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America's Broken Copyright Law: How Marvel And Sony Sparked Public Debate Surrounding The United States' "Broken" Copyright Law And How Congress Can Prevent A Copyright Small Claims Court From Making It Worse, Izaak Horstemeier-Zrnich Jun 2021

America's Broken Copyright Law: How Marvel And Sony Sparked Public Debate Surrounding The United States' "Broken" Copyright Law And How Congress Can Prevent A Copyright Small Claims Court From Making It Worse, Izaak Horstemeier-Zrnich

Cleveland State Law Review

Following failed discussions between Marvel and Sony regarding the use of Spider-Man in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, comic fans were left curious as to how Spider-Man could remain outside of the public domain after decades of the character’s existence. The comic community came to realize that Marvel was restricted in the use of its own character because of the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998 and the Supreme Court’s decision in Eldred v. Ashcroft. This realization sparked an online conversation regarding the United States’ lengthy copyright terms, and what many refer to as a “broken” copyright ...


Equitable Defenses In Patent Law, Christa J. Laser Oct 2020

Equitable Defenses In Patent Law, Christa J. Laser

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

In patent law, “unenforceability” can have immense consequences. At least five equitable doctrines make up the defense of “unenforceability” as it was codified into the Patent Act in 1952: laches; estoppel; unclean hands; patent misuse; and according to some, inequitable conduct. Yet in the seventy years since incorporation of equitable defenses into the patent statute, the Supreme Court has not clarified their reach. Indeed, twice in the last four years, the Supreme Court avoided giving complete guidance on the crucial questions of whether, and when, such equitable defenses are available to bar damages in cases brought at law.

Several interpretive ...


Intellectual Property For Breakfast: Market Power And Informative Symbols In The Marketplace, P. Sean Morris Nov 2019

Intellectual Property For Breakfast: Market Power And Informative Symbols In The Marketplace, P. Sean Morris

Cleveland State Law Review

This Article continues to examine an important question: are trademarks a source of market power, or, put differently, when are trademarks an antitrust problem? This fundamental question is a cause of division among antitrust and intellectual property law scholars. However, by raising the question and presenting some scenarios that can provide answers, my hope is that contemporary antitrust and intellectual property scholars can explore some of its implications. As part of my own quest to address this question, I explore the proposition that creative deception and the wealth-generating capacity of trademarks are unorthodox elements that actually contribute to allegations of ...


The Scope Of Ipr Estoppel: A Statutory, Historical, And Normative Analysis, Christa J. Laser Nov 2018

The Scope Of Ipr Estoppel: A Statutory, Historical, And Normative Analysis, Christa J. Laser

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

When Congress implemented inter partes review (IPR) and other patent post-grant proceedings through the passage of the America Invents Act (AIA) in 2011, it provided that petitioners would be estopped in later proceedings from raising grounds for invalidity that they "raised or reasonably could have raised during that inter partes review." 35 U.S.C. § 315( e )(2). However, substantial uncertainty in courts' interpretation of this provision causes an enormous impact on an accused patent infringer's decision of whether and on what grounds to petition for review. One reading of the statutory estoppel provision suggests that "during that inter ...


Comment With The Copyright Office Regarding A Proposed Exemption Under 17 U.S.C. Section 1201 For Software Security Research (Class 25), Candice Hoke Feb 2015

Comment With The Copyright Office Regarding A Proposed Exemption Under 17 U.S.C. Section 1201 For Software Security Research (Class 25), Candice Hoke

Law Faculty Reports and Comments

Professor Candice Hoke, Cleveland State University, and others (Douglas W. Jones, University of Iowa; Professor Deirdre Mulligan, University of California, Berkeley; Professor Vern Paxson, University of California, Berkeley;Professor Pamela Samuelson, University of California, Berkeley; Bruce Schneier Erik Stallman, Center for Democracy & Technology (CDT); comment addressing Proposed Class 25: Software Security Research and an exemption for software security research in order to promote the active research and testing efforts necessary to keep pace with evolving cybersecurity risks. Software and related access controls are increasingly embedded in a wide range of systems, from consumer goods to medical devices to infrastructure to industrial equipment ...


The Case For Flexible Intellectual Property Protections In The Trans-Pacific Partnership , Matthew E. Silverman Jan 2014

The Case For Flexible Intellectual Property Protections In The Trans-Pacific Partnership , Matthew E. Silverman

Journal of Law and Health

The United States and eleven other countries are currently in the end stages of negotiating the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP)—the largest free trade agreement (FTA) in U.S. history—which incorporates a range of trade topics, including the protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights (IPRs). Although the negotiations have been highly secretive, negotiating texts of the agreement leaked as recently as November 2013 have suggested that the United States is proposing IPR provisions, specifically relating to patent protection, that are stronger and less flexible than IPR provisions included within three of the four most recent U.S. FTAs. This ...


Excluding Patentability Of Therapeutic Methods, Including Methods Using Pharmaceuticals, For The Treatment Of Humans Under Trade Related Aspects Of Intellectual Property Rights Article 27(3)(A), Michael Henry Davis Jan 2014

Excluding Patentability Of Therapeutic Methods, Including Methods Using Pharmaceuticals, For The Treatment Of Humans Under Trade Related Aspects Of Intellectual Property Rights Article 27(3)(A), Michael Henry Davis

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

The Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights ("TRIPS"), the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade ("GATT"), and the World Trade Organization ("WTO") debacle has radically altered the traditional ability of nations to adopt whatever patent regime seems appropriate to them. Instead, TRIPS requires all member nations, even those which never thought it appropriate to grant such state monopolies, to afford patent protection to areas which had never been granted before-most dramatically in the area of health related innovations and, most expensively, pharmaceuticals. Until TRIPS, most -- or at least a number approaching half -- countries simply did not grant ...


A Last Step Rule For Direct Infringement Of Process Claims: Clarifying Indirect Infringement And Narrowing Joint Infringement, Stephen W. Moore Jan 2013

A Last Step Rule For Direct Infringement Of Process Claims: Clarifying Indirect Infringement And Narrowing Joint Infringement, Stephen W. Moore

Cleveland State Law Review

This Note proposes that the party who performs the last step of a patented process should be liable for direct infringement. Under this “Last Step Rule,” patented products and processes would be treated similarly—which is consistent with past decisions and is implied in the patent statute. As will be shown in this Note, adopting the Last Step Rule would make finding indirect patent infringement more straightforward and would limit the doctrine of joint infringement to claims for direct infringement. The proposed rule will be shown to be logically sound, supported by case law precedent, and consistent with the language ...


Mapping Our Future: The Impact Of Gene Patents On Scientific Research And Health Care In The United States, Caitlin E. Lanning Jan 2013

Mapping Our Future: The Impact Of Gene Patents On Scientific Research And Health Care In The United States, Caitlin E. Lanning

Journal of Law and Health

In September, 2011, the Senate passed H.R. 1249, the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (“AIA”), which President Barrack Obama signed into law on September 16th. The AIA is the largest transformation to U.S. patent law since 1952. While the new legislation implements numerous, positive changes to the U.S. patent system, it fails to address any of the concerns raised by gene patent critics over the past few decades. Gene patents should be categorized as patentable subject matter within the AIA, but under a separate patent category with specifically engineered regulations designed to promote scientific research and collaboration that ...


The Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement Of 2010: Two Problems And One Unanswered Question, Roxane Delaurell Jan 2012

The Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement Of 2010: Two Problems And One Unanswered Question, Roxane Delaurell

The Global Business Law Review

Further, as might be expected, uncertainty in the international context is likely to be the greatest at that point where enforcement is called for; that is, that point where the tangible expression of the force of law and of the courts‘ authority must be executed. It is for this reason that the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (―ACTA) was drafted. Finalized in December of 2010, ACTA seeks to address problematic issues with regard to enforcement of IPR (Intellectual Property Rights) across borders and ―in the digital environment.International trafficking in unlicensed copyrighted material, and counterfeit trademarked goods and consumables––the two areas ...


Continuing The Conversation Of "The Economic Irrationality Of The Patent Misuse Doctrine", Christa J. Laser Jan 2012

Continuing The Conversation Of "The Economic Irrationality Of The Patent Misuse Doctrine", Christa J. Laser

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

This Article seeks to use economic tools and insights to find the best way for courts to construe or for Congress to modify the patent misuse doctrine. As the title suggests, it attempts to continue the conversation begun by Professor Mark Lemley in his often-cited Comment, The Economic irrationality of the Patent Misuse Doctrine.

Part I provides a brief history of the doctrine of patent misuse. Part II begins with a premise that a partial economic equilibrium can be achieved by attempting to match Congress's intended patent scope with the actual patent scope, even assuming that economic tools can ...


A Definite Claim On Claim Indefiniteness: An Empirical Study Of Definiteness Cases Of The Past Decade With A Focus On The Federal Circuit And The Insolubly Ambiguous Standard, Christa J. Laser Oct 2010

A Definite Claim On Claim Indefiniteness: An Empirical Study Of Definiteness Cases Of The Past Decade With A Focus On The Federal Circuit And The Insolubly Ambiguous Standard, Christa J. Laser

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

This empirical study of patent claim definiteness cases of the past decade makes several novel findings including: (1) slightly more than half of final Federal Circuit definiteness cases hold the asserted claims not indefinite; (2) the percentage of non-Federal Circuit definiteness cases holding claims not indefinite increased approximately 60 percentage points over the ten-year period focused on in this analysis;(3) the Federal Circuit more often held chemical claims not indefinite, but electrical claims indefinite; and (4) the Federal Circuit more often held claims with term clarity issues not indefinite, but claims with means-plus-function issues indefinite. These differences partially result ...


The Tangled Web Of Plagiarism Litigation: Sorting Out The Legal Issues, Ralph D. Mawdsley Jan 2009

The Tangled Web Of Plagiarism Litigation: Sorting Out The Legal Issues, Ralph D. Mawdsley

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

The purpose of this article is to explore the increasing complexity of plagiarism litigation in the United States. A determination as to when attribution is necessary in order to avoid a charge of plagiarism raises questions of intent and subject matter specific questions of general knowledge, as well as constitutional and contractual questions of fairness, tort questions of defamation, and questions of fair use under copyright law or misrepresentation under the Lanham Act. Most of the reported cases still involve students who contest discipline from their respective academic institutions--discipline that can range from a course penalty to expulsion from the ...


Exporting Dmca Lockouts, Anupam Chander Jan 2006

Exporting Dmca Lockouts, Anupam Chander

Cleveland State Law Review

My goal here is limited. I do not attack the anti-circumvention provisions of the DMCA as wholly misguided; the desire to prevent widespread piracy of copyrighted works is understandable. At the same time, I do not mean to suggest that the critique I offer here is the sum of the adverse consequences of that statute, including for speech and education. My argument is limited to the threat posed by the export of the DMCA anti-circumvention rules, which do not explicitly guard against the anti-competitive use of those rules.Part I briefly sketches the difficulties created domestically by a DMCA inattentive ...


Metaphor, Objects, And Commodities, George H. Taylor, Michael J. Madison Jan 2006

Metaphor, Objects, And Commodities, George H. Taylor, Michael J. Madison

Cleveland State Law Review

As its two main Parts will evidence, this Comment remains the product of two distinct if overlapping voices. Part II returns to the conceptual origins of Radin's theory in her general critique of objectification and commodification. It asks whether a more positive concept of objectification can be recovered that is distinguishable from reification, the latter seeming to be the more appropriate locus of Radin's criticism. Part III's response to Radin is similar, but it tries to exemplify both our appreciation of and our differences from her work through more detailed analysis of intellectual property law and theory.


Capturing Ideas: Copyright And The Law Of First Possession, Abraham Drassinower Jan 2006

Capturing Ideas: Copyright And The Law Of First Possession, Abraham Drassinower

Cleveland State Law Review

Part II of this paper, entitled “Wish and Deed,” sets forth an account of the law of first possession through an analysis of the classic case of Pierson v. Post. Part III, entitled “Idea and Expression,” briefly sets forth an account of the idea/expression dichotomy in copyright law through discussion of the classic case of Nichols v. Universal Pictures Corporation. On that basis, Part III unfolds a correspondence between animus and factum in property law and idea and expression in copyright law. Part IV, entitled “Things and Speech,” suggests through discussion of the classic case of Feist that central ...


Nonconventional Musical Analysis And Disguised Infringement: Clever Musical Tricks To Divide The Wealth Of Tin Pan Alley , Mark Avsec Jan 2004

Nonconventional Musical Analysis And Disguised Infringement: Clever Musical Tricks To Divide The Wealth Of Tin Pan Alley , Mark Avsec

Cleveland State Law Review

This article argues that "disguised" infringement is oxymoronic and demagogic, and that the "nonconventional" musical analytical techniques employed to diagnose it are misguided. If an expert cannot tell that two pieces of music are similar by traditional methods, that is probably because they are not similar. Part II of this article chronicles the role of the musical expert as it has been carved out over time. Part III exposes the expert's traditional methods for comparing musical compositions. Part IV explores nonconventional analytical techniques, explains why they are misapplied when employed to detect "disguised" plagiarism and illustrates why Judge Frank ...


Patent Politics, Michael Henry Davis Jan 2004

Patent Politics, Michael Henry Davis

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

To observe that so-called intellectual property (IP) flowered in the late twentieth century, even supplanting, to a large extent, the place of real and tangible personal property in terms of corporate, if not individual, wealth, is almost trite. Since IP has become the bedrock of most commercial wealth, especially in international trade, and since international trade is, or is about to become, the center of most commercially valuable trade, a comprehensive understanding of IP has become essential. Instead of being the reserve of technicians, the field demands a full examination by jurists and the larger society.Although IP literature has ...


Some Realism About Indigenism, Michael Henry Davis Jan 2003

Some Realism About Indigenism, Michael Henry Davis

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

The debate about creating so-called intellectual property (“IP”)--legal monopolies--over indigenous information (a product mostly of Third World countries) is habitually (almost stereotypically) characterized by qualifications that such monopolies really don't fit, and further qualifications that although they don't fit they are the best alternative. But underlying both sets of qualifications is often a confusion about what the real problem is. Because of a frequent failure to analyze closely the problem (and sometimes because of misinformation mixed with an unhealthy dose of romanticism), critics far too often jump to the legal monopoly solution to problems that ironically may ...


Brief Amici Curiae Of The Progressive Intellectual Property Law Association And The Union For The Public Domain In Partial Support Of Petitioners, Eldred V. Ashcroft, 537 U.S. 186 (2003), Michael H. Davis Apr 2002

Brief Amici Curiae Of The Progressive Intellectual Property Law Association And The Union For The Public Domain In Partial Support Of Petitioners, Eldred V. Ashcroft, 537 U.S. 186 (2003), Michael H. Davis

Law Faculty Briefs and Court Documents

This case affords this Court a unique opportunity to do more by doing less. Judicial restraint generally impels this Court to decide only essential constitutional issues. Here the issues are uniquely situated so that the decision of only one issue—that of retrospective extensions—will do far more than merely defer the remaining issue of prospective extensions, but will render that issue permanently beyond any need of judicial review. If this Court decides that retrospective extensions are unconstitutional, it will not only be able to avoid deciding the other issue today of whether a prospective extension violates the “limited times ...


Dna Patenting And Access To Healthcare: Achieving The Balance Among Competing Interests, Melissa E. Horn Jan 2002

Dna Patenting And Access To Healthcare: Achieving The Balance Among Competing Interests, Melissa E. Horn

Cleveland State Law Review

Increasing evidence suggests that the biotechnology industry's interest in generating revenue and the public's desire to obtain the best healthcare may be at odds. The patenting of genetic information is at the core of this debate. Most, if not all, of the products of the biotech industry's research are patentable. Historically, patents have been justified on the grounds that they are needed to create an incentive for researchers and companies to invest time and money in projects that have uncertain outcomes. In the biotechnology arena, patents do not simply encourage innovation and allow innovators to recoup their ...


Trademarks And The Movies: An Af-'Fair Use To Remember, Lauren P. Smith Jan 2000

Trademarks And The Movies: An Af-'Fair Use To Remember, Lauren P. Smith

Cleveland State Law Review

The Federal Trademark Dilution Act poses a serious threat for filmmakers, much more so than found under the original Lanham Act. A filmmaker can be found guilt of dilution without a finding that consumers would likely be confused by the allegedly diluting use. The mere appearance of a mark in a film would not likely violate a trademark holders rights. According dilution's much less stringent standard, non-competing uses of a mark which would "blur" its strength would violate a holder's rights. Courts have used the FTDA in ways as broad as its language allows, and it poses a ...


The Screenwriter's Indestructible Right To Terminate Her Assignment Of Copyright: Once A Story Is 'Pitched' A Studio Can Never Obtain All Copyrights In The Story, Michael Henry Davis Jan 2000

The Screenwriter's Indestructible Right To Terminate Her Assignment Of Copyright: Once A Story Is 'Pitched' A Studio Can Never Obtain All Copyrights In The Story, Michael Henry Davis

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

It is probably not quite fraud, though it comes terribly close to it, when motion picture and television production companies convince their writers to part with the rights to their stories when they sign with the companies. Despite contracts that claim the writer has no rights to the resulting script (either because the author has assigned his rights “in perpetuity” or because he has agreed to produce a “workfor hire”), U.S. copyright law provides many authors, perhaps the vast majority of them, with a future right that cannot be lost and can always be regained, irrespective of any written ...


Extending Copyright And The Constitution: "Have I Stayed Too Long", Michael H. Davis Jan 2000

Extending Copyright And The Constitution: "Have I Stayed Too Long", Michael H. Davis

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

On October 27, 1998, President Clinton signed into law the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998, Pub. L. No. 105-298, 112 Stat. 2827 (hereinafter the “Bono Law”). The Bono Law extended the term of copyright protection by an additional twenty years, both prospectively and retrospectively. The former is probably constitutionally proper; the latter is almost certainly forbidden by the Constitution's copyright clause. But most criticism5 has not forcefully distinguished between retrospective as opposed to prospective extension and so far has failed to convince either Congress or the courts of any constitutional infirmity. This is because most critics ...


The Unauthorized Dissemination Of Celebrity Images On The Internet ... In The Flesh, Navin Katyal Jan 1998

The Unauthorized Dissemination Of Celebrity Images On The Internet ... In The Flesh, Navin Katyal

Cleveland State Law Review

This paper will explore and analyze the unauthorized use and dissemination of celebrity images over the Internet as a violation of the copyrights of either the celebrity themselves, or the cinematographic' rights of the film production studio(s). The analysis will focus on the Copyright Act of both Canada and the United States and will be covered in three parts. Part I will define the basic nomenclature of the Internet and explain the applicability of copyright law to the Internet. Part II will focus on methods in which the celebrity and film studio can protect their copyright 'On-line' through the ...


Copyright On The Internet: A Critique Of The White Paper's Recommendation For Updating The Copyright Act And How The Courts Are Already Filling In Its Most Important Shortcoming, On-Line Service Provider Liability, George Smirnoff Iii Jan 1996

Copyright On The Internet: A Critique Of The White Paper's Recommendation For Updating The Copyright Act And How The Courts Are Already Filling In Its Most Important Shortcoming, On-Line Service Provider Liability, George Smirnoff Iii

Cleveland State Law Review

The current technological challenge for American copyright law is the National Information Infrastructure (NII), which is a network of networks used to carry digital transmissions through thousands of computer networks using a common set of protocols. Currently, the Copyright Act does not expressly include works created, copied, transmitted, or performed on the NII. President Clinton formed the Information Infrastructure Task Force (the Working Group) "to articulate and implement the Administration's vision for the National Information Infrastructure." On September 5, 1995, the Working Group released the White Paper which addresses special intellectual property concerns and issues raised by the development ...


The Lack Of Protection Afforded Software Under The Current Intellectual Property Laws, Himanshu S. Amin Jan 1995

The Lack Of Protection Afforded Software Under The Current Intellectual Property Laws, Himanshu S. Amin

Cleveland State Law Review

Many abstract advances in computer technology remain unprotected since the current intellectual property system has been shaped through a focus on tangible, physical inventions. The software industry in the United States "accounts for domestic revenues of over fifty billion dollars each year in worldwide sales and services." Accordingly, it is imperative that United States software developers be provided adequate intellectual property coverage in order to protect existing technology and encourage further innovation in the field. The present lack of adequate protection has handicapped American developers unnecessarily in the global software market.


Protecting Trade Secrets And Confidential Information From Media Disclosure: Removing The Reporter's Shield, John M. Tkacik Jr. Jan 1993

Protecting Trade Secrets And Confidential Information From Media Disclosure: Removing The Reporter's Shield, John M. Tkacik Jr.

Cleveland State Law Review

This Note will address the problem facing businesses in Ohio when the laws protecting trade secrets and confidential information come into direct conflict with laws protecting the media. Part II of this Note will discuss the concept and various legal definitions attributed to trade secrets and confidential proprietary information. Parts III and IV will discuss trade secrets, confidential information and the related remedies available to companies, with emphasis on the statutes under Ohio's criminal code. This Note will then focus on the protection afforded the media by both an Ohio shield statute which protects confidential sources, and the U ...


Staying Patent Validity Litigation Pending Reexamination: When Should Courts Endeavor To Do So, Steven M. Auvil Jan 1993

Staying Patent Validity Litigation Pending Reexamination: When Should Courts Endeavor To Do So, Steven M. Auvil

Cleveland State Law Review

This note will discuss the circumstances under which it is appropriate for a court to exercise its authority to stay patent validity litigation pending reexamination of the patent-in-suit. The question must be analyzed with due regard to the unique relationship that exists between Patent Office reexamination and district court litigation. As a point of departure, the note explains the substance and procedure of statutory reexamination. Secondly, it will discuss the possible effects that reexamination may have on concurrent litigation in a district court. Thirdly, the note will examine the discernible factors that courts have considered in deciding whether to suspend ...


The Effect Of Lilly V. Medtronics On The Scope Of 35 Usc 271(E)(1): The Patent Infringement Exemption - Broad Or Narrow, Ajay S. Pathak Jan 1992

The Effect Of Lilly V. Medtronics On The Scope Of 35 Usc 271(E)(1): The Patent Infringement Exemption - Broad Or Narrow, Ajay S. Pathak

Journal of Law and Health

This article undertakes to examine, critically, the case history, legislative history, and the construction of sections 101, 201, and 202 of the Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984 in an effort to analyze the Supreme Court's recent decision in Lilly v. Medtronics and to discern how the scope of section 271(e)(1) is likely to be treated in future cases in light of that recent Supreme Court decision.