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A Technological Approach To Reforming Japan's Consumption Tax, Richard Thompson Ainsworth Dec 2013

A Technological Approach To Reforming Japan's Consumption Tax, Richard Thompson Ainsworth

Faculty Scholarship

Significant change has been forecast for the Japanese Consumption Tax. Revenue needs are pressing, and the Consumption Tax appears to be underutilized. Should the rate be doubled from 5% to 10%, or more? If so, will rate increases necessitate further structural changes – recasting this annual credit-subtraction levy into a European style credit-invoice VAT? These options have not proven to be politically palatable, but they are directions that have been under active consideration.

On October 1, 2013 the Japanese Cabinet Office announced that the Consumption Tax would rise from 5% to 8% effective April 1, 2014. The rate will increase …


Parody As Brand, Stacey Dogan, Mark Lemley Dec 2013

Parody As Brand, Stacey Dogan, Mark Lemley

Faculty Scholarship

Courts have struggled with the evaluation of parody under trademark law. While many trademark courts have protected parodies, there are a surprising number of cases that hold obvious parodies illegal. The problem is particularly severe with respect to parodies that are used to brand products, a growing category. The doctrinal tools that generally protect expressive parodies often don't apply to brand parodies. Our goal in this paper is to think about what circumstances (if any) should lead courts to find parody illegal. We conclude that, despite courts’ increasing attention to speech interests in recent years, the law’s treatment of parody …


Sunshine, Stakeholders, And Executive Pay: A Regression-Discontinuity Approach, Brian D. Galle, David I. Walker Dec 2013

Sunshine, Stakeholders, And Executive Pay: A Regression-Discontinuity Approach, Brian D. Galle, David I. Walker

Faculty Scholarship

We evaluate the effect of highly salient disclosure of private college and university president compensation on subsequent donations using a quasi-experimental research design. Using a differences-in-discontinuities approach to compare institutions that are highlighted in the Chronicle of Higher Education’s annual "top 10" list of most highly-compensated presidents against similar others, we find that appearing on a top 10 list is associated with reduced average donations of approximately 4.5 million dollars in the first full fiscal year following disclosure, despite greater fundraising efforts at "top 10" schools. We also find some evidence that top 10 appearances slow the growth of compensation, …


Causation In Tort Law: A Reconsideration, Keith N. Hylton Nov 2013

Causation In Tort Law: A Reconsideration, Keith N. Hylton

Faculty Scholarship

Causation is a source of confusion in tort theory, as well as a flash point for the debate between consequentialist and deontological legal theorists.1 Consequentialists argue that causation is generally determined by the policy grounds for negligence, not by a technical analysis of the facts.2 Conversely, deontologists reject the view that policy motives determine causation findings.

Causation has also generated different approaches within the consequentialist school. Some take an essentially forward- looking approach to formalizing causation analysis, finding causation analysis to be subsumed within the Hand Formula.4 Another approach within the consequentialist school closely examines the incentive …


Do Npes Matter? Non-Practicing Entities And Patent Litigation Outcomes, Samantha Zyontz, Michael J. Mazzeo, Jonathan H. Ashtor Nov 2013

Do Npes Matter? Non-Practicing Entities And Patent Litigation Outcomes, Samantha Zyontz, Michael J. Mazzeo, Jonathan H. Ashtor

Faculty Scholarship

It is widely argued that so-called “patent trolls” are corrupting the U.S. patent system and endangering technology innovation and commercialization at large. For example, a recent White House report argued that “trolls” hurt firms of all sizes and advocated for specific policies aimed at curtailing practices thought to be particularly harmful. Yet the existence and extent of any systematic effects of so-called “troll-like” behavior, and the implications of modern patent assertion practices by Non-Practicing Entities (“NPEs”), remains unclear. This article develops novel empirical evidence to inform the debate over NPEs on patent litigation. Specifically, we conduct a large-scale empirical analysis …


How Much Is That Lawsuit In The Window; Pricing Legal Claims, Maya Steinitz Nov 2013

How Much Is That Lawsuit In The Window; Pricing Legal Claims, Maya Steinitz

Faculty Scholarship

This article poses the question: How should parties to litigation finance agreements – third party funding or contingency fees – deal with the inherent difficulty in pricing legal claims? It answers that a practical solution would be to use staged funding. Staged funding side-step the impossibility of accurately pricing litigation ex ante by allowing re-pricing and exit that are pegged to information disclosure. Done right, staging allows all parties to minimize the effects of uncertainty, better price their bargain, optimize the distribution of the proceeds of litigation between its different investors – far beyond practices common today. Staged funding also …


The Inclusiveness Of The New Originalism, James E. Fleming Nov 2013

The Inclusiveness Of The New Originalism, James E. Fleming

Faculty Scholarship

In tracing the arc of originalism from the old originalism to the new, I observe a shift from an exclusionary outlook to an inclusionary outlook, reflected in new originalists’ proclamations that “we are all originalists now.” As my title suggests, I am going to bring out the inclusiveness of the new originalism and ponder its implications. The new originalists have emphasized two developments: (1) the movement from a focus on “intention of the framers” to “original public meaning” and (2) the articulation of and emphasis on the distinction between interpretation and construction. My main points are two. First, the inclusiveness …


The Right To Quantitative Privacy, Danielle K. Citron, David Gray Nov 2013

The Right To Quantitative Privacy, Danielle K. Citron, David Gray

Faculty Scholarship

We are at the cusp of a historic shift in our conceptions of the Fourth Amendment driven by dramatic advances in surveillance technology. Governments and their private sector agents continue to invest billions of dollars in massive data-mining projects, advanced analytics, fusion centers, and aerial drones, all without serious consideration of the constitutional issues that these technologies raise. In United States v. Jones, the Supreme Court signaled an end to its silent acquiescence in this expanding surveillance state. In that case, five justices signed concurring opinions defending a revolutionary proposition: that citizens have Fourth Amendment interests in substantial quantities of …


The New Constitution Of The United States: Do We Need One And How Would We Get One?, Jack M. Beermann Nov 2013

The New Constitution Of The United States: Do We Need One And How Would We Get One?, Jack M. Beermann

Faculty Scholarship

Government in the United States has some serious problems. At the federal level, is the problem of gridlock. The United States Congress seems unable or unwilling to do anything about anything (although it must have done something to run up more than $16 trillion in debts). Forget about addressing problems such as global warming, income inequality, failing schools, economic stimulus or you name it. How bad is it, really? Has the United States become ungovernable, and is the Constitution to blame? In my view, it’s a mixed bag. Some aspects of the United States government work very well, others are …


Dynamic Expansion, Nicole Huberfeld Nov 2013

Dynamic Expansion, Nicole Huberfeld

Faculty Scholarship

Nearly one in four Americans will have medical care and costs covered by the Medicaid program when it has been expanded pursuant to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the ACA). National media outlets have been reporting that only about half of the states are participating in the Medicaid expansion; if the reports were true, millions of Americans would be left without insurance coverage, and many of the nation’s medically fragile citizens would not have access to consistent healthcare. Contrary to these reports, most states will participate in the Medicaid expansion in the near future. This claim is not …


Transfer Pricing: Un Guidelines -- Brazil, Richard Thompson Ainsworth Oct 2013

Transfer Pricing: Un Guidelines -- Brazil, Richard Thompson Ainsworth

Faculty Scholarship

The UN Practical Manual on Transfer Pricing for Developing Countries endeavors to provide “clearer guidance on the policy and administrative aspects of applying transfer pricing analysis.” Chapter 10 is particularly noteworthy. It sets out specific country practices. The rules in Brazil, China, India and South Africa are offered as templates for developing countries to follow.

This article considers the Brazilian contribution to Chapter 10. Although some writers believe that developing countries should adopt the Brazilian model this article suggests otherwise. Even though it is a theoretically simple system, some aspects of the Brazilian model consistently work to the fiscal disadvantage …


Legally Blind: The Therapeutic Illusion In The Support Study Of Extremely Premature Infants, George J. Annas, Catherine L. Annas Oct 2013

Legally Blind: The Therapeutic Illusion In The Support Study Of Extremely Premature Infants, George J. Annas, Catherine L. Annas

Faculty Scholarship

Physician-researchers follow a protocol to generate generalizable knowledge; physicians have a duty to treat patients in ways they and their patients think best. In both activities, research and treatment, physicians often see themselves simply as physicians, practicing medicine. Sick people have similar perception difficulties, and prefer to think of their physician-researcher simply as their physician, even when their treatment is 2 determined by a protocol or the flip of a coin. Almost 20 years ago, in this Journal, one of us suggested that at least some researchers use language "to obscure; to blur or eliminate the distinctions between research …


The Dangerous Law Of Biological Race, Khiara Bridges Oct 2013

The Dangerous Law Of Biological Race, Khiara Bridges

Faculty Scholarship

The idea of biological race -- a conception of race that postulates that racial groups are distinct, genetically homogenous units -- has experienced a dramatic resurgence in popularity in recent years. It is commonly understood, however, that the U.S. Supreme Court has rejected the idea that races are genetically uniform groupings of individuals. Almost a century ago, the Court famously appeared to recognize the socially constructed nature of race. Moreover, the jurisprudence since then appears to reaffirm this disbelief: within law, race is understood to be a social construction, having no biological truth to it at all. Yet upon closer …


Central Falls Retirees V. Bondholders: Assessing Fear Of Contagion In Chapter 9 Proceedings, Maria O'Brien Oct 2013

Central Falls Retirees V. Bondholders: Assessing Fear Of Contagion In Chapter 9 Proceedings, Maria O'Brien

Faculty Scholarship

Modern Chapter 9 litigation has been characterized by extraordinary protections for municipal bondholders, and Central Falls is no exception. Although not well understood by politicians, fear of contagion has encouraged the adoption of legal arrangements that have limited the bankruptcy courts’ ability to include bondholders in the cost of restructuring municipal debt. This preference for bondholders (and, by extension, their insurers) has meant increased misery for taxpayers and retirees. Given that all of these actors appear to have been complicit to some degree in the creation and maintenance of the fiscally imprudent conditions that triggered bankruptcy and that evidence of …


Injunctive And Reverse Settlements In Competition-Blocking Litigation, Keith N. Hylton, Sungjoon Cho Oct 2013

Injunctive And Reverse Settlements In Competition-Blocking Litigation, Keith N. Hylton, Sungjoon Cho

Faculty Scholarship

We distinguish standard settlements, in which the status quo is preserved, and injunctive settlements, which prohibit the defendant's activity. The reverse (payment) settlement is a special type of injunctive settlement. We examine the divergence between private and social incentives to settle and policies that would minimize socially undesirable injunctive and reverse settlements (e.g., banning reverse settlements). The results are applied to competition-blocking litigation, such as patent infringement and antidumping.


Breaking Bankruptcy Priority: How Rent-Seeking Upends The Creditors' Bargain, Frederick Tung, Mark J. Roe Oct 2013

Breaking Bankruptcy Priority: How Rent-Seeking Upends The Creditors' Bargain, Frederick Tung, Mark J. Roe

Faculty Scholarship

Bankruptcy reallocates value in a faltering firm. The bankruptcy apparatus eliminates some claims and alters others, leaving a reduced set of claims to match the firm’s diminished capacity to pay. This restructuring is done according to statutory and agreed-to contractual priorities, so that lower-ranking claims are eliminated first and higher ranking ones are preserved to the extent possible. Bankruptcy scholarship has long conceptualized this reallocation as a hypothetical bargain among creditors: creditors agree in advance that if the firm falters, value will be reallocated according to a fixed set of predetermined rules and contracts. In any given reorganization case, creditors …


Self-Regulation Of Insider-Trading In Mutual Funds And Advisers, Tamar Frankel Oct 2013

Self-Regulation Of Insider-Trading In Mutual Funds And Advisers, Tamar Frankel

Faculty Scholarship

Mutual funds are required to impose Codes of Ethics on many of their employees. Did this requirement make a difference? After all, similar Codes proliferate in many other financial and business corporations! 4 with fairly miserable results. In fact, the temptations facing employees and managers of many business corporations that published self-imposed Codes are relatively weaker than the temptations facing employees and managers of mutual funds. Yet as compared to mutual funds, these business companies have failed to prevent insider-trading!

I believe that regulated mutual funds are less prone to insider-trading than non-regulated funds and traders because their Codes of …


Approval And Withdrawal Of New Antibiotics And Other Antiinfectives In The U.S., 1980-2009, Kevin Outterson, John H. Powers, Enrique Seoane, Rosa Rodriguez-Monguio, Aaron S. Kesselheim Oct 2013

Approval And Withdrawal Of New Antibiotics And Other Antiinfectives In The U.S., 1980-2009, Kevin Outterson, John H. Powers, Enrique Seoane, Rosa Rodriguez-Monguio, Aaron S. Kesselheim

Faculty Scholarship

Concerns about a dearth of antibiotic innovation have spurred calls for incentives to speed the development of new antibiotics. Our data demonstrates that many of the new molecular entity (NME) antibioticsintroduced in the last 3 decades were withdrawn from the market, at more than triple the rate of other drug classes. Adjusted for these withdrawals, the net introduction of NME antibiotics is not as troubling of a trend. The reduction in NME antibiotics was partially offset by a surge in the introduction of NME antiretrovirals for HIV/AIDS and other drug classes (such as cardiovascular drugs) posted similar declines.

These data …


Rwanda -- Cutting-Edge Vat Compliance, Richard Thompson Ainsworth, Goran Todorov Sep 2013

Rwanda -- Cutting-Edge Vat Compliance, Richard Thompson Ainsworth, Goran Todorov

Faculty Scholarship

On August 26, 2013 the Ministerial Order on Modalities of Use of Certified Electronic Billing Machine, No. 002/23/10TC of 31/07/2013, was published in the Official Gazette of Rwanda. This Order has set loose a technology revolution in VAT compliance that promises business efficiencies, and revenue enhancements that are only imagined in more developed countries. To open the door to technology Rwanda has taken the traditional digital invoice security model, and connected it to a central security portal at the Rwanda Revenue Authority (RRA). Rwanda will now be able to securely monitor transactions in close to real-time (oversight is on-demand).


Millennium Development Goals And The Protection Of Displaced And Refugee Women And Girls, Susan M. Akram Sep 2013

Millennium Development Goals And The Protection Of Displaced And Refugee Women And Girls, Susan M. Akram

Faculty Scholarship

The international protection regime of refugee, stateless and displaced women and girls has significant deficiencies. As refugees and displaced persons, women and girls experience unique challenges. They suffer abuse disproportionately as women through rape, human trafficking, and female genital mutilation. Women and girl refugees face greater challenges and risks to safety at every stage of displacement: in refugee camps, in urban spaces, in transit to safe haven, and in the process of obtaining legal status. They are frequently at the mercy of male family members in making claims to refugee and asylum status, as females are often unable to obtain …


Capital Income, Risky Investments, And Income And Cash-Flow Taxation, Theodore S. Sims Sep 2013

Capital Income, Risky Investments, And Income And Cash-Flow Taxation, Theodore S. Sims

Faculty Scholarship

It has become conventional wisdom, based partly on postulated portfolio adjustments by investors in risky assets, (1) to view an income tax as equivalent to a tax levied only on the risk free return to capital and as therefore equivalent to a wealth tax; and (2) to view the difference between an income tax and a cash-flow consumption tax as limited to tax on the risk free return. I show that the propositions (1) equating an income tax to a tax on the risk free return, and (2) distinguishing an income tax from a cash-flow tax only by tax on …


Dice – Digital Invoice Customs Exchange, Richard Thompson Ainsworth, Goran Todorov Aug 2013

Dice – Digital Invoice Customs Exchange, Richard Thompson Ainsworth, Goran Todorov

Faculty Scholarship

A digital invoice customs exchange (DICE) is a technology-intensive tax compliance regimen for VAT/GST that utilizes invoice encryption to safeguard transactional data exchanged between seller and buyer in both domestic and import/export contexts while simultaneously notifying concerned jurisdictions of the transaction details.

DICE facilitates real-time VAT/GST enforcement as well as real-time commercial contract verification. It is a commercial invoice validation system that prevents tax evasion, most notably missing trader fraud and the non-declared import of trade-able services. DICE mimics the most effective administrative enforcement effort ever undertaken by the US IRS – the requirement to disclose the social security numbers …


Book Review Of The Verdict Of Battle: The Law Of Victory And The Making Of Modern War, Robert D. Sloane Aug 2013

Book Review Of The Verdict Of Battle: The Law Of Victory And The Making Of Modern War, Robert D. Sloane

Faculty Scholarship

This is a brief review of The Verdict of Battle: The Law of Victory and the Making of Modern War (2012), by James Q. Whitman, a remarkably erudite and original contribution to scholarship on military history and the law of war. It sketches the work’s compelling historical arguments and then critiques its (comparatively modest) polemical dimensions and normative conclusions.


Vat -- East African Community: The Tradable Services Problem World-Class Solution, Richard Thompson Ainsworth, Goran Todorov Aug 2013

Vat -- East African Community: The Tradable Services Problem World-Class Solution, Richard Thompson Ainsworth, Goran Todorov

Faculty Scholarship

The value added taxes (VATs) of the East African Community (EAC) are open to manipulation and are leaking revenue from tradable services transactions. The EAC’s response has been to adopt a unique Reverse VAT mechanism. Something more is needed – a Digital Invoice Customs Exchange. Together these adjustments will provide a world-class solution to a world-wide problem. The EAC appears to be moving in this direction.

The vulnerability of the EAC VATs to tradable services is not surprising. The EAC borrowed VAT designs from the major VAT models, the EU VAT and the New Zealand Goods and Services Tax (NZ …


Tackling Vat Fraud: Thirteen Ways Forward, Richard Thompson Ainsworth Aug 2013

Tackling Vat Fraud: Thirteen Ways Forward, Richard Thompson Ainsworth

Faculty Scholarship

In a May 31, 2006 Communication to the Council, the European Parliament, and the European Economic and Social Committee, the European Commission indicated a need to develop a coordinated strategy to improve the fight against fiscal fraud [COM (2006) 254 final]. Although the Communication considers fiscal fraud broadly (VAT, excise duties and direct taxes) the most pressing need seems to be for a VAT strategy that will effectively deal with carousel fraud.

This paper considers thirteen proposals that deal with missing trader intra-community fraud (MTIC):

(1) Common VAT (origin system) (2) Vanistendael’s foreign tax offices proposal (3) CVAT (Compensating VAT) …


American Vat – The Carousel Fraud Threat: Will The Eu Show The Us The 'Way Forward', Richard Thompson Ainsworth Aug 2013

American Vat – The Carousel Fraud Threat: Will The Eu Show The Us The 'Way Forward', Richard Thompson Ainsworth

Faculty Scholarship

On Thursday, March 29, 2007 the European Commission, Directorate-General for Taxation and Customs Union, will host a one-day Conference on Fiscal Fraud – Tackling VAT Fraud: Possible Ways Forward. The conference is based on the Communication of May 31, 2006 explaining the need to develop a coordinated strategy to improve the fight against fiscal fraud. This paper indicates that the EU examination of carousel fraud points the way forward for advocates of a US VAT as well.

About 40% of EU VAT fraud appears to be 'missing trader intra-community' (MTIC) or carousel fraud. The best estimates of EU losses to …


Explaining The ‘Unpredictable’: An Empirical Analysis Of U.S. Patent Infringement Awards, Samantha Zyontz, Michael J. Mazzeo, Jonathan Hillel Aug 2013

Explaining The ‘Unpredictable’: An Empirical Analysis Of U.S. Patent Infringement Awards, Samantha Zyontz, Michael J. Mazzeo, Jonathan Hillel

Faculty Scholarship

Patent infringement awards are commonly thought to be unpredictable, which raises concerns that patents can lead to unjust enrichment and impede the progress of innovation. We investigate the unpredictability of patent damages by conducting a large-scale econometric analysis of award values. We begin by analyzing the outcomes of 340 cases decided in US federal courts between 1995 and 2008 in which infringement was found and damages were awarded. Our data include the amount awarded, along with information about the litigants, case specifics and economic value of the patents-at-issue. Using these data, we construct an econometric model that explains over 75% …


A Tale Of Four Treatments: Preferential Taxation And Asset Valuation, Theodore S. Sims Jul 2013

A Tale Of Four Treatments: Preferential Taxation And Asset Valuation, Theodore S. Sims

Faculty Scholarship

Conventional wisdom is that preferential taxation of property income elevates asset values above their values in the absence of a tax, with those values strictly increasing in the marginal rate of the holder. I show that preferential tax rates (such as the rate on realized long-term capital gains) do indeed have that property. Preferential timing on the other hand -- pure "tax deferral" -- does not. The value of an asset subject to pure deferral does increase with the holder’s marginal rate, but only up to a point, at some marginal rate in excess of 50 percent. With increases in …


The Fiduciary Foundations Of Federal Equal Protection, Gary S. Lawson, Guy Seidman, Robert Natelson Jul 2013

The Fiduciary Foundations Of Federal Equal Protection, Gary S. Lawson, Guy Seidman, Robert Natelson

Faculty Scholarship

In Bolling v. Sharpe, the Supreme Court invalidated school segregation in the District of Columbia by inferring a broad “federal equal protection” principle from the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment. It is often assumed that this principle is inconsistent with the Constitution’s original meaning and with “originalist” interpretation.

This Article demonstrates, however, that a federal equal protection principle is not only consistent with the Constitution’s original meaning, but inherent in it. The Constitution was crafted as a fiduciary document of the kind that, under contemporaneous law, imposed on agents acting for more than one beneficiary – and on …


Ordered Liberty: Response To Michael Dorf, James E. Fleming, Linda C. Mcclain Jul 2013

Ordered Liberty: Response To Michael Dorf, James E. Fleming, Linda C. Mcclain

Faculty Scholarship

We appreciate Michael Dorf’s serious engagement with our book and his conclusion that “it responds effectively to the charge that liberalism focuses on rights to the exclusion of responsibilities.”1 He charges us, however, with an “errant theodicy” – with making the “claim that we have . . . the freedoms we have in virtue of a freestanding principle that respectful treatment of persons requires granting them autonomy as responsibility.”2 He also criticizes us for deriving basic liberties from a “freestanding interest in autonomy.”3 In this response we aim to clarify our argument concerning responsibility as autonomy and to reject the …