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The Sec And Accounting, In Part Through The Eyes Of Pacioli, Matthew J. Barrett Mar 2005

The Sec And Accounting, In Part Through The Eyes Of Pacioli, Matthew J. Barrett

Journal Articles

As part of a symposium marking the seventieth anniversary of the creation of the Securities and Exchange Commission, this article pulls together two threads, namely Luca Pacioli's prominence in accounting and the importance of the Management's Discussion and Analysis (MD&A) requirements that seek to give investors an opportunity to view a public company through the eyes of management, to evaluate the SEC's record on certain accounting issues. Because writers in legal journals have largely ignored Pacioli's efforts, the article begins by highlighting some of the friar's contributions to accounting precepts. The article next applies some of those precepts in a …


Relocating Disorder, Nicole Stelle Garnett Jan 2005

Relocating Disorder, Nicole Stelle Garnett

Journal Articles

Judicial challenges to order-maintenance policing apparently are leading some city officials to adapt the tools of property regulation to a task traditionally reserved for the police - the control of disorderly people. Examples of efforts to regulate disorder, ex ante, through land-management strategies include homeless campuses that centralize housing and social services, neighborhood exclusion zone policies that empower local officials to exclude disorderly individuals from struggling communities, and the selective targeting of inner-city neighborhoods for aggressive property inspections. These tactics employ different management techniques - some concentrate disorder and others disperse it - but they have same goal: to relocate …


The Congressional Response To Corporate Expatriations: The Tension Between Symbols And Substance In The Taxation Of Multinational Corporations, Michael Kirsch Jan 2005

The Congressional Response To Corporate Expatriations: The Tension Between Symbols And Substance In The Taxation Of Multinational Corporations, Michael Kirsch

Journal Articles

During the past few years, several high-profile U.S.-based multinational corporations have changed their tax residence from the United States to Bermuda or some other tax haven. They have accomplished these expatriations, and the resulting millions of dollars of annual tax savings, merely by changing the place of incorporation of their corporate parent, without the need to make any substantive changes to their business operations or their U.S.-based management structure. Congress and the media have focused significant attention on this phenomenon. Despite this attention, Congress initially enacted only a non-tax provision targeting corporate expatriations - a purported ban on expatriated companies …


Sacrifice, The Common Good, And The Catholic Lawyer, John J. Coughlin Jan 2005

Sacrifice, The Common Good, And The Catholic Lawyer, John J. Coughlin

Journal Articles

For some two decades since I entered law school, the connection between the philosophy of the human person and law has been of comparative interest to me. My interest was stimulated in no small part by the late Pope John Paul II, who urged that canon law reflect the essential elements of what it means to be human. Comparative legal study of the canon law of the Catholic Church with the law of the liberal state has convinced me of the importance of the understanding of the human person that underpins the law. Canon law and the Catholic intellectual tradition …


Spyware And The Limits Of Surveillance Law, Patricia L. Bellia Jan 2005

Spyware And The Limits Of Surveillance Law, Patricia L. Bellia

Journal Articles

For policymakers, litigants, and commentators seeking to address the threats digital technology poses for privacy, electronic surveillance law remains a weapon of choice. The debate over how best to respond to the spyware problem provides only the most recent illustration of that fact. Although there is much controversy over how to define spyware, that label encompasses at least some software that monitors a computer user's electronic communications. Federal surveillance statutes thus present an intuitive fit for responding to the regulatory challenges of spyware, because those statutes bar the unauthorized acquisition of electronic communications and related data in some circumstances. Indeed, …


The (Surprising) Truth About Schiavo: A Defeat For The Cause Of Autonomy, O. Carter Snead Jan 2005

The (Surprising) Truth About Schiavo: A Defeat For The Cause Of Autonomy, O. Carter Snead

Journal Articles

A survey of the commentary following the conclusion of the Theresa Marie Schiavo matter leaves one with the impression that the case was a victory for the cause of autonomy and the right of self-determination in the end-of-life context. In this essay, I seek to challenge this thesis and demonstrate that, contrary to popular understanding, it is the defenders of autonomy and self-determination who should be most troubled by what transpired in the Schiavo case. In support of this claim, I will first set forth (in cursory fashion) the underlying aim of the defenders of autonomy in this context. Then, …


In The Mountain/Green Eggheads And Old Hams, Thomas L. Shaffer Jan 2005

In The Mountain/Green Eggheads And Old Hams, Thomas L. Shaffer

Journal Articles

This article presents In the Mountain and Green Eggheads and Old Hams. Green Eggheads and Old Hams is an academic variation on a theme of Professor Seuss.


User Surveys: Libraries Ask, "Hey, How Am I Doing?", Dwight B. King Jan 2005

User Surveys: Libraries Ask, "Hey, How Am I Doing?", Dwight B. King

Journal Articles

Mr. King offers suggestions on how to create and use surveys effectively to assess the quality of a library.


Some Varieties And Vicissitudes Of Lochnerism, Barry Cushman Jan 2005

Some Varieties And Vicissitudes Of Lochnerism, Barry Cushman

Journal Articles

This article is a contribution to the Lochner Centennial Symposium at Boston University School of Law. Until recently, a consensus appeared to be emerging among constitutional historians concerning how best to interpret Lochner-era decisions involving Fifth and Fourteenth Amendment challenges to state and federal economic regulation. After decades during which the Court's jurisprudence had been characterized as the product of a reactionary judiciary's commitments to Social Darwinism and laissez-faire economics, more recent scholars had come to see the Court's police powers decisions as animated by what Professor Howard Gillman has called the principle of neutrality. On this view, the Court's …


Foundations Of Practical Reason Revisited, John M. Finnis Jan 2005

Foundations Of Practical Reason Revisited, John M. Finnis

Journal Articles

"One's investigations, reflections and communications are actions. Sometimes they are simply spontaneous, but very often, as with other kinds of action, one needs to opt into them by deliberation, choice and continued effort, all of which make noticeable one's responsiveness to opportunities. This paper revisits some main elements in that responsiveness."


Bush V. Holmes: School Vouchers, Religious Freedom, And State Constitutions, Richard W. Garnett, Christopher S. Pearsall Jan 2005

Bush V. Holmes: School Vouchers, Religious Freedom, And State Constitutions, Richard W. Garnett, Christopher S. Pearsall

Journal Articles

In Zelman v. Simmons-Harris, the Supreme Court of the US ruled that the First Amendment’s Religion Clause, i.e. ‘Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof’, permits publicly funded school-voucher experiments that include private and religious schools. In other words, the Court made it clear—albeit by a narrow 5-4 margin—that governments do not unconstitutionally ‘establish[]’ religion merely by permitting eligible students to use publicly funded scholarships to attend qualifying religious schools, so long as the students’ parents are able to make a ‘true private choice’ for the school their children attend.

However, …


Jaycees Reconsidered: Judge Richard S. Arnold And The Freedom Of Association, Richard W. Garnett Jan 2005

Jaycees Reconsidered: Judge Richard S. Arnold And The Freedom Of Association, Richard W. Garnett

Journal Articles

In Roberts v. United States Jaycees, the Supreme Court reversed Judge Richard S. Arnold's decision for the Court of Appeals and held­ - without dissent - that the First Amendment did not shield the Jaycees' men-only membership policy from the non-discrimination requirements of the Minnesota Human Rights Act. The claim in this essay is that Judge Arnold's position and decision in the Jaycees case deserved, and still deserve, more thoughtful and sympathetic treatment. Even some of Judge Arnold's many friends and fans tend to treat as something of an embarrassing lapse or anomalous error his conclusion in that case that, …


Statutory Stare Decisis In The Courts Of Appeals, Amy Coney Barrett Jan 2005

Statutory Stare Decisis In The Courts Of Appeals, Amy Coney Barrett

Journal Articles

The Supreme Court has long given its cases interpreting statutes special protection from overruling. Two rationales exist for this practice. One line of thought interprets congressional silence following the Supreme Court's interpretation of a statute as approval of that interpretation. According to this way of thinking, a refusal to overrule statutory precedent is a refusal to veer from an interpretation that Congress has effectively approved. Another line of thought emphasizes that statutory interpretation inevitably involves policymaking, and that policymaking is an aspect of legislative, rather than judicial, power. According to this second way of thinking, the Supreme Court should refuse …


The "Lone Wolf" Amendment And The Future Of Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Law, Patricia E. Simone, Patricia L. Bellia Jan 2005

The "Lone Wolf" Amendment And The Future Of Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Law, Patricia E. Simone, Patricia L. Bellia

Journal Articles

In December 2004, Congress adopted an important change to the statutory framework authorizing domestic surveillance of foreign powers and their agents, the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA). The change, directly prompted by the events of September 11, 2001, makes it easier for the government to conduct surveillance of so-called lone wolf terrorists - that is, terrorists who act in sympathy with the aims of an international terrorist group but not on its behalf, or terrorists whose link to an international terrorist group cannot be demonstrated.

Although the logic of the lone wolf amendment at first seems quite compelling, the amendment …


Proportionality And Federalization, Stephen F. Smith Jan 2005

Proportionality And Federalization, Stephen F. Smith

Journal Articles

The thesis of this Article is that proportionality of punishment has become a casualty of federalization and that the federal courts helped kill it. The federal courts like to portray themselves as the victims in the vicious cycle of federalization, left defenseless in the face of rapacious efforts by Congress and the Department of Justice to use the federal criminal code for their own selfish ends. The federal judiciary repeatedly complains that its judges are overburdened with criminal cases that belong in state court. This is the story the leading lights in the academy have accepted: Congress is responsible for …


Changing Minds: Proselytism, Freedom, And The First Amendment, Richard W. Garnett Jan 2005

Changing Minds: Proselytism, Freedom, And The First Amendment, Richard W. Garnett

Journal Articles

Proselytism is, as Paul Griffiths has observed, a topic enjoying renewed attention in recent years. What's more, the practice, aims, and effects of proselytism are increasingly framed not merely in terms of piety and zeal; they are seen as matters of geopolitical, cultural, and national-security significance as well. Indeed, it is fair to say that one of today's more pressing challenges is the conceptual and practical tangle of religious liberty, free expression, cultural integrity, and political stability. This essay is an effort to unravel that tangle by drawing on the religious-freedom-related work and teaching of the late Pope John Paul …


A Tribute To Frederic L. Kirgis, Thomas L. Shaffer Jan 2005

A Tribute To Frederic L. Kirgis, Thomas L. Shaffer

Journal Articles

Now, hearing of Rick's retirement, I find it hard to imagine Sydney Lewis Hall without him standing guard over the Law Center, or in the dean's office, or from some other nearby vantage point. If Washington and Lee is lucky, Rick will continue to play a role in the welcoming committee, making a welcoming place even warmer. Knowing Rick's commitment to the law school there, I have no doubt he would embrace the role.

While those of us that consider Rick a friend and colleague greet news of his retirement with a reluctant happiness, there is one group that cannot …


State Courts And The Making Of Federal Common Law, Anthony J. Bellia Jan 2005

State Courts And The Making Of Federal Common Law, Anthony J. Bellia

Journal Articles

The authority of federal courts to make federal common law has been a controversial question for courts and scholars. Several scholars have propounded theories addressing primarily whether and when federal courts are justified in making federal common law. It is a little-noticed phenomenon that state courts, too, make federal common law. This Article brings to light the fact that state courts routinely make federal common law in as real a sense as federal courts make it. It further explains that theories that focus on whether the making of federal common law by federal courts is justified are inadequate to explain …


Rights And The Need For Objective Moral Limits, Charles E. Rice Jan 2005

Rights And The Need For Objective Moral Limits, Charles E. Rice

Journal Articles

In this article, we will examine the natural law conception that rights are rooted in human nature, which nature itself is of divine origin through creation. We will compare this natural law concept to the premises and social consequences of the secular, relativist, and individualist approaches common to the jurisprudence of the Enlightenment. This article will offer the conclusion that only a grounding of right in the nature of persons as immortal beings created by God can offer moral and cultural security against the depersonalization characteristic of regimes premised on a relativist individualism.


Roper V. Simmons And Our Constitution In International Equipoise, Roger P. Alford Jan 2005

Roper V. Simmons And Our Constitution In International Equipoise, Roger P. Alford

Journal Articles

In Roper v. Simmons, the Court unequivocally affirms the use of comparative constitutionalism to interpret the Eighth Amendment. It does not, however, provide an obvious theoretical basis to justify the practice. This Article searches for a theory to explain the comparativism in Roper using the theories advanced in the author's previous scholarship. It concludes that of the colorable candidates, natural law constitutionalism is the most plausible explanation, with the attendant problems associated therewith. The Article concludes with an analysis of the possible ramifications of the Court's comparative approach, suggesting that it may be pursuing a Constitution that is in international …


In Search Of A Theory For Constitutional Comparativism, Roger P. Alford Jan 2005

In Search Of A Theory For Constitutional Comparativism, Roger P. Alford

Journal Articles

Constitutional comparativism - the notion that international and foreign material should be used to interpret the U.S. Constitution - is gaining currency. Yet proponents of this practice rarely offer a firm theoretical justification for the practice. This Article contends that constitutional comparativism should be examined from the perspective of constitutional theory. The use of comparative and international material must be deemed appropriate or inappropriate based on a particular judge's interpretive mode of constitutional analysis. The Article presents four classic constitutional theories - originalism, natural law, majoritarianism, and pragmatism - and addresses the propriety of constitutional comparativism under each theory. This …


Affirming The Ban On Harsh Interrogation, Mary Ellen O'Connell Jan 2005

Affirming The Ban On Harsh Interrogation, Mary Ellen O'Connell

Journal Articles

Beginning in 2002, lawyers for the Bush Administration began producing the now infamous legal memoranda on the subject of interrogation. The memoranda advise interrogators that they can torture people without fear of prosecution in connection with the so-called global war on terror. Much has been and will be written about the expedient and erroneous legal analysis of the memos. One issue at risk of being overlooked, however, because the memos emphasize torture, is that the United States must respect limits far short of torture in the conduct of interrogations. The United States may not use any form of coercion against …


Preparing The Groundwork For A Responsible Debate On Stem Cell Research And Human Cloning, O. Carter Snead Jan 2005

Preparing The Groundwork For A Responsible Debate On Stem Cell Research And Human Cloning, O. Carter Snead

Journal Articles

The debate over both cloning and stem cell research has been intense and polarizing. It played a significant role in the recently completed presidential campaign, mentioned by both candidates on the stump, at both parties' conventions, and was even taken up directly during one of the presidential debates. The topic has been discussed and debated almost continuously by the members of the legal, scientific, medical, and public policy commentariat. I believe that it is a heartening tribute to our national polity that such a complex moral, ethical, and scientific issue has become a central focus of our political discourse. But, …


Introduction And Postscript: Partial Progress On Un Reform, Douglass Cassel Jan 2005

Introduction And Postscript: Partial Progress On Un Reform, Douglass Cassel

Journal Articles

The conference on Reforming the United Nations: The use of force to safeguard international security and human rights, co-sponsored by Northwestern University School of Law and the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Faculty of Law as their Fourth Annual Transatlantic Dialogue, was held in January 2005.

Its timing was propitious. It was held one month after publication of the report of the prestigious and geographically diverse High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges, and Change, appointed by UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan. Among many other proposals to reform the UN, the High-Level Panel recommended expansion of the Security Council, new guidelines for use of force …


The Pedagogical Significance Of The Bush Stem Cell Policy: A Window Into Bioethical Regulation In The United States (President George W. Bush, Fifth Anniversary Essay Collection), O. Carter Snead Jan 2005

The Pedagogical Significance Of The Bush Stem Cell Policy: A Window Into Bioethical Regulation In The United States (President George W. Bush, Fifth Anniversary Essay Collection), O. Carter Snead

Journal Articles

The enormous significance of the Bush stem cell funding policy has been evident since its inception. The announcement of the policy on August 9, 2001 marked the first time a U.S. president had ever taken up a matter of bioethical import as the sole subject of a major national policy address. Indeed, the August 9th speech was the President's first nationally televised policy address of any kind. Since then, the policy has been a constant focus of attention and discussion by political commentators, the print and broadcast media, advocacy organizations, scientists, elected officials, and candidates for all levels of office …


Arbitrating Human Rights, Roger P. Alford Jan 2005

Arbitrating Human Rights, Roger P. Alford

Journal Articles

The article addresses the vexing problem of holding corporations liable for assisting in the sovereign abuse of human rights. Currently domestic human rights litigation against corporations appears to be a proxy fight in which the accomplice is pursued while the principal evades punishment. Typically the principal malfeasor - the sovereign - is immune from suit because of foreign sovereign immunity. But corporations can be found liable for aiding and abetting those violations. This article suggests a solution to this problem, drawing on principles from contract law and arbitration. If a corporation is found liable for aiding and abetting sovereign abuse, …


Enhancing The Status Of Non-State Actors Through A Global War On Terror?, Mary Ellen O'Connell Jan 2005

Enhancing The Status Of Non-State Actors Through A Global War On Terror?, Mary Ellen O'Connell

Journal Articles

Soon after September 11, President Bush declared a global war on terrorism and members of terrorist groups "combatants." These declarations are not only generally inconsistent with international law; they also reverse the trend regarding the legal status of international non-state actors. For decades, law-abiding non-state actors, such as international humanitarian aid organizations, enjoyed ever-expanding rights on the international plane. Professor Schachter observed how this trend came at the expense of the nation-state. He also predicted, however, that the nation-state would not fade away any time soon. And, by the late Twentieth Century, the trend toward enhanced status was noticeably slowing. …


Unhappy Contracts: The Case Of Divorce Settlements, Margaret F. Brinig Jan 2005

Unhappy Contracts: The Case Of Divorce Settlements, Margaret F. Brinig

Journal Articles

This paper examines a particular type of contracts that is, sadly, increasingly frequent: the agreements produced by divorcing couples. They are unhappy contracts, agreements produced as a necessary part of exit from what is now suboptimal marriage. They are virtually required by many states and are, in theory at least, closely monitored by courts since, when children are involved, they will be incorporated into court orders.What parties to unhappy contracts do is attempt to minimize losses, rather than maximize gain. How are contracts structured that will do this, and how does a difference in the size or power of the …


When Is A War Not A War? The Myth Of The Global War On Terror, Mary Ellen O'Connell Jan 2005

When Is A War Not A War? The Myth Of The Global War On Terror, Mary Ellen O'Connell

Journal Articles

It is essential to correctly classify situations in the world as ones of war or peace: human lives depend on the distinction, but so do liberty, property, and the integrity of the natural environment. President Bush's war on terror finds war where suspected members of al Qaeda are found. By contrast, war under international law exists where hostilities are on-going. To the extent there is ambiguity, the United States should err on the side of pursuing terrorists within the peacetime criminal law enforcement paradigm, not a wartime one. Not only does the criminal law better protect important human rights and …


Response To Endicott: The Case Of The Wise Electrician, Gerard V. Bradley Jan 2005

Response To Endicott: The Case Of The Wise Electrician, Gerard V. Bradley

Journal Articles

Timothy Endicott tells the tale of the "wise electrician." The main activities of the Wise Electrician are two. One is that he installs legally required Grade 5 insulation in everyone's home save one. The second is that on his own ceiling light circuits he uses Grade 4 insulation, which cheaper to acquire and, in his professional judgment, it is safe. In fact, the Wise Electrician would install Grade 4 in those houses, too, but for one fact: it would be illegal. What makes our man so interesting is that it is illegal to install Grade 4 in his house too. …