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Full-Text Articles in Law

Law And The Science Of Networks: An Overview And An Application To The "Patent Explosion", Katherine J. Strandburg Aug 2006

Law And The Science Of Networks: An Overview And An Application To The "Patent Explosion", Katherine J. Strandburg

ExpressO

The network may be the metaphor of the present era. A network, consisting of “nodes” and “links,” may be a group of individuals linked by friendship; a group of computers linked by network cables; a system of roads or airline flights -- or another of a virtually limitless variety of systems of connected “things.” The past few years have seen an explosion of interest in “network science,” which seeks to move beyond metaphor to analysis in fields from physics to sociology. Network science highlights the role of relationship patterns in determining collective behavior. It underscores and begins to address the …


Regulating Evolution For Sale: An Evolutionary Biology Model For Regulating The Unnatural Selection Of Genetically Modified Organisms, Mary Jane Angelo Aug 2006

Regulating Evolution For Sale: An Evolutionary Biology Model For Regulating The Unnatural Selection Of Genetically Modified Organisms, Mary Jane Angelo

ExpressO

In the past ten years there has been an explosion in the genetic manipulation of living organisms to create commercial products. This genetic manipulation has, in effect, been a directed change in the evolutionary process for the purpose of profit. This deliberate alteration of the path of evolution has brought with it a panoply of novel environmental, human health, and economic risks that could not have been foreseen when U.S. environmental and health protection laws evolved. Many products of genetic engineering have been modified to possess traits that increase their ability to reproduce and survive in the environment. By genetically …


Technoconsen(T)Sus, Andrea M. Matwyshyn Aug 2006

Technoconsen(T)Sus, Andrea M. Matwyshyn

ExpressO

Law is contributing to an information security paradox. Consumers are regularly “consenting” to the installation of computer code that makes them more vulnerable to harms such as identity theft. In particular, digital rights management technology accompanying digital music has recently left a wake of compromised user machines. Using the case study of security-invasive digital rights management technology, this article argues that a fundamental tension exists among intellectual property law, computer intrusion law and contract law regarding meaningful consumer consent in digital contexts. This article proposes to ease the noise in consent doctrine through creating an objective “reasonable digital consumer” standard …


Five Recommendations To Law Schools Offering Legal Instruction Over The Internet, Daniel C. Powell Aug 2006

Five Recommendations To Law Schools Offering Legal Instruction Over The Internet, Daniel C. Powell

ExpressO

This article addresses the emerging market for legal distance education. The market is being driven by recent changes in ABA regulations, as well as specialization in the curriculum, and expanding costs of traditional education. We are seeing the emergence of legal distance education consortiums, which offer a platform for the trading or selling of courses and programs.

However, much skepticism remains about the ability of distance education technology to offer law schools and law students a sufficiently interactive pedagogy. In the words of Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg legal education is a “shared enterprise, a genuine interactive endeavor” that …


In Sickness, Health, And Cyberspace: Protecting The Security Of Electronic Private Health Information, Sharona Hoffman, Andy Podgurski Aug 2006

In Sickness, Health, And Cyberspace: Protecting The Security Of Electronic Private Health Information, Sharona Hoffman, Andy Podgurski

ExpressO

The electronic processing of health information provides considerable benefits to patients and health care providers at the same time that it creates serious risks to the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the data. The Internet provides a conduit for rapid and uncontrolled dispersion and trafficking of illicitly-obtained private health information, with far-reaching consequences to the unsuspecting victims. In order to address such threats to electronic private health information, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services enacted the HIPAA Security Rule, which thus far has received little attention in the legal literature. This article presents a critique of the Security …


Defining Fair Use In The Digital Era, Joseph James Raffetto Aug 2006

Defining Fair Use In The Digital Era, Joseph James Raffetto

ExpressO

The increasing prevalence of technology, and the ease with which the public and companies can reproduce, recombine, and reuse copyrighted works, has rendered the once-confusing fair use doctrine a virtual uncertainty. Given limited congressional guidance, courts have relied heavily on the secondary use’s potential effect on the market for the original work. While this reliance is based on the valid concern of maintaining adequate creative incentives, the enormous growth of licensing markets has resulted in an overemphasis on economic concerns. Recent court decisions indicate that fair use now turns not on the protection of creative incentives, but rather the preservation …


Copyright Distributive Injustice, Daniel Benoliel Aug 2006

Copyright Distributive Injustice, Daniel Benoliel

ExpressO

By design, copyright is a legal field that is not distinctively designed for redistribution. And yet, numerous fairness scholars and other critics of the economics paradigm quite markedly argue that copyright law should be based upon some measure of distribution, not efficiency.

This essay argues that copyright law should not promote distributive justice concerns, subject to narrow exceptions and that other more efficient law such as taxation and welfare laws should do that instead. It does so in accordance to the prevailing welfare economics interpretative approach to copyright jurisprudence, with emphasis on the latest Peer-to-Peer (P2P) file sharing litigation.

It …


Why It Is Time To Eliminate Genomic Patents, Together With Natural Extracts Doctrine That Have Supported Such Patents, Allen K. Yu Jul 2006

Why It Is Time To Eliminate Genomic Patents, Together With Natural Extracts Doctrine That Have Supported Such Patents, Allen K. Yu

ExpressO

The constitutional purpose of intellectual property is to “promote the progress of science and useful arts.” Given the utilitarian basis of patents, it is critical that policies and laws must be continually adjusted to reflect the needs of new technologies. When the law tries to shield itself from rather than confront the realities of underlying technologies, patents end up actually subverting rather than promote technological progress. This paper explores why the natural extracts doctrine belongs to the class of doctrines that subvert progress. The doctrine, established over a century ago to enable the patenting of purified compounds for use as …


Are Patented Research Tools Still Valuable? Use, Intent, And A Rebuttable Presumption: A Proposed Modification For Analyzing The Exemption From Patent Infringement Under 35 Usc 271 (E) (1), Vihar R. Patel Jul 2006

Are Patented Research Tools Still Valuable? Use, Intent, And A Rebuttable Presumption: A Proposed Modification For Analyzing The Exemption From Patent Infringement Under 35 Usc 271 (E) (1), Vihar R. Patel

ExpressO

Briefly, the article proposes to have courts focus on the nature of an individual's use and apply the "UART" (Use As a Research Tool) factors to determine if a patented invention is being used as a research tool. If a patented invention is being used as a research tool, then the court is to presume that the activities are not covered by the FDA exemption. However, this presumption can be rebutted by a researcher's demonstration of the research tool owner using his patent to block efforts to develop a competing product. If the presumption is rebutted, then the court applies …


Applying Tort Theory To Information Technology, Marvin L. Longabaugh Jul 2006

Applying Tort Theory To Information Technology, Marvin L. Longabaugh

ExpressO

In this article, I discuss the issue of whether torts attributable to Information Systems products, both hardware and software, should be subject to litigation as a contract action, a tort action, or both. I further suggest a protocol for attorneys and courts to consider when attempting to discern whether a particular cause of action is appropriate. Last, I briefly discuss whether the advent of certification programs for computer professionals should result in the courts reconsideration of the concept of computer malpractice.


Performing Rights Societies And The Digital Environment, Philippe Gilliéron Jun 2006

Performing Rights Societies And The Digital Environment, Philippe Gilliéron

ExpressO

No abstract provided.


Bond Repudiation, Tax Codes, The Appropriations Process And Restitution Post-Eminent Domain Reform, John H. Ryskamp Jun 2006

Bond Repudiation, Tax Codes, The Appropriations Process And Restitution Post-Eminent Domain Reform, John H. Ryskamp

ExpressO

This brief comment suggests where the anti-eminent domain movement might be heading next.


The “Csi Effect”: Better Jurors Through Television And Science?, Michael D. Mann Jun 2006

The “Csi Effect”: Better Jurors Through Television And Science?, Michael D. Mann

ExpressO

This Comment discusses how television shows such as CSI and Law & Order create heightened juror expectations. This will be published in the Buffalo Public Interest Law Journal's 2005-2006 issue.


Access To Audiences As A First Amendment Right: Its Relevance And Implications For Electronic Media Policy, Philip M. Napoli, Sheea T. Sybblis Jun 2006

Access To Audiences As A First Amendment Right: Its Relevance And Implications For Electronic Media Policy, Philip M. Napoli, Sheea T. Sybblis

ExpressO

When the issue of speakers’ rights of access arises in media regulation and policy contexts, the focus typically is on the concept of speakers’ rights of access “to the media,” or “to the press.” This right usually is premised on the audience’s need for access to diverse sources and content. In contrast, in many non-mediated contexts, the concept of speakers’ rights of access frequently is defined in terms of the speaker’s own First Amendment right of access to audiences. This paper explores the important distinctions between these differing interpretations of a speaker’s access rights and argues that the concept of …


A Default-Logic Paradigm For Legal Reasoning And Factfinding, Vern R. Walker Jun 2006

A Default-Logic Paradigm For Legal Reasoning And Factfinding, Vern R. Walker

ExpressO

Unlike research in linguistics and artificial intelligence, legal research has not used advances in logical theory very effectively. This article uses default logic to develop a paradigm for analyzing all aspects of legal reasoning, including factfinding. The article provides a formal model that integrates legal rules and policies with the evaluation of both expert and non-expert evidence – whether the reasoning occurs in courts or administrative agencies, and whether in domestic, foreign, or international legal systems. This paradigm can standardize the representation of legal reasoning, guide empirical research into the dynamics of such reasoning, and put the representations and research …


The Problem Of Freedom Override By Digital Rights Management Technologies: The Market Mechanisms And Possible Legal Options, Yuko Noguchi May 2006

The Problem Of Freedom Override By Digital Rights Management Technologies: The Market Mechanisms And Possible Legal Options, Yuko Noguchi

ExpressO

One of the major problems of copyright regulations in the digital and network era is that the Digital Rights Management (DRM) technologies are overriding the freedom incorporated within the copyright regulations in the analog world. The override problem partly comes from the strict implementation of the DRM systems by the market, and partly from the anti-circumvention regulations that almost blindly protect such implementation. This research reviews the scope of anti-circumvention regulations by introducing Japanese regulations, which are rather modest, and by comparing with the U.S. regulations. It also extensively analyzes the market mechanisms that cause rather strict implementation of DRM …


Stealing What's Free: Exploring Compensation To Body Parts Sources For Their Contribution To Profitable Biomedical Research, Jo-Anne Yau May 2006

Stealing What's Free: Exploring Compensation To Body Parts Sources For Their Contribution To Profitable Biomedical Research, Jo-Anne Yau

ExpressO

It is undisputed in the biotechnology industry that human body parts play a vital role in research. The body parts donors, referred to as "Sources" in this article, are subjected to physical and financial exploitation. Forbidding the explosion of profits from trickling down to the Source presents an irrational inequity. Despite established law, it is evident from case analysis, prevailing social practices, and constitutional interpretation that Source compensation is a plausible solution.

This article proposes a model of compensation for Sources, whereby Sources are compensated based on a proportionate share of the research profits set aside for the Source as …


The Z-Test For Percentages: A Statistical Tool To Detect Pretextually Neutral Juror Challenges, Marvin L. Longabaugh Apr 2006

The Z-Test For Percentages: A Statistical Tool To Detect Pretextually Neutral Juror Challenges, Marvin L. Longabaugh

ExpressO

In the article, I discuss the potential use of public opinion polls to measure the discriminatory effect of certain questions in jury selection. While the laws surrounding race and gender based jury selection are known to most lawyers, there has been little scrutiny on questions that might be posed to potential jurors that are facially neutral, yet have a discriminatory impact. This article examines a number of such questions and offers a statistical test to determine whether a proposed question has, in fact, a 98% certainty of having a discriminatory effect if relied upon in jury selection.


Identity Theft And Consumer Protection: Finding Sensible Approaches To Safeguard Personal Data In The United States And Canada, Kamaal Zaidi Apr 2006

Identity Theft And Consumer Protection: Finding Sensible Approaches To Safeguard Personal Data In The United States And Canada, Kamaal Zaidi

ExpressO

This paper examines identity theft in both the United States and Canada. Various examples of commercial fraud and scams are discussed in the context of a growing trend of identity thieves assuming identities of innocent consumers. As such, various pieces of legislation and consumer initiatives (involving online consumer complaint mechanisms)in U.S. and Canadian jurisdictions are highlighted to demonstrate the pursuit towards broader consumer protection of personal data used in daily commercial transactions. The author argues that these modern efforts to safeguard consumers from identity theft is a progressive measure that will continue to afford increasing protections for consumer personal data, …


Opening Bottlenecks: On Behalf Of Mandated Network Neutrality, Bill D. Herman Apr 2006

Opening Bottlenecks: On Behalf Of Mandated Network Neutrality, Bill D. Herman

ExpressO

This paper calls for mandated “network neutrality,” the principle that broadband service providers (BSPs) should generally treat all nondestructive data equally. Without such a mandate, BSPs will likely begin charging content providers for the right to send data at the fastest speeds available. The present frequency with which BSPs block some data entirely will also likely increase.

Neutral networks are preferable for two key reasons. First, they spawn innovation, as illustrated by the explosive online innovation to date. Second, neutral networks better distribute communication power, promoting First Amendment values. Extant and likely future acts of discrimination erode both goals. The …


E-Lawyering, The Aba's Current Choice Of Ethics Law Rule & The Dormant Commerce Clause: Why The Dormant Commerce Clause Invalidates Model Rule 8.5(B)(2) When Applied To Internet Representations Of Clients , Michael W. Loudenslager Apr 2006

E-Lawyering, The Aba's Current Choice Of Ethics Law Rule & The Dormant Commerce Clause: Why The Dormant Commerce Clause Invalidates Model Rule 8.5(B)(2) When Applied To Internet Representations Of Clients , Michael W. Loudenslager

ExpressO

The Internet is becoming the primary manner in which some attorneys serve clients. States have already taken differing views on whether it is acceptable for an attorney to engage in electronic representations of clients. Thus, determining what jurisdiction’s law applies to such attorney conduct can be very important in deciding whether this activity constitutes the unauthorized practice of law, and, if not, the exact duties of an attorney in such representations.

This article argues that the current version of Model Rule of Professional Responsibility 8.5(b), which governs choice of ethics law, can be interpreted to apply the legal ethics rules …


Vanquishing Copyright Pirates And Patent Trolls: The Divergent Evolution Of Copyright And Patent Laws, Robert E. Thomas Mar 2006

Vanquishing Copyright Pirates And Patent Trolls: The Divergent Evolution Of Copyright And Patent Laws, Robert E. Thomas

ExpressO

In the last decade copyright law has followed an almost linear path of increasing legal protections for copyright holders’ battle against digital piracy. By contrast, proposed changes in patent law are decidedly anti-patent holder due to efforts to battle patent trolls – companies that acquire and use patent portfolios to extract payoffs from technology companies. Patent law reform faces a far more contentious path and will likely lose several of its most significant provisions. This paper analyzes efforts to change the laws of copyright and patent using James Q. Wilson’s theory of regulation. With little concerted opposition, copyright law has …


How Much Spam Can Can-Spam Can? – Evaluating The Effectiveness Of The Can-Spam Act In The Wake Of White Buffalo Ventures V. University Of Texas, Fay Katayama Mar 2006

How Much Spam Can Can-Spam Can? – Evaluating The Effectiveness Of The Can-Spam Act In The Wake Of White Buffalo Ventures V. University Of Texas, Fay Katayama

ExpressO

No abstract provided.


Buried Online: State Laws That Limit E-Commerce In Caskets, Jerry Ellig, Asheesh Agarwal Mar 2006

Buried Online: State Laws That Limit E-Commerce In Caskets, Jerry Ellig, Asheesh Agarwal

ExpressO

Consumers seeking to purchase caskets online could benefit from the Supreme Court’s 2005 decision that states cannot discriminate against interstate direct wine shipment. Federal courts have reached conflicting conclusions when asked whether state laws requiring casket sellers to be licensed funeral directors violate the U.S. Constitution’s Due Process Clause. In Powers v. Harris, the 10th Circuit even offered an unprecedented ruling that economic protectionism is a legitimate state interest that can justify otherwise unconstitutional policies. In Granholm v. Heald, however, the Supreme Court declared that discriminatory barriers to interstate wine shipment must be justified by a legitimate state interest, and …


The Role Of Patents In Fostering Open Innovation, John Dubiansky Mar 2006

The Role Of Patents In Fostering Open Innovation, John Dubiansky

ExpressO

The patent system is at an inherent tension with contemporary practices of innovation. American patent doctrine reveres the lone inventor who, through the marshalling of extraordinary insight and experimental toil, conceives a novel invention. As a reward, the inventor is given the right to profit from his contribution through personal commercial exploitation. While this perspective may have reflected the practice of the mechanical arts at the time of the nation’s founding, it no longer reflects contemporary industrial research and development, where innovation is an increasingly networked process.

This disconnect is evidenced by the fact that contemporary patent doctrine has failed …


Criminalizing Internet Gambling: Should The Federal Government Keep Bluffing Or Fold?, Wesley S. Ashton Mar 2006

Criminalizing Internet Gambling: Should The Federal Government Keep Bluffing Or Fold?, Wesley S. Ashton

ExpressO

This paper first describes the various mechanical aspects of Internet gambling, and then reviews the U.S. criminal laws that apply to gambling conducted online. As part of this review, several criminal and civil cases involving Internet gambling activities are discussed. Lastly, how the rapidly changing gambling landscape in the United States and the world may effect future federal lawmaking efforts for controlling Internet gambling is considered.


Open Access In A Closed Universe: Lexis, Westlaw And The Law School, Olufunmilayo B. Arewa Mar 2006

Open Access In A Closed Universe: Lexis, Westlaw And The Law School, Olufunmilayo B. Arewa

ExpressO

This paper considers issues of open access from the context of the broader legal information industry as a whole. The structure and contours of the legal information industry have shaped the availability of online open access publishing of legal scholarship. The competitive duopoly of Lexis and Westlaw is a particularly important factor in considerations of open access. Also significant is the relationship between Lexis and Westlaw and law schools, which form an important market segment for both Lexis and Westlaw. This paper begins by considering the important role information plays in the law. It then notes the increasing industry concentration …


Global Pharmaceutical Patent Law In Developing Countries- Amending Trips To Promote Access For All, Angela J. Anderson Mar 2006

Global Pharmaceutical Patent Law In Developing Countries- Amending Trips To Promote Access For All, Angela J. Anderson

ExpressO

This comment will analyze the need to amend and revise the current global pharmaceutical patent system under TRIPS to take into account the needs of developing countries and overall public health. This comment will emphasize that the current international trade rules, which although administered by the WTO, are dictated by developed country governments and powerful pharmaceutical companies, and therefore, without reform will further diminish the access of poor people in developing countries to vital medicines. Part II of this comment will provide a general overview of the international trade law governing patents on pharmaceuticals focusing specifically on the development of …


The Children Of Science: Property, People, Or Something In Between?, Star Q. Lopez Mar 2006

The Children Of Science: Property, People, Or Something In Between?, Star Q. Lopez

ExpressO

How should states classify embryos? The war has often waged between two classifications, people versus property. But what if a state assumed something in between, finding the embryo to be a potential person entitled to special respect? If a state adopted this position, how would the law affect medical research?

Presuming embryos constitute potential persons, the debate would continue with how to define “special respect.” The status of a potential person runs along a spectrum between property and personhood. How one defines “special respect” determines where the potential person falls along this spectrum. Special respect would create a spectrum of …


Regulatory Status Of Voip In The Post-Brand X World, Jerry Ellig Mar 2006

Regulatory Status Of Voip In The Post-Brand X World, Jerry Ellig

ExpressO

During the past several years, the Federal Communications Commission has engaged in a series of rulemakings to determine the regulatory status of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). The Supreme Court’s Brand X decision clarifies that even if the FCC’s determination conflicts with that of a court, the FCC’s judgment holds sway as long as the decision is reasonable. We believe that VoIP should be classified as an information service, rather than a telecommunications service, for several reasons. First, the Internet Protocol nature of VoIP technology means that it functions like an information service, rather than a telecommunications service. Second, in …