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The Canons Of Social And Economic Rights, Katharine G. Young Apr 2021

The Canons Of Social And Economic Rights, Katharine G. Young

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Social and economic rights occupy an unsettled place in any global canon of constitutional democracy and human rights. This Article, appearing in a collection of Global Canons in an Age of Uncertainty (S. Choudhry, M. Hailbronner & M. Kumm, eds., OUP) recommends a contender for canonical status, at the same time as it problematizes the search. Insofar as the search for a canon reveals the boundaries of what may be considered exemplary claims of constitutional and democratic practice, the 2000 South African case of Republic of South Africa v. Grootboom is canonical for its treatment of social and economic rights. This ...


The Idea Of A Human Rights-Based Economic Recovery After Covid-19, Katharine G. Young Jan 2020

The Idea Of A Human Rights-Based Economic Recovery After Covid-19, Katharine G. Young

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

The COVID-19 pandemic has produced a health and economic crisis of unprecedented scope. As economists and policymakers turn to the task of recovery, protecting human rights remains intrinsically important, both morally and legally. It is also instrumental to the ends of public health and economic resilience. This Article argues that the human rights to life, health, education, social security, housing, food, water and sanitation – the so-called economic and social rights – are as essential as civil and political protections. Moreover, rather than simply ameliorate the inevitable indignities and material deprivations caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the implementation of duties to respect ...


A Path To International Tax Reform And Improved Wealth Distribution Across The Globe, Diane M. Ring May 2019

A Path To International Tax Reform And Improved Wealth Distribution Across The Globe, Diane M. Ring

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

A recent article by Tarcísio Diniz Magalhães aims to develop answers to both questions. That article builds on an active conversation in international tax. In responding to the question, Magalhães argues that the international tax world we see today is the product of a 100 years of tax policy advocacy and design by a subset of nations and actors—and that this subset has maintained a hold on international tax policy norms through a combination of power and expertise. Although the story of developed economies dominating the origins of international tax is not new, Magalhães offers a nuanced argument regarding ...


Waiting For Rights: Progressive Realization And Lost Time, Katharine G. Young Jan 2019

Waiting For Rights: Progressive Realization And Lost Time, Katharine G. Young

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

The obligation of ‘progressive realization’ under the International Covenant on Economic and Social Rights is often interpreted in light of available resources - this chapter examines, instead, the variable of time. Noting that delay of rights is akin to denial of rights, Young explores the various ways in which accountability models, at the international level, have elaborated on concrete, and temporal, benchmarks. These include the minimum core, and non-retrogression doctrines, and the exercises in comparative rankings. These are important sources of accountability, especially for positive obligations. And yet with the promise of rights, law nevertheless structures the expectations of rights-holders. This ...


The Future Of Economic And Social Rights: Introduction, Katharine G. Young Jan 2019

The Future Of Economic And Social Rights: Introduction, Katharine G. Young

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

The future of economic and social rights is unlikely to resemble its past. Neglected within the human rights movement, avoided by courts, and subsumed within a conception of development in which economic growth was considered a necessary (and, by some, sufficient) condition for rights fulfillment, economic and social rights enjoyed an uncertain status in international human rights law and in the public laws of most countries. Yet today, under conditions of immense poverty, insecurity, and social distress, the rights to education, health care, housing, social security, food, water, and sanitation are increasingly at the top of the human rights agenda ...


Tax Competition And Tax Cooperation: A Survey And Reassessment, Hugh J. Ault Jan 2019

Tax Competition And Tax Cooperation: A Survey And Reassessment, Hugh J. Ault

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


The "Guarantee" Clause, Ryan C. Williams Dec 2018

The "Guarantee" Clause, Ryan C. Williams

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Article IV’s command that “the United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government” stands as one of the few remaining lacunae in the judicially enforced Constitution. For well over a century, federal courts have viewed the provision — traditionally known as the Guarantee Clause but now referred to by some as the “Republican Form of Government” Clause — as a paradigmatic example of a nonjusticiable political question. In recent years, however, both the Supreme Court and lower federal courts have signaled a new willingness to reconsider this much-criticized jurisdictional barrier in an appropriate case ...


Third Party Funding In International Investor-State Arbitration, Frank J. Garcia, Kirrin Hough Nov 2018

Third Party Funding In International Investor-State Arbitration, Frank J. Garcia, Kirrin Hough

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


Rethinking International Investment Governance: Principles For The 21st Century, Frank J. Garcia, Emma Aisbett, Bernali Choudhury, Olivier De Schutter, James Harrison, Song Hong, Lise Johnson, Mouhamadou Kane, Santiago Peña, Mattew Porterfield, Susan Sell, Stephen E. Shay, Louis T. Wells Aug 2018

Rethinking International Investment Governance: Principles For The 21st Century, Frank J. Garcia, Emma Aisbett, Bernali Choudhury, Olivier De Schutter, James Harrison, Song Hong, Lise Johnson, Mouhamadou Kane, Santiago Peña, Mattew Porterfield, Susan Sell, Stephen E. Shay, Louis T. Wells

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Rethinking International Investment Governance: Principles for the 21st Century - written over the course of a week by a distinguished group of experts in international economic governance using the Booksprint process - aims to serve as a practical resource for those interested in the elements of an international investment system that promotes sustainable development and achieves legitimacy by providing benefits to all stakeholders.

The objective of Rethinking International Investment Governance is to change the terms of the debate so that societal values and goals are at the center of discussions about each reform proposal and process. This book rethinks international investment law ...


The Case Against Third-Party Funding In Investment Arbitration, Frank J. Garcia Jul 2018

The Case Against Third-Party Funding In Investment Arbitration, Frank J. Garcia

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


Preface, Frank J. Garcia May 2018

Preface, Frank J. Garcia

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Preface to the textbook International Trade Law by Giovanni Di Lieto and David Treisman. The preface introduces the reader to the text's interest in the relationship of justice to trade and investment law.


Concluding Chapter: Theories Of Justice And International Trade Law, Frank J. Garcia May 2018

Concluding Chapter: Theories Of Justice And International Trade Law, Frank J. Garcia

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Why does a textbook on trade law end with a chapter on justice? By justice I mean that branch of political theory (going back to Aristotle) that concerns itself with the allocative fairness of social institutions, i.e. how rights, resources, privileges and opportunities are divided among those participating in the social enterprise. Why, indeed, has the relationship between justice and international economic law become an increasingly urgent subject of academic and policy debate? First, it has been increasingly recognized that international economic law and its institutions are powerful engines of resource allocation, establishing patterns of distribution for market access ...


The Immediacy Of Economic And Social Rights, Katharine Young May 2018

The Immediacy Of Economic And Social Rights, Katharine Young

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


Comment On The Draft Report Of The Icca/Queen Mary Task Force On Third Party Funding In International Arbitration, Frank J. Garcia Apr 2018

Comment On The Draft Report Of The Icca/Queen Mary Task Force On Third Party Funding In International Arbitration, Frank J. Garcia

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


The Case For An Eu Protagonist Role On Third Party Funding Regulation, Munia El Harti Alonso Apr 2018

The Case For An Eu Protagonist Role On Third Party Funding Regulation, Munia El Harti Alonso

Law and Justice in the Americas Working Paper Series

The Lisbon Treaty has enlarged the EU’s competences in external investment policy. The EU could thus increase its protagonist role in third-party funding (TPF) regulation in a manner analogous to its achievements in the investment regime, where the EU managed to rally the member states behind DG Trade’s vision. A treaty-based analysis combined with a political evaluation suggest the EU is expanding its field of competences either when it has a clear mandate or by establishing a modus vivendi as it has been the case with its external relations, particularly at the United Nations. There is therefore a ...


The Case Against Third-Party Funding In Isds: Executive Summary, Frank J. Garcia, Hyun Ju Cho, Tara Santosuosso, Randall Scarlett, Rachel Denae Thrasher Apr 2018

The Case Against Third-Party Funding In Isds: Executive Summary, Frank J. Garcia, Hyun Ju Cho, Tara Santosuosso, Randall Scarlett, Rachel Denae Thrasher

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


The Regulation Of Third Party Funding: Gathering Data For Future Analysis And Reform, Rachel Denae Thrasher Apr 2018

The Regulation Of Third Party Funding: Gathering Data For Future Analysis And Reform, Rachel Denae Thrasher

Law and Justice in the Americas Working Paper Series

Third-party funding (TPF) is a relatively new phenomenon in the field of international investment arbitration. TPF takes place when a non-party to a dispute provides funding to one of the parties (usually the claimant) in return for a percentage of the amount recovered. International investment arbitration is a unique context, however, because investor-states dispute settlement puts States always in the role of respondent and private investors in the role of claimants. Despite this apparent imbalance, TPF proponents argue, among other things, that it provides much needed access to justice for poorer clients and adds value to the system by providing ...


Third-Party Funding In Investment Arbitration: Misappropriation Of Access To Justice Rhetoric By Global Speculative Finance, Tara Santosuosso, Randall Scarlett Apr 2018

Third-Party Funding In Investment Arbitration: Misappropriation Of Access To Justice Rhetoric By Global Speculative Finance, Tara Santosuosso, Randall Scarlett

Law and Justice in the Americas Working Paper Series

The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) is considering changes to its rules governing international arbitration proceedings. UNCITRAL Working Group III is analyzing possible reforms of the arbitral rules to address the risks associated with the increased prevalence of third-party funded investment arbitration claims. Funders claim that existing regulation is sufficient, arguing in part that funding provides access to justice for impecunious claimants who otherwise would be unable to bring claims. This essay argues that funders’ access to justice reasoning is flawed at best and dangerously misleading at worst. UNCITRAL must take immediate action to address the potential ...


Third-Party Funding As Exploitation Of The Investment Treaty System, Frank J. Garcia Apr 2018

Third-Party Funding As Exploitation Of The Investment Treaty System, Frank J. Garcia

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Third-party funding of international investment arbitration is on the rise. Through TPF funders will cover the legal fees of investors filing claims under investment treaties in exchange for a portion of the arbitral award. Proponents of third-party funding claim that it provides access to justice for parties that normally would not have the funds to arbitrate against state actors. Given that the international investment law that governs these claims is unbalanced, and that funding only flows towards investor-claimants, and at the expense of states and their taxpayers, allowing third-party funding in investment arbitration risks creating unjustifiable wealth transfers from the ...


Double Sovereignty In Europe? A Critique Of Habermas's Defense Of The Nation-State, Vlad F. Perju Apr 2018

Double Sovereignty In Europe? A Critique Of Habermas's Defense Of The Nation-State, Vlad F. Perju

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Jürgen Habermas’s influential account of the transnationalization of democracy is typically seen as a bold attempt to articulate the political-philosophical foundations of European integration. Habermas posits an identity split between individuals as citizens of their nation states and (the same) individuals as members of the future European Union. According to the dual sovereignty thesis, nation states and the EU are co-original and co-determinate.

I challenge this conception on two grounds. First, split identity is a source of fragmentation that subverts the transnationalization of democracy. It would be irrational for EU citizens to partake in a project that empowers states ...


Tpf And Isds: A Public Comment On The Draft Report Of The Icca/Queen Mary Task Force On Third Party Funding In International Arbitration, Frank J. Garcia, Leo Gargne, Eric De Brabandere, Rachel Denae Thrasher, William Park Oct 2017

Tpf And Isds: A Public Comment On The Draft Report Of The Icca/Queen Mary Task Force On Third Party Funding In International Arbitration, Frank J. Garcia, Leo Gargne, Eric De Brabandere, Rachel Denae Thrasher, William Park

Law and Justice in the Americas Working Paper Series

Transcription of a panel at the conference "Reforming International Investment Law: Opportunities, Challenges, Paradigms", sponsored by Boston College Law School and the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile. This transcription was presented in April 2018 as a public comment on the Draft Report of the ICCA/Queen Mary Task Force on Third Party Funding in International Arbitration.


Corporate Migrations And Tax Transparency And Disclosure, Diane M. Ring Oct 2017

Corporate Migrations And Tax Transparency And Disclosure, Diane M. Ring

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Migration, broadly defined, characterizes the movement of peoples and businesses across borders. The latter part of the 20th century saw notable business expansion across borders spurred by currency, capital, and investment restrictions and by the increased ability to manage global activities through technology and communications. Twenty plus years into this business globalization, we have witnessed the dramatic rise of transparency and disclosure rules and regimes. These regimes, which have dominated much of global international tax reform, include: (1) country-by-country reporting of tax information, (2) automatic exchange of tax rulings among jurisdictions, and (3) disclosure of beneficial ownership of entities. In ...


While Trump Pledges Withdrawal From Paris Agreement On Climate, International Law May Provide A Safety Net, David A. Wirth Jun 2017

While Trump Pledges Withdrawal From Paris Agreement On Climate, International Law May Provide A Safety Net, David A. Wirth

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


Trump’S First Foreign Trip And The Fate Of The Paris Agreement: Reading The Tea Leaves From The G7 And Nato Summits, David A. Wirth May 2017

Trump’S First Foreign Trip And The Fate Of The Paris Agreement: Reading The Tea Leaves From The G7 And Nato Summits, David A. Wirth

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


Executive Agreements Relying On Implied Statutory Authority: A Response To Bodansky And Spiro, David A. Wirth May 2017

Executive Agreements Relying On Implied Statutory Authority: A Response To Bodansky And Spiro, David A. Wirth

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


Globalization, Inequality & International Economic Law, Frank J. Garcia Apr 2017

Globalization, Inequality & International Economic Law, Frank J. Garcia

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

International law in general, and international economic law in particular, to the extent that either has focused on the issue of inequality, has done so in terms of inequality between states. Largely overlooked has been the topic of inequality within states and how international law has influenced that reality. From the perspective of international economic law, the inequality issue is closely entwined with the topics of colonialism and post-colonialism, the proper meaning of development, and globalization. While international economic law has undoubtedly contributed to the rise of inequality, it is now vital that the subject of international economic law be ...


The “Right To Remain Here” As An Evolving Component Of Global Refugee Protection: Current Initiatives And Critical Questions, Daniel Kanstroom Apr 2017

The “Right To Remain Here” As An Evolving Component Of Global Refugee Protection: Current Initiatives And Critical Questions, Daniel Kanstroom

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


A Continent Divided: Nationalism And The European Union, Vlad F. Perju Apr 2017

A Continent Divided: Nationalism And The European Union, Vlad F. Perju

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


The Paris Agreement As A New Component Of The Un Climate Regime, David A. Wirth Jan 2017

The Paris Agreement As A New Component Of The Un Climate Regime, David A. Wirth

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

The Paris Agreement, which was adopted in December 2015 and entered into force less than a year later, is the newest instrument to be adopted in the United Nations-sponsored global climate regime. The Paris Agreement takes its place under the 1992 Framework Convention on Climate Change and next to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol and 2012 Doha Amendment. After describing the historical evolution of the UN climate regime employing the tools of international law, this Article explores the structural, institutional, and legal relationships between the new Paris Agreement and the prior development and content of UN-sponsored efforts on climate protection under ...


Transparency And Disclosure, Diane M. Ring Jan 2017

Transparency And Disclosure, Diane M. Ring

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Without a stable and adequate tax base, countries lose the financial capacity to provide the infrastructure, social services and development opportunities important to their citizens. In response, the G20 and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) organized the project on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS). Much of the project has been focused on substantive law — the rules and practices that can allow the tax base of a country to be eroded and profits to be shifted out of the country. But the project recognizes that improved substantive tax rules alone are not sufficient to guarantee the tax ...