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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Lease Of All Evils: How A Middle-Ground Approach Can Resolve The Bankruptcy Code Conflict Between Section 363(F) Sales And Section 365(H) Lessee Protections, Kate Christensen Jan 2024

The Lease Of All Evils: How A Middle-Ground Approach Can Resolve The Bankruptcy Code Conflict Between Section 363(F) Sales And Section 365(H) Lessee Protections, Kate Christensen

Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law

The Fifth Circuit’s recent decision in In re Royal St. Bistro, LLC has awakened an unsettled issue in the Bankruptcy Code that has divided the bankruptcy community for over two decades. The question examined by the Fifth Circuit was whether a non-debtor lessee with a right to continued possession through section 365(h) of the Bankruptcy Code loses this right if the debtor-lessor can sell its property “free and clear” under section 363(f). While early decisions held that section 365(h) always protects lessees against debtors’ free and clear sales, some subsequent decisions created a circuit split by ruling that section 365(h) …


Silencing Litigation Through Bankruptcy, Pamela Foohey, Christopher K. Odinet Oct 2023

Silencing Litigation Through Bankruptcy, Pamela Foohey, Christopher K. Odinet

Articles

Bankruptcy is being used as a tool for silencing survivors and their families. When faced with claims from multiple plaintiffs related to the same wrongful conduct that can financially or operationally crush the defendant over the long term—a phenomenon we identify as onslaught litigation—defendants harness bankruptcy’s reorganization process to draw together those who allege harm and pressure them into a swift, universal settlement. In doing so, they use the bankruptcy system to deprive survivors of their voice and the public of the truth. This Article identifies this phenomenon and argues that it is time to rein in this destructive use …


Silencing Litigation Through Bankruptcy, Pamela Foohey, Christopher K. Odinet Oct 2023

Silencing Litigation Through Bankruptcy, Pamela Foohey, Christopher K. Odinet

Faculty Scholarship

Bankruptcy is being used as a tool for silencing survivors and their families. When faced with claims from multiple plaintiffs related to the same wrongful conduct that can financially or operationally crush the defendant over the long term—a phenomenon we identify as onslaught litigation—defendants harness bankruptcy’s reorganization process to draw together those who allege harm and pressure them into a swift, universal settlement. In doing so, they use the bankruptcy system to deprive survivors of their voice and the public of the truth. This Article identifies this phenomenon and argues that it is time to rein in this destructive use …


Aligning Nigeria’S Companies And Allied Matters Act With Restructuring Objectives: A Comparative Analysis Using Key Areas Of Interest In Canada’S Insolvency Regime, Unyime Anieti Akpan Aug 2023

Aligning Nigeria’S Companies And Allied Matters Act With Restructuring Objectives: A Comparative Analysis Using Key Areas Of Interest In Canada’S Insolvency Regime, Unyime Anieti Akpan

Master of Laws Research Papers Repository

Despite the commendable inclusion of restructuring options in Nigeria’s Companies and Allied Matters Act 2020 (“CAMA 2020”), there are still some issues to be addressed in order to fully align CAMA’s restructuring regimes with its goals. This paper undertakes a comparative analysis of the CAMA and the relevant Canadian laws in this respect (particularly the Companies’ Creditors Arrangement Act (“CCAA”) which are aimed at restructuring insolvent corporations. Given the broad nature of a general comparison of insolvency regimes, the approach of this research will be to highlight some key areas of interest under both the CAMA …


Silencing Litigation Through Bankruptcy, Pamela Foohey, Christopher K. Odinet Jan 2023

Silencing Litigation Through Bankruptcy, Pamela Foohey, Christopher K. Odinet

Scholarly Works

Bankruptcy is being used as a tool for silencing survivors and their families. When faced with claims from multiple plaintiffs related to the same wrongful conduct that can financially or operationally crush the defendant over the long term—a phenomenon we identify as onslaught litigation—defendants harness bankruptcy’s reorganization process to draw together those who allege harm and pressure them into a swift, universal settlement. In doing so, they use the bankruptcy system to deprive survivors of their voice and the public of the truth. This Article identifies this phenomenon and argues that it is time to rein in this destructive use …


Pandemic Hope For Chapter 11 Financing, David A. Skeel Jr. Nov 2021

Pandemic Hope For Chapter 11 Financing, David A. Skeel Jr.

All Faculty Scholarship

One of the biggest surprises of the recent pandemic from a bankruptcy perspective has been the ready availability of financing. A variety of factors—such as an estimated $2.5 trillion in available funding at the outset of the crisis and the buoyant stock market—may have contributed. In this Essay, I focus on a less widely appreciated factor, a striking shift in the capital structure of many corporate debtors. Rather than borrowing from one group of lenders, debtors now often borrow from multiple groups of diverse lenders. Although the new capital structure complexity has downsides, it also could counteract a longstanding problem …


Taking Stock Of Chapter 11, David A. Skeel Jr. May 2021

Taking Stock Of Chapter 11, David A. Skeel Jr.

All Faculty Scholarship

In this Essay, written for a symposium honoring Sam Gerdano, I offer an assessment of current Chapter 11 theory and practice. The most distinctive feature of current Chapter 11 practice is the extent to which the parties now enter into intercreditor agreements, restructuring support agreements and other actual contracts governing their rights and responsibilities. One question raised by the dramatic shift in bankruptcy practice is whether the leading normative theory of bankruptcy, the Creditors’ Bargain Theory, is now obsolete, as some scholars have suggested. The Creditors’ Bargain Theory explains bankruptcy as a solution to coordination problems that might lead to …


Designing An Independent Public Health Agency, Jacqueline Salwa, Christopher Robertson May 2021

Designing An Independent Public Health Agency, Jacqueline Salwa, Christopher Robertson

Faculty Scholarship

We believe that Congress should act on a bipartisan basis to fix U.S. public health institutions. Legislators could decide to merely buttress current institutions, as former commissioners have suggested be done for the FDA.1 Alternatively, legislators could consider a broad reorganization of public health functions and create a superagency, whose purview would include everything from the approval of drugs and devices to the maintenance of national stockpiles of protective equipment.


Protection Of The Rights Of The Creditors And The Debtor In The Process Of Financial Reorganization And Structuring Of Troubled Companies: A Comparative Study On The 2016 Uae Bankruptcy Law, French And American Legislations, Alaa Khasawneh Jan 2021

Protection Of The Rights Of The Creditors And The Debtor In The Process Of Financial Reorganization And Structuring Of Troubled Companies: A Comparative Study On The 2016 Uae Bankruptcy Law, French And American Legislations, Alaa Khasawneh

UAEU Law Journal

This study deals with the protection of creditors and the debtor in accordance with the methods of saving and assisting troubled companies approved by the UAE Act of bankruptcy of 2016, as the legislator of the UAE in this law aimed to solve the difficulties faced by troubled companies and to protect them from bankruptcy and its negative consequences, This means raises problems about the extent of the protection afforded to the creditors compared to that afforded to the interests of the debtor, where legislator treated it with special care and subjected to special procedures differ from bankruptcy proceedings, and …


Debt’S Emotional Encumbrances, Pamela Foohey Jan 2021

Debt’S Emotional Encumbrances, Pamela Foohey

Scholarly Works

This chapter focuses on the role of emotions in the theory and practice of commercial and consumer credit laws, including bankruptcy, in the United States. It assesses knowledge about people’s emotions regarding personal and business financial problems, and evaluates how “money law” systems account for these emotions. This assessment finds that emotions surrounding taking on and being able to pay back debt differ between business leaders and people who shoulder household debt. These differences are traceable in large part to historical understandings of the respectability of incurring debt. This history has shaped the development of bankruptcy, commercial, and consumer credit …


The Future Of Reorganization Procedures In The Era Of Pre-Insolvency Law, Aurelio Gurrea-Martinez Dec 2020

The Future Of Reorganization Procedures In The Era Of Pre-Insolvency Law, Aurelio Gurrea-Martinez

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Several countries and regions around the world, including Singapore, the United Kingdom, and the European Union, are amending their restructuring framework to implement a pre-insolvency mechanism that includes most of the features that exist in the US Chapter 11 reorganization procedure. However, unlike what happens in the United States, where unsuccessful reorganizations lead to Chapter 7 liquidations, companies using this ‘de facto Chapter 11’ (DFCH11) are still allowed to use formal reorganization procedures. This article argues that, while the rise of the DFCH11 is not necessarily undesirable provided that various protections are put in place, jurisdictions implementing this restructuring tool …


Resolving Corporate Insolvencies In China: The Gap Between Law And Reality, Dr. Zhang Zinian Jul 2020

Resolving Corporate Insolvencies In China: The Gap Between Law And Reality, Dr. Zhang Zinian

University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review

This article examines how corporate insolvencies in China, the second largest economy, are handled under the current legislation, the China Enterprise Bankruptcy Law of 2006. Relying on the fresh empirical data arising from the first ten years on the use of China’s three insolvency procedures, reorganization, composition and liquidation, this article reveals the huge gap between the law in the books and the law in action, arguing that the implementation of this law in China perhaps has not achieved the legislative objectives. The constitutional and institutional weaknesses affecting the application of this law are analyzed


Financing Failure: Bankruptcy Lending, Credit Market Conditions, And The Financial Crisis, Frederick Tung Apr 2020

Financing Failure: Bankruptcy Lending, Credit Market Conditions, And The Financial Crisis, Frederick Tung

Faculty Scholarship

When contemplating Chapter 11, firms often need to seek financing for their continuing operations in bankruptcy. Because such financing would otherwise be hard to find, the Bankruptcy Code authorizes debtors to offer sweeteners to debtor-in-possession (DIP) lenders. These inducements can be effective in attracting financing, but because they are thought to come at the expense of other stakeholders, the Code permits these inducements only if no less generous a package would have been sufficient to obtain the loan.

Anecdotal evidence suggests that the use of certain controversial inducements — I focus on roll-ups and milestones — skyrocketed in recent years, …


Distorted Choice In Corporate Bankruptcy, David A. Skeel Jr. Jan 2020

Distorted Choice In Corporate Bankruptcy, David A. Skeel Jr.

All Faculty Scholarship

We ordinarily assume that a central objective of every voting process is ensuring an undistorted vote. Recent developments in corporate bankruptcy, which culminates with an elaborate vote, are quite puzzling from this perspective. Two strategies now routinely used in big cases are intended to distort, and clearly do distort, the voting process. Restructuring support agreements (RSAs) and “deathtrap” provisions remove creditors’ ability to vote for or against a proposed reorganization simply on the merits.

This Article offers the first comprehensive analysis of these new distortive techniques. One possible solution is simply to ban distortive techniques, as several scholars advocate with …


Bankruptcy’S Role In The Covid-19 Crisis, Edward R. Morrison, Andrea C. Saavedra Jan 2020

Bankruptcy’S Role In The Covid-19 Crisis, Edward R. Morrison, Andrea C. Saavedra

Faculty Scholarship

Policymakers have minimized the role of bankruptcy law in mitigating the financial fallout from COVID-19. Scholars too are unsure about the merits of bankruptcy, especially Chapter 11, in resolving business distress. We argue that Chapter 11 complements current stimulus policies for large corporations, such as the airlines, and that Treasury should consider making it a precondition for receiving government-backed financing. Chapter 11 offers a flexible, speedy, and crisis-tested tool for preserving businesses, financing them with government funds (if necessary), and ensuring that the costs of distress are borne primarily by investors, not taxpayers. Chapter 11 saves businesses and employment, not …


The Future Of Reorganization Procedures In The Era Of Pre-Insolvency Law, Aurelio Gurrea-Martinez Jan 2019

The Future Of Reorganization Procedures In The Era Of Pre-Insolvency Law, Aurelio Gurrea-Martinez

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Several countries and regions around the world, including Singapore, the United Kingdom, and the European Union are amending their restructuring framework to implement a pre-insolvency mechanism that looks like a US Chapter 11 reorganization. However, unlike what happens in the United States, where unsuccessful reorganizations lead to Chapter 7 liquidations, companies using this ‘de facto Chapter 11’ (DFCH11) are still allowed to use the formal reorganization procedures existing in their insolvency jurisdictions if the DFCH11 fails.


You've Got Your Mother's Laugh: What Bankruptcy Mediation Can Learn From The Her/History Of Divorce And Child Custody Mediation, Nancy A. Welsh Jul 2018

You've Got Your Mother's Laugh: What Bankruptcy Mediation Can Learn From The Her/History Of Divorce And Child Custody Mediation, Nancy A. Welsh

Nancy Welsh

Due to our current deep economic woes, growing bankruptcy filings, and apparent legislative unwillingness to expand the number of judges, bankruptcy courts are exploring the use of mediation to help resolve adversary proceedings, negotiate elements of reorganizations, and deal with claims that cannot be heard directly in bankruptcy proceedings. In addition, mediation advocates have been consistent in urging greater use of the process to reduce debtors’ and claimants’ costs, bridge the jurisdictional and standing challenges that bankruptcies can pose, and offer claimants the opportunity to be heard and determine their own resolution of claims. At this point, the relatively few …


Reflections On Two Years Of P.R.O.M.E.S.A., David A. Skeel Jr. Jun 2018

Reflections On Two Years Of P.R.O.M.E.S.A., David A. Skeel Jr.

All Faculty Scholarship

This Essay draws both on my scholarly and on my personal experience as a member of Puerto Rico’s oversight board to assess the first two years of the Board’s existence. I begin in a scholarly mode, by exploring the question of where P.R.O.M.E.S.A., the legislation that created the Board, came from. P.R.O.M.E.S.A.’s core provisions are, I will argue, the product of two historical patterns that have emerged in responses to the financial distress of public entities in the United States. The first dates back to the 1970s crisis in New York City, while the second is much more recent. If …


Bankruptcy’S Uneasy Shift To A Contract Paradigm, David A. Skeel Jr., George Triantis Jan 2018

Bankruptcy’S Uneasy Shift To A Contract Paradigm, David A. Skeel Jr., George Triantis

All Faculty Scholarship

The most dramatic development in twenty-first century bankruptcy practice has been the increasing use of contracts to shape the bankruptcy process. To explain the new contract paradigm—our principal objective in this Article-- we begin by examining the structure of current bankruptcy law. Although the Bankruptcy Code of 1978 has long been viewed as mandatory, its voting and cramdown rules, among others, invite considerable contracting. The emerging paradigm is asymmetric, however. While the Code and bankruptcy practice allow for ex post contracting, ex ante contracts are viewed with suspicion.

We next use contract theory to assess the two modes of contracting. …


Lender Discrimination, Black Churches And Bankruptcy, Pamela Foohey Jan 2017

Lender Discrimination, Black Churches And Bankruptcy, Pamela Foohey

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Based on my original empirical research, in this Article, I expose a disparity between the demographics of the roughly 650 religious congregations that have filed for chapter 11 bankruptcy during part of the last decade and congregations nationwide. Churches with predominately black membership — Black Churches — appeared in chapter 11 more than three times as often as they appear among churches across the country. A conservative estimate of the percentage of Black Churches among religious congregation chapter 11 debtors is 60%. The likely percentage is upward of 75%. Black Churches account for 21% of congregations nationwide.

Why are Black …


Lender Discrimination, Black Churches, And Bankruptcy, Pamela Foohey Jan 2017

Lender Discrimination, Black Churches, And Bankruptcy, Pamela Foohey

Scholarly Works

Based on my original empirical research, in this Article, I expose a disparity between the demographics of the roughly 650 religious congregations that have filed for chapter 11 bankruptcy during part of the last decade and congregations nationwide. Churches with predominately black membership — Black Churches — appeared in chapter 11 more than three times as often as they appear among churches across the country. A conservative estimate of the percentage of Black Churches among religious congregation chapter 11 debtors is 60%. The likely percentage is upward of 75%. Black Churches account for 21% of congregations nationwide.

Why are Black …


Assessing Academic Law Libraries' Performance And Implementing Change: The Reorganization Of A Law Library, Linda Kawaguchi Dec 2016

Assessing Academic Law Libraries' Performance And Implementing Change: The Reorganization Of A Law Library, Linda Kawaguchi

Linda Kawaguchi

The confluence of the crisis in legal education and the evolution of legal information presents the perfect opportunity for law schools to actively decide what the role of the law library should be, and to make considered, deliberate changes based on the best interests of the institution. The Dale E. Fowler School of Law at Chapman University recognized the opportunity to strengthen the institution by creating, essentially, a brand new law library. When I started at Chapman, I began a comprehensive assessment of law library operations; after six months, I recommended a complete reorganization, including the budget, collection, staff, and …


A Two-Step Plan For Puerto Rico, Clayton P. Gillette, David A. Skeel Jr. Mar 2016

A Two-Step Plan For Puerto Rico, Clayton P. Gillette, David A. Skeel Jr.

All Faculty Scholarship

Few still believe that Puerto Rico is capable of meeting all of its financial obligations and continuing to provide basic services. The territory is already in default, and conditions are rapidly deteriorating. Is there a way forward? We think there is. In this short article, we outline a two-part plan for correcting Puerto Rico’s most urgent fiscal and financial problems.

The first step is to create an independent financial control board that has authority over Puerto Rico’s budgets and related issues. Notwithstanding concerns that an externally imposed financial control board (FCB) may interfere with the decision making processes of democratically …


Creditor And Debtor Burdens When Confirming A Chapter 11 Reorganization Plan, Corey Trail Jan 2016

Creditor And Debtor Burdens When Confirming A Chapter 11 Reorganization Plan, Corey Trail

Bankruptcy Research Library

(Excerpt)

In Chapter 11 bankruptcy, after a debtor has submitted a reorganization plan, the creditor has the right to vote on that plan. However, the right to vote on that plan is grounded in the understanding that the creditor will not vote against a debtor’s reorganization plan in bad faith. If a court finds that the creditor rejected the plan in bad faith, the court may “designate” the votes of the creditor that voted against the plan. But the issue of good faith does not solely lie with the creditor’s behavior. Reorganization under Chapter 11 also demands that the debtor …


Governance Reform And The Judicial Role In Municipal Bankruptcy, Clayton P. Gillette, David A. Skeel Jr. Jan 2016

Governance Reform And The Judicial Role In Municipal Bankruptcy, Clayton P. Gillette, David A. Skeel Jr.

All Faculty Scholarship

Recent proceedings involving large municipalities such as Detroit, Stockton, and Vallejo illustrate both the utility and the limitations of using the Bankruptcy Code to adjust municipal debt. In this article, we contend that, to truly resolve the distress of a substantial city, municipal bankruptcy needs to do more than simply provide immediate debt relief. Debt adjustment alone does nothing to remedy the fragmented decision-making and incentives for expanding municipal budgets that underlie municipal distress. Unless bankruptcy also addresses governance dysfunction, the city may slide right back into financial crisis. Governance restructuring has long been an essential element of corporate bankruptcy. …


Beyond Options, Edward R. Morrison, Anthony J. Casey Jan 2016

Beyond Options, Edward R. Morrison, Anthony J. Casey

Faculty Scholarship

Scholars and policymakers now debate reforms that would prevent a bankruptcy filing from being a moment that forces valuation of the firm, crystallization of claims against it, and elimination of junior stakeholders’ interest in future appreciation in firm value. These reforms have many names, ranging from Relative Priority to Redemption Option Value. Much of the debate centers on the extent to which reform would protect the non-bankruptcy options of junior stakeholders, or harm the non-bankruptcy options of senior lenders. We argue that this focus on options misplaced. Protecting options is neither necessary nor sufficient for advancing the goal of a …


Why Do Distressed Companies Choose Delaware? An Empirical Analysis Of Venue Choice In Bankruptcy , Kenneth M. Ayotte, David A. Skeel Jr. Jun 2015

Why Do Distressed Companies Choose Delaware? An Empirical Analysis Of Venue Choice In Bankruptcy , Kenneth M. Ayotte, David A. Skeel Jr.

Kenneth Ayotte

We analyze a sample of large Chapter 11 cases to determine which factors motivate the choice of filing in one court over another when a choice is available. We focus in particular on the Delaware court, which became the most popular venue for large corporations in the 1990s. We find no evidence of agency problems governing the venue choice or affecting the outcome of the bankruptcy process. Instead, firm characteristics and court characteristics, particularly a court's level of experience, are the most important factors. We find that court experience manifests itself in both a greater ability to reorganize marginal firms …


Voluntary Plant Closings And Workforce Reductions: An International Perspective, Roger Blanpain Jan 2015

Voluntary Plant Closings And Workforce Reductions: An International Perspective, Roger Blanpain

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Lost In Translation: Till V. Scs Credit Corp. And The Mistaken Transfer Of A Consumer Bankruptcy Repayment Formula To Chapter 11 Reorganizations, Mark J. Thompson, Katie M. Mcdonough Jan 2015

Lost In Translation: Till V. Scs Credit Corp. And The Mistaken Transfer Of A Consumer Bankruptcy Repayment Formula To Chapter 11 Reorganizations, Mark J. Thompson, Katie M. Mcdonough

Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law

This Article argues that courts overseeing chapter 11 cases have been mistakenly invoking the Supreme Court’s 2004 decision in Till v. SCS Credit Corp.—which specified a consumer-friendly formula for setting the interest rate on the remaining payments on a loan that financed a used pickup truck—at the expense of over a century of Supreme Court precedents that established the contrastingly creditor friendly “fair and equitable” standard for repayment of business debts, as well as disregarding a clear statutory distinction between the present value tests in chapters 11 and 13. This Article also discusses the controversial 2014 decision in Momentive Performance …


The Value Of Soft Variables In Corporate Reorganizations, Michelle M. Harner Jan 2015

The Value Of Soft Variables In Corporate Reorganizations, Michelle M. Harner

Faculty Scholarship

When a company is worth more as a going concern than on a liquidation basis, what creates that additional value? Is it the people, management decisions, the simple synergies of the operating business, or some combination of these types of soft variables? And perhaps more importantly, who owns or has an interest in these soft variables? This article explores these questions under existing legal doctrine and practice norms. Specifically, it discusses the characterization of soft variables under applicable law and in financing documents, and it surveys related judicial decisions. It also considers the overarching public policy and Constitutional implications of …