees began to intentionally analyze “sex” as a trait using social-construction evidence, and evaluated separately whether the discriminatory motive caused the workplace harm. Responding to what this Article terms a “doctrinal correction” to causation within this groundswell of decisions, the Supreme Court recently issued an “expansive” and “sweeping” reformulation of but-for causation in Bostock v. Clayton …


Janus, Union Member Speech, And The Public Employee Speech Doctrine, M. Linton Wright Sep 2019

Janus, Union Member Speech, And The Public Employee Speech Doctrine, M. Linton Wright

Pace Law Review

In Janus v. American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees (“AFSCME”), the Supreme Court held that public sector unions can no longer collect fees from nonmembers to fund the costs of representing them in collective bargaining and grievance proceedings. The Court determined that virtually all union speech is political speech and that collection of these fees is impermissible compelled speech under the First Amendment. However, not everything in Janus harms public union interests. The Janus Court’s discussion of Garcetti v. Cabellos and Connick v. Myers actually helps protect union member speech in the context of First Amendment retaliation cases. …


Compensation Is All-American: Former College Football Star Chris Spielman’S Case Against His Alma Mater And How It Could Affect The Ncaa’S Amateurism Rules, Jason Mcintyre Apr 2019

Compensation Is All-American: Former College Football Star Chris Spielman’S Case Against His Alma Mater And How It Could Affect The Ncaa’S Amateurism Rules, Jason Mcintyre

Pace Law Review

The lawsuit, Spielman v. IMG College, arose when Ohio State University (“OSU”) entered into a marketing deal through their marketing agency, IMG College (“IMG”), with corporations Honda Motor Co. (“Honda”) and Nike USA Inc. (“Nike”), to hang banners depicting images of former college athletes at school sporting events. Charles “Chris” Spielman, the named Plaintiff and former NCAA football player at OSU, brought this lawsuit because he claims that OSU and IMG unreasonably and illegally restrained trade by denying him the right to profit from his name, image, and likeness.

This case plays a role in the ongoing conversation of whether …


Inclusion Riders And Diversity Mandates, Emily Gold Waldman Jan 2019

Inclusion Riders And Diversity Mandates, Emily Gold Waldman

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

In this piece, I situate these sorts of diversity requests within the broader context of other customer/client preferences that implicate Title VII. To be sure, the “inclusion riders” are not literal customer/client requests, but rather requests from celebrities who are themselves being hired by the employer for a specific project. Broadly speaking, however, they raise the same legal issue regarding third-party preferences that implicate protected characteristics under Title VII.

As a starting point, the general rule within employment discrimination law is that customer preferences cannot justify discriminatory treatment by employers. That baseline has led courts to rule that employers cannot, …


The Birth Of A Nation: A Study Of Slavery In Seventeenth-Century Virginia, Randolph M. Mclaughlin Jan 2019

The Birth Of A Nation: A Study Of Slavery In Seventeenth-Century Virginia, Randolph M. Mclaughlin

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Race based slavery in North America had its origins in seventeenth-century Virginia. Initially, the position of the African worker was similar to that of the indentured servants from England. During the early to mid-seventeenth century, both African and English indentured servants served for a period of years and received the protections to which a servant was entitled. However, during the 1640s there appeared examples of Africans also being held as slaves. Thus, during the seventeenth century there existed a dual system of servitude or bondage for the African worker. One basis for this duality was the common law practice that …


The Devil You Don’T Know: Implicit Bias Keeps Women In Their Place, Michele N. Struffolino May 2018

The Devil You Don’T Know: Implicit Bias Keeps Women In Their Place, Michele N. Struffolino

Pace Law Review

While men’s claims of gender bias in the family law system are acknowledged, this article focuses on how bias, whether implicit or explicit under the guise of unconscious attitudes or behavior, continues to place women at a systemic disadvantage. Although implicit bias also impacts outcomes in child abuse and neglect actions involving the state, the focus of this article is the impact of implicit bias in actions between women and men in the family courts, in particular those issues involved in the dissolution of the relationship and the family unit. First, the emergence of implicit social cognition theory will be …


The Justice Of Unequal Pay In The Ufc: An In-Depth Analysis Of The Fighters’ Antitrust Class Action Lawsuit Against The Ufc And The Misplaced Support Of The Proposed Muhammad Ali Expansion Act, Hunter Sundberg Jan 2018

The Justice Of Unequal Pay In The Ufc: An In-Depth Analysis Of The Fighters’ Antitrust Class Action Lawsuit Against The Ufc And The Misplaced Support Of The Proposed Muhammad Ali Expansion Act, Hunter Sundberg

Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum

In 2016, the Ultimate Fighting Championships (“UFC”) set the record for the largest sale in sports history. The UFC, the primary promotion company of the once fringe sport of mixed martial arts (“MMA”) had matured into a mammoth 4 billion dollar promotion, but not without some growing pains. The league is replete with controversy, mostly dealing with disgruntled athletes over compensation. Athletes of the UFC feel that they are being financially exploited and they may be correct. The athletes are choosing different routes to remedy their pay disparities but they are misguided.

The first course of action chosen by the …


The Preferred Preferences In Employment Discrimination Law, Emily Gold Waldman Jan 2018

The Preferred Preferences In Employment Discrimination Law, Emily Gold Waldman

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

In theory, customer preferences cannot justify discriminatory treatment by employers. The reality is more complicated. Built into the structure of federal employment discrimination law are several openings for customer preferences to provide employer defenses to what would otherwise likely be actionable discrimination.

This Article explores when and which customer preferences can enter those openings. It focuses on what I deem the “preferred preferences”: the customer preferences that have formed the basis of successful employer defenses to discrimination claims. This Article identifies and evaluates six such preferences: (1) aesthetic appeal; (2) physical privacy from employees of the opposite sex; (3) psychological …


How Organizing Collegiate Student-Athletes Under The National Labor Relations Act With The Ncaa As A Joint Employer Can Lead To Significant Changes To The Student-Athlete Compensation Rules, Andrew Gruna Jun 2017

How Organizing Collegiate Student-Athletes Under The National Labor Relations Act With The Ncaa As A Joint Employer Can Lead To Significant Changes To The Student-Athlete Compensation Rules, Andrew Gruna

Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum

This paper will provide an overview of how National Labor Relations Board cases of Northwestern University and Browning Ferris combined with the analysis presented in the National Labor Relations Board General Counsel Memorandum GC 17-01: General Counsel’s Report on the Statutory Rights of University Faculty and Students in the Unfair Labor Practice Context could impact the laws behind unionization, the contracts of university athletes, and, ultimately through contract negotiations, reintroduce the discussion regarding compensation of student-athletes.


Nba-Age Restrictions: Should The Nba Follow In The Footsteps Of Major League Baseball?, Bryan Kelly Jun 2017

Nba-Age Restrictions: Should The Nba Follow In The Footsteps Of Major League Baseball?, Bryan Kelly

Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum

This paper will discuss the outlook of current NBA prospects and the development of age restrictions. It will also shed light on several key cases and Collective Bargaining Agreements including: Wood v. National Basketball Association, and Denver Rockets v. All Pro Management, Inc. and the NBA CBA. After that, an analysis of Sherman Antitrust Law and current case law concerning age restrictions in sports, and analyze the possibility for age-restrictions to be argued through the court system. Finally, this paper will look into the NBPA’s duty of representation towards NBA prospects and how the NBPA can take ideas from a …


Ufc Fighters Are Taking A Beating Because They Are Misclassified As Independent Contractors. An Employee Classification Would Change The Fight Game For The Ufc, Its Fighters, And Mma, Vincent Salminen Jun 2017

Ufc Fighters Are Taking A Beating Because They Are Misclassified As Independent Contractors. An Employee Classification Would Change The Fight Game For The Ufc, Its Fighters, And Mma, Vincent Salminen

Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum

The current state of affairs in the sport of mixed martial arts (MMA) is overwhelmingly in favor of the companies promoting the fights and not in favor of the athletes actually putting their health and lives at risk. This article looks at the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) and how it classifies its fighters as independent contractors rather than employees, even though it treats the fighters more like employees. This article addresses issues fighters are having with the current classification and then examines how the fighters could be classified as employees. Finally, the article will address what an employee classification would …


Labor Leading On Climate: A Policy Platform To Address Rising Inequality And Rising Sea Levels In New York State, J. Mijin Cha Jun 2017

Labor Leading On Climate: A Policy Platform To Address Rising Inequality And Rising Sea Levels In New York State, J. Mijin Cha

Pace Environmental Law Review

With the renewed need for state action, this paper presents a case study of a labor-led initiative in New York State that seeks to address both economic inequality and the climate crisis. It discusses how organized labor, which has historically represented fossil fuel workers and has not been seen as a traditional climate ally, put forth a comprehensive climate jobs plan that could meaningfully reduce carbon emissions while also creating good, family-sustaining jobs to reduce income inequality. As the need for a broader coalition to advocate for sensible climate policy increases, this case study provides a road map for states …


Transition Support Mechanisms For Communities Facing Full Or Partial Coal Power Plant Retirement In New York, Lisa Anne Hamilton, Radina Valova, Karl R. Rábago Mar 2017

Transition Support Mechanisms For Communities Facing Full Or Partial Coal Power Plant Retirement In New York, Lisa Anne Hamilton, Radina Valova, Karl R. Rábago

Environmental Law Program Publications @ Haub Law

New York State is undergoing a rapid and unprecedented energy transformation, particularly in the electricity sector. As new resources and technologies emerge to meet the demands of 21st century life, regulators must balance the need for cost effective and equitable participation in wholesale power markets while maintaining reliability on the grid. Furthermore, it is critical that all New Yorkers participate fully in the promise of a revitalized and equitable energy future. Such a transformation requires that the needs of all communities are factored into the polices and regulations that move New York toward the bold goals set forth under its …


The Uberization Of Arbitration Clauses, Jill I. Gross Jan 2017

The Uberization Of Arbitration Clauses, Jill I. Gross

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

In the early part of this decade, the Supreme Court’s decisions interpreting the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA) strictly enforced predispute arbitration clauses (PDAAs) with class action waivers and so-called “delegation” provisions in consumer contracts. Just after the Court’s 2013 ruling that clauses with class action waivers did not prevent claimants from vindicating their statutory rights, Uber— a company at the heart of the “gig economy”—started inserting PDAAs in agreements with its drivers and passengers. Uber’s move has generated dozens of challenges to its clause in lawsuits across the country, and thus dozens of federal court opinions contributing to modern FAA …


After Tackett: Incomplete Contracts For Post-Employment Healthcare, Maria O'Brien Hylton Apr 2016

After Tackett: Incomplete Contracts For Post-Employment Healthcare, Maria O'Brien Hylton

Pace Law Review

This is a story about a union and a private sector employer who repeatedly negotiated collective bargaining agreements which referenced side contracts which provided retirees with post-employment healthcare benefits. In the early decades of their relationship neither the union nor the employer appear to have given any thought to whether or not these retiree health benefits in fact vested—i.e. were promised to retirees at no cost for the remainder of their lives. By the 1980s and certainly the 1990s however, as health care costs soared and life expectancy expanded, both parties continued to regularly re-negotiate agreements that were silent as …


'And Ain't I A Woman?': Feminism, Immigrant Caregivers, And New Frontiers For Equality, Shirley Lin Jan 2016

'And Ain't I A Woman?': Feminism, Immigrant Caregivers, And New Frontiers For Equality, Shirley Lin

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This Article argues that feminist and other critical legal theories can address the profound inequalities that immigrant workers face. Part I draws from a body of feminist, political, and social science theories regarding social reproduction to assess the situation of immigrant domestic workers and their recent efforts to claim inclusion in workplace laws and protections. It locates the increasingly carceral dynamics that are expressed in the law and in state infrastructure and continuously undermine immigrant women's economic and social stability, as explained in further detail in Parts L.A and I.B.2, infra. Unbeknownst to many, the present period is the most …


Naquin V. Elevating Boats, Llc: The Fifth Circuit’S Improper Expansion Of Jones Act “Seaman Status” Qualification, Timothy M. O'Hara Nov 2015

Naquin V. Elevating Boats, Llc: The Fifth Circuit’S Improper Expansion Of Jones Act “Seaman Status” Qualification, Timothy M. O'Hara

Pace Law Review

The story began nearly a century ago, when Congress enacted the Jones Act and effectively made “seamen the most generously treated personal injury victims in American law.” But defining a Jones Act seaman has not come easy, as it took the United States Supreme Court seventy five years to arrive at the modern seaman status test. This commentary examines the “tortured history” of the Jones Act, how qualification for the statute’s protections has evolved, the modern seaman status test, and the implications of the Fifth Circuit’s recent application thereof. Section II gives a brief history and explanation of maritime law …


Here We Are Now, Entertain Us: Defining The Line Between Personal And Professional Context On Social Media, Raizel Liebler, Keidra Chaney May 2015

Here We Are Now, Entertain Us: Defining The Line Between Personal And Professional Context On Social Media, Raizel Liebler, Keidra Chaney

Pace Law Review

Social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram allow individuals and companies to connect directly and regularly with an audience of peers or with the public at large. These websites combine the audience-building platforms of mass media with the personal data and relationships of in-person social networks. Due to a combination of evolving user activity and frequent updates to functionality and user features, social media tools blur the line of whether a speaker is perceived as speaking to a specific and presumed private audience, a public expression of one’s own personal views, or a representative viewpoint of an entire …


A Failure To Supervise: How The Bureaucracy And The Courts Abandoned Their Intended Roles Under Erisa, Lauren R. Roth Jul 2014

A Failure To Supervise: How The Bureaucracy And The Courts Abandoned Their Intended Roles Under Erisa, Lauren R. Roth

Pace Law Review

This Article addresses how courts failed to adequately supervise employers administering pension plans before ERISA. Relying on a number of different legal theories—from an initial theory that pensions were gratuities offered by employers to the recognition that pension promises could create contractual rights—the courts repeatedly found ways to allow employers to promise much and provide little to workers expecting retirement security. In Section III, this Article addresses how Congress failed to create an effective structure for strong bureaucratic enforcement and the bureaucratic agencies with enforcement responsibilities failed to fulfill those functions. Finally, in Section IV, this Article discusses how the …


I’M The One Making The Money, Now Where’S My Cut? Revisiting The Student-Athlete As An “Employee” Under The National Labor Relations Act, John J. Leppler Mar 2014

I’M The One Making The Money, Now Where’S My Cut? Revisiting The Student-Athlete As An “Employee” Under The National Labor Relations Act, John J. Leppler

Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum

This Article argues why the National Collegiate Athletic Association’s (NCAA) Big-Time Division I College Football and Men’s Basketball student-athletes are legally “employees” and why these student-athletes are inadequately compensated for their revenue-producing skills.

Part II of this Article sets forth the common law “right of control” test and the National Labor Relation Act’s (NLRA) special statutory test for students in a university setting, and shows how the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) and the judiciary determine whether a particular person, specifically a university student, meets these standards and is legally an “employee”. Moreover, the NCAA asserts it does not have …


Neither Panacea, Placebo, Nor Poison: Examining The Rise Of Anti-Unemployment Discrimination Laws, Seth Katsuya Endo Mar 2014

Neither Panacea, Placebo, Nor Poison: Examining The Rise Of Anti-Unemployment Discrimination Laws, Seth Katsuya Endo

Pace Law Review

Since 2009, the unemployment rate in the United States has remained above eight percent, which means that more than twelve million individuals have been looking for work at any given time. With so many affected individuals, unemployment has become an issue of public concern, particularly as stories describing employers refusing to consider currently unemployed candidates for job opportunities have proliferated. In response to these trends, about twenty states and the federal government have passed, or are considering, legislation designed to prohibit employers from discriminating against individuals based on their employment status.

The goal of this Article is to survey the …


Managed Cooperation In A Post-Sago Mine Disaster World, Patrick R. Baker Jul 2013

Managed Cooperation In A Post-Sago Mine Disaster World, Patrick R. Baker

Pace Law Review

This article proposes a Commission mandated mediation process that will offer a solution to the case backlog that prevents regulatory capture while promoting managed cooperation and communication toward a common goal: safety. While the Commission has implemented new rules, procedures, and steps that have helped the backlog, these improvements have only addressed the symptoms and not the cause. Currently, the solutions have focused on how to reduce the case backlog, instead of creating a system that allows for communication and cooperation, while ensuring compliance and safety. While there has been disagreement as to whether or not the case backlog undermines …


An Analysis Of The United States Employment Immigration System In Attracting And Retaining Skilled Workers And The Effects Of Its Dichotomous Objectives—Competitiveness Versus Protectionism: A Case For Reform?, Vignaswari Saminathan Jun 2012

An Analysis Of The United States Employment Immigration System In Attracting And Retaining Skilled Workers And The Effects Of Its Dichotomous Objectives—Competitiveness Versus Protectionism: A Case For Reform?, Vignaswari Saminathan

Pace Law Review

The aim of this Article is to analyze the dichotomous objectives of U.S. immigration policy and to determine what recourse exists to improve the competitiveness of the U.S. immigration system and to ensure adequate protection for U.S. workers. Given that the H-1B visa, the temporary nonimmigrant visa category, has become a very important stepping stone to legal permanent residency, this Article will examine the developments and impact of the dichotomous measures within the context of the H-1B as well as the second employment-based preference category (EB-2) and the third employment-based preference category (EB-3). As such, Part II of this Article …


Private Resolution Of Public Disputes: Employment, Arbitration, And The Statutory Cause Of Action, Griffin Toronjo Pivateau Jun 2012

Private Resolution Of Public Disputes: Employment, Arbitration, And The Statutory Cause Of Action, Griffin Toronjo Pivateau

Pace Law Review

In this Article, I argue that arbitration agreements fall somewhere along the middle of the rights/contract continuum. My understanding of the nature of arbitration agreements relies on a previously existing area of employment law. There is a particular aspect of the employment relationship that, while open to contract, remains subject to constraints imposed by the law. A noncompete agreement permits an employee to contract with his employer to not work for a competitor following the termination of the employment relationship. This right to contract away the right to compete is, however, narrowly construed by the court system. A court may …


Continuing The White-Collar Unionization Movement: Imagining A Private Attorneys’ Union, Kimberly Y. Chin Jun 2012

Continuing The White-Collar Unionization Movement: Imagining A Private Attorneys’ Union, Kimberly Y. Chin

Pace Law Review

Given the still-rebounding legal market and the secrecy that characterized the employment decisions at many of the nation’s top law firms during the height of attorney layoffs, this Article imagines the formation of private attorney labor unions as a possible solution. Part I briefly discusses the National Labor Relations Act of 1935, the primary piece of legislation that governs employees’ right to organize and collectively bargain, focusing primarily on who is covered with particular attention placed on the inclusion of professional employees. Part II introduces an understanding of white-collar professionals as a distinct economic class, highlighting specifically its similarities and …


Discriminatory Retaliation: Title Vii Protection For The Cooperating Employee, Megan E. Mowrey Jun 2009

Discriminatory Retaliation: Title Vii Protection For The Cooperating Employee, Megan E. Mowrey

Pace Law Review

No abstract provided.


Fulfilling Lucy's Legacy: Recognizing Implicit Good-Faith Obligations Within Explicit Job Duties, Emily Gold Waldman Jan 2008

Fulfilling Lucy's Legacy: Recognizing Implicit Good-Faith Obligations Within Explicit Job Duties, Emily Gold Waldman

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Wood v. Lucy, Lady Duff-Gordon is often cited for the principle that every contract contains an implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing. Yet the very source of that decision--the New York Court of Appeals--has been emphatically unwilling to recognize an implied good-faith covenant in the context of employment relationships, given the judicial presumption of employment at will. This essay criticizes the New York Court of Appeals' conclusion that the implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing must yield to the presumption of employment at will, and advocates a more balanced approach.