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Chapter 11

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Industry Peer Information And The Equity Valuation Accuracy Of Firms Emerging From Chapter 11, Bingxu Fang, Sasan Saiy May 2024

Industry Peer Information And The Equity Valuation Accuracy Of Firms Emerging From Chapter 11, Bingxu Fang, Sasan Saiy

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

Valuation plays a central role in determining Chapter 11 reorganization outcomes. However, obtaining accurate valuation estimates of reorganized firms is challenging because of limited firm-specific market-based information and the oft-conflicting incentives of claimholders. We examine the role of industry peer information in reducing misvaluations and its implications for unintended interclaimant wealth transfers and postreorganization performance. First, we find that the availability of relevant industry peer information is negatively associated with equity valuation errors for firms emerging from Chapter 11. Cross-sectional results suggest that the relation between industry peer information and valuation errors varies substantially with debtors’ information environment and case …


Discharging Equity: Harrington V. Purdue Pharma L.P. And The Validity Of Nonconsensual Third-Party Releases, Andrew Klauber Apr 2024

Discharging Equity: Harrington V. Purdue Pharma L.P. And The Validity Of Nonconsensual Third-Party Releases, Andrew Klauber

Duke Journal of Constitutional Law & Public Policy Sidebar

In September 2019, Purdue Pharma L.P. petitioned for bankruptcy in the Southern District of New York. Purdue, which the Sackler family had owned and operated for decades, developed and aggressively marketed addictive opioid products, contributing to the modern opioid epidemic. The tsunami of litigation arising from the opioid epidemic gave rise to claims against Purdue and the Sackler family estimated to total more than $40 trillion, causing Purdue to petition for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.

In Purdue’s plan of reorganization, it employed a nonconsensual third-party release to discharge claims against the Sackler family. Nonconsensual third-party releases controversially enjoin parties to a …


Purdue And Mass Tort Claims: Will Non-Debtor Release Survive?, Christopher M. Alston, Alena Ivanov Apr 2024

Purdue And Mass Tort Claims: Will Non-Debtor Release Survive?, Christopher M. Alston, Alena Ivanov

West Virginia Law Review

No abstract provided.


Safe Harboring Sloppiness: The Scope Of, And Available Remedies Under, Sections 363(M) And 364(E), Vishal Patel Jan 2024

Safe Harboring Sloppiness: The Scope Of, And Available Remedies Under, Sections 363(M) And 364(E), Vishal Patel

Emory Bankruptcy Developments Journal

No abstract provided.


Third-Party Bankruptcy Releases And The Separation Of Powers: A Stern Look, Henry Reynolds Jan 2024

Third-Party Bankruptcy Releases And The Separation Of Powers: A Stern Look, Henry Reynolds

Emory Bankruptcy Developments Journal

In the last few years, bankruptcy scholars and professionals have criticized mass tort debtors’ use of chapter 11 bankruptcy as a litigation forum. One such criticism concerns mass tort debtors’ use of third-party releases: provisions in chapter 11 reorganization plans that enjoin creditors’ claims against non-debtor third parties. If a bankruptcy court approves such releases, creditors lose claims against the released third parties, which often include the debtor’s directors, insurers, or employees.

Third-party releases have troubled many. Critics and courts have said that third-party releases violate (1) the Bankruptcy Code, (2) bankruptcy policy, (3) the constitutional right to due process, …


Silencing Litigation Through Bankruptcy, Pamela Foohey, Christopher K. Odinet Oct 2023

Silencing Litigation Through Bankruptcy, Pamela Foohey, Christopher K. Odinet

Faculty Articles

Bankruptcy is being used as a tool for silencing survivors and their families. When faced with claims from multiple plaintiffs related to the same wrongful conduct that can financially or operationally crush the defendant over the long term—a phenomenon we identify as onslaught litigation—defendants harness bankruptcy’s reorganization process to draw together those who allege harm and pressure them into a swift, universal settlement. In doing so, they use the bankruptcy system to deprive survivors of their voice and the public of the truth. This Article identifies this phenomenon and argues that it is time to rein in this destructive use …


Silencing Litigation Through Bankruptcy, Pamela Foohey, Christopher K. Odinet Oct 2023

Silencing Litigation Through Bankruptcy, Pamela Foohey, Christopher K. Odinet

Faculty Scholarship

Bankruptcy is being used as a tool for silencing survivors and their families. When faced with claims from multiple plaintiffs related to the same wrongful conduct that can financially or operationally crush the defendant over the long term—a phenomenon we identify as onslaught litigation—defendants harness bankruptcy’s reorganization process to draw together those who allege harm and pressure them into a swift, universal settlement. In doing so, they use the bankruptcy system to deprive survivors of their voice and the public of the truth. This Article identifies this phenomenon and argues that it is time to rein in this destructive use …


Bankruptcy’S Identity Crisis, David A. Skeel Jr. Jan 2023

Bankruptcy’S Identity Crisis, David A. Skeel Jr.

University of Pennsylvania Law Review

"The large companies that currently file for Chapter 11 look very different than the typical Chapter 11 cases of the past. The liability side of debtors’ balance sheets is much more complex and now consists primarily of secured rather than unsecured obligations. Many firms that might once have borrowed on a secured basis from a bank and on an unsecured basis from bondholders now have first and second liens instead. Leveraged loans have further contributed to the prevalence of secured debt. While these developments are beneficial in many respects, they have exacerbated two serious problems in Chapter 11. The first …


The Texas Two-Step: How Corporate Debtors Manipulate Chapter 11 Reorganizations To Dance Around Mass Tort Liability, Laura S. Rossi Jan 2023

The Texas Two-Step: How Corporate Debtors Manipulate Chapter 11 Reorganizations To Dance Around Mass Tort Liability, Laura S. Rossi

Emory Bankruptcy Developments Journal

The purpose of the bankruptcy system is to grant a “fresh start” to the honest but unfortunate debtor, while the purpose of the tort system is to make injured parties “whole” again. As a result, these systems inevitably clash when a business debtor files for bankruptcy while there are pending tort claims against it. The tension between these systems has reached a whole new level following the emergence of a new strategy deemed the “Texas Two-Step.”

A Texas statute leaves open a loophole for otherwise solvent companies to dodge mass tort liabilities and protect their assets, leaving injured plaintiffs with …


America’S Public Shell Trafficking Problem: Ripe For Reprocessing, Harrison Lipsky Jan 2023

America’S Public Shell Trafficking Problem: Ripe For Reprocessing, Harrison Lipsky

Emory Bankruptcy Developments Journal

The scourge of public shell trafficking has led to fraudsters taking advantage of and pilfering the hard-earned dollars of the American investing public for decades. These fraudsters seek to abuse the chapter 11 bankruptcy process by discharging the debt of such public shells, so that they can increase the profitability of schemes that target innocent investors, such as reverse mergers and pump-and-dump schemes. Regulators and lawmakers alike have fought back against this phenomenon through statutory reform and targeted regulatory programs; recently, their principal method of fighting back has been to consistently object to chapter 11 plans of reorganization that could …


Silencing Litigation Through Bankruptcy, Pamela Foohey, Christopher K. Odinet Jan 2023

Silencing Litigation Through Bankruptcy, Pamela Foohey, Christopher K. Odinet

Scholarly Works

Bankruptcy is being used as a tool for silencing survivors and their families. When faced with claims from multiple plaintiffs related to the same wrongful conduct that can financially or operationally crush the defendant over the long term—a phenomenon we identify as onslaught litigation—defendants harness bankruptcy’s reorganization process to draw together those who allege harm and pressure them into a swift, universal settlement. In doing so, they use the bankruptcy system to deprive survivors of their voice and the public of the truth. This Article identifies this phenomenon and argues that it is time to rein in this destructive use …


The Long And Winding Road To The Small Business Reorganization Act: Why Our Next Stop Should Be Simplicity And Accessibility, Daniel O'Hare May 2022

The Long And Winding Road To The Small Business Reorganization Act: Why Our Next Stop Should Be Simplicity And Accessibility, Daniel O'Hare

West Virginia Law Review

No abstract provided.


Brief Of Amici Curiae Law Professors In Support Of Appellees Regarding The “Abuse” Standard, Pamela Foohey Mar 2022

Brief Of Amici Curiae Law Professors In Support Of Appellees Regarding The “Abuse” Standard, Pamela Foohey

Faculty Amicus Briefs

This amicus brief explains how and why the nondebtor releases granted to the Sackler family, and a large and indeterminate number of other persons and entities in the chapter 11 reorganization of opioid-maker Purdue Pharma, were "abusive" as that term has historically been understood in bankruptcy.

In the 2005 Metromedia opinion, the Second Circuit warned that a nondebtor release "lends itself to abuse" because it “operates as a bankruptcy discharge arranged without a filing and without the safeguards of the Bankruptcy Code.” Liabilities arising from fraudulent transfers, as well as “willful and malicious injury,” have been considered classic examples of …


An Innovative Framework: Evaluating The New German Business Stabilization And Restructuring Law (Starug), Andreas Rauch Jan 2022

An Innovative Framework: Evaluating The New German Business Stabilization And Restructuring Law (Starug), Andreas Rauch

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

This comment examines the restructuring framework, restrukturierungsgesetz (“StaRUG”), and argues that this new law represents an effective—albeit radical—departure from Germany’s previous, conservative insolvency regime. Passed in response to a 2019 EU Directive aimed at modernizing restructuring law Union-wide, and integrated into the German legal system against the backdrop of the COVID-19 pandemic, StaRUG and its ancillary reforms in other areas of German law create a restructuring proceeding that places a premium on a debtor’s continued business operations. Thus, in a striking shift from the traditional German approach to business distress, which strongly emphasized creditor rights, the new StaRUG focuses on …


Bankruptcy Grifters, Lindsey Simon Jan 2022

Bankruptcy Grifters, Lindsey Simon

Scholarly Works

Grifters take advantage of situations, latching on to others for benefits they do not deserve. Bankruptcy has many desirable benefits, especially for mass-tort defendants. Bankruptcy provides a centralized proceeding for resolving claims and a forum of last resort for many companies to aggregate and resolve mass-tort liability. For the debtor-defendant, this makes sense. A bankruptcy court’s tremendous power represents a well-considered balance between debtors who have a limited amount of money and many claimants seeking payment.

But courts have also allowed the Bankruptcy Code’s mechanisms to be used by solvent, nondebtor companies and individuals facing mass-litigation exposure. These “bankruptcy grifters” …


Hostile Restructurings, Diane L. Dick Dec 2021

Hostile Restructurings, Diane L. Dick

Washington Law Review

The conventional wisdom holds that out-of-court loan restructurings are mostly consensual and collaborative. But this is no longer accurate. Highly aggressive, nonconsensual restructuring transactions—what I call “hostile restructurings”—are becoming a common feature of the capital markets. Relying on hypertechnical interpretations of loan agreements, one increasingly popular hostile restructuring method involves issuing new debt that enjoys higher priority than the existing debt; another involves transferring the most valuable collateral away from existing lenders to secure new borrowing.

These transactions are distinguishable from normal out-of-court restructurings by their use of coercive tactics to overcome not only the traditional minority lender holdout problem, …


Pandemic Hope For Chapter 11 Financing, David A. Skeel Jr. Nov 2021

Pandemic Hope For Chapter 11 Financing, David A. Skeel Jr.

All Faculty Scholarship

One of the biggest surprises of the recent pandemic from a bankruptcy perspective has been the ready availability of financing. A variety of factors—such as an estimated $2.5 trillion in available funding at the outset of the crisis and the buoyant stock market—may have contributed. In this Essay, I focus on a less widely appreciated factor, a striking shift in the capital structure of many corporate debtors. Rather than borrowing from one group of lenders, debtors now often borrow from multiple groups of diverse lenders. Although the new capital structure complexity has downsides, it also could counteract a longstanding problem …


The “P” Isn’T For Privacy: The Conflict Between Bankruptcy Rules And Hipaa Compliance, Sophie R. Rogers Churchill Apr 2021

The “P” Isn’T For Privacy: The Conflict Between Bankruptcy Rules And Hipaa Compliance, Sophie R. Rogers Churchill

Washington and Lee Law Review

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) included a now-ubiquitous provision designed to protect the privacy of patients’ protected health information. The provision prohibits covered entities, including health care providers and their agents, from disclosing any demographic information that may identify a patient and that relates to that patient’s medical care. The provision is broad and can include such simple information as which doctor a patient consults or the date of a patient’s consultation with a physician.

Unfortunately, such protections become impracticable in the bankruptcy setting. When a health care provider files bankruptcy, it files a host …


Loopholes For The Affluent Bankrupt, David R. Hague Feb 2021

Loopholes For The Affluent Bankrupt, David R. Hague

St. John's Law Review

(Excerpt)

Recent bankruptcy cases are exposing a problem. Affluent individuals filing for bankruptcy are treated more favorably under the Bankruptcy Code than those debtors with little to no means of financial sustenance or income. Did Congress intend this result? The legislative history is unclear. But one thing seems certain: The United States Bankruptcy Code contains a set of loopholes that appear to be designed for the well-to-do segment of society. Courts throughout the United States are either overlooking these provisions or simply condoning their utilization under the defensible conviction that the Bankruptcy Code permits it.

In this Article, I argue …


The Debtor’S Conduct At The Time Of Filing Controls In Determining Whether A Debtor Is Eligible To Convert Their Existing Case To A Case Under Subchapter V Of The Bankruptcy Code, Eric Silverstein Jan 2021

The Debtor’S Conduct At The Time Of Filing Controls In Determining Whether A Debtor Is Eligible To Convert Their Existing Case To A Case Under Subchapter V Of The Bankruptcy Code, Eric Silverstein

Bankruptcy Research Library

(Excerpt)

Congress passed the Small Business Reorganization Act of 2019 (the “SBRA”) to give small businesses a better chance to successfully reorganize under Chapter 11 of Title 11 of the United States Code (the “Bankruptcy Code”). One of the SBRA’s most important amendments was the addition of Subchapter V to Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code, which was designed to reduce the cost and complexity of a small business reorganization. Because the statute’s express terms do not address its application to existing debtors, courts have been forced to address issues of conversion and eligibility. Generally, conversion of a case is …


Loopholes For The Affluent Bankrupt, David R. Hague Jan 2020

Loopholes For The Affluent Bankrupt, David R. Hague

Faculty Articles

Recent bankruptcy cases are exposing a problem. Affluent individuals filing for bankruptcy are treated more favorably under the Bankruptcy Code than those debtors with little to no means of financial sustenance or income. Did Congress intend this result? The legislative history is unclear. But one thing seems certain: The United States Bankruptcy Code contains a set of loopholes that appear to be designed for the well-to-do segment of society. Courts throughout the United States are either overlooking these provisions or simply condoning their utilization under the defensible conviction that the Bankruptcy Code permits it.

In this Article, I argue that …


Distorted Choice In Corporate Bankruptcy, David A. Skeel Jr. Jan 2020

Distorted Choice In Corporate Bankruptcy, David A. Skeel Jr.

All Faculty Scholarship

We ordinarily assume that a central objective of every voting process is ensuring an undistorted vote. Recent developments in corporate bankruptcy, which culminates with an elaborate vote, are quite puzzling from this perspective. Two strategies now routinely used in big cases are intended to distort, and clearly do distort, the voting process. Restructuring support agreements (RSAs) and “deathtrap” provisions remove creditors’ ability to vote for or against a proposed reorganization simply on the merits.

This Article offers the first comprehensive analysis of these new distortive techniques. One possible solution is simply to ban distortive techniques, as several scholars advocate with …


Bankruptcy’S Role In The Covid-19 Crisis, Edward R. Morrison, Andrea C. Saavedra Jan 2020

Bankruptcy’S Role In The Covid-19 Crisis, Edward R. Morrison, Andrea C. Saavedra

Faculty Scholarship

Policymakers have minimized the role of bankruptcy law in mitigating the financial fallout from COVID-19. Scholars too are unsure about the merits of bankruptcy, especially Chapter 11, in resolving business distress. We argue that Chapter 11 complements current stimulus policies for large corporations, such as the airlines, and that Treasury should consider making it a precondition for receiving government-backed financing. Chapter 11 offers a flexible, speedy, and crisis-tested tool for preserving businesses, financing them with government funds (if necessary), and ensuring that the costs of distress are borne primarily by investors, not taxpayers. Chapter 11 saves businesses and employment, not …


Claim Preclusion And The Problem Of Fictional Consent, Lindsey Simon Jan 2020

Claim Preclusion And The Problem Of Fictional Consent, Lindsey Simon

Scholarly Works

The doctrine of claim preclusion promotes fairness and finality by preventing parties from raising claims that already were (or could have been) raised in a prior proceeding. This strict consequence can be imposed only when the litigant received minimal due process protections in the initial proceeding, including notice and direct or indirect participation.

Modern litigation has caused a new problem. In some cases, a party may be precluded from ever raising a claim on the grounds of “fictional consent” to a prior court’s decisionmaking authority. Litigation devices have expanded the potential reach of judgments through aggregation and broad jurisdictional grants, …


Bankruptcy’S Class Act: Class Proofs Of Claim In Chapter 11, Tori Remington Oct 2019

Bankruptcy’S Class Act: Class Proofs Of Claim In Chapter 11, Tori Remington

Dickinson Law Review (2017-Present)

When a business files for protection under Chapter 11 bankruptcy, it must begin to pay off its debt by reorganizing or liquidating its assets. Oftentimes, both processes include terminating employees to reduce the business’s expenditures. As a result of these terminations, former employees might file a “class proof of claim” against the business to preserve any claims of unpaid wages or violations of federal law.

Whether a group may file a class proof of claim against a debtor in bankruptcy remains unclear. The Tenth Circuit has rejected the class proof of claim in bankruptcy. The remaining circuit courts that have …


Relational Preferences In Chapter 11 Proceedings, Brook E. Gotberg Jul 2019

Relational Preferences In Chapter 11 Proceedings, Brook E. Gotberg

Faculty Publications

It is no secret that creditors hate so-called "preference" actions, which permit a debtor to recover payments made to creditors on the eve of bankruptcy for the benefit of the estate. Nominally, preference actions are intended to equalize the extent to which each unsecured creditor must bear the loss of a bankruptcy discharge, or to discourage creditors from rushing to collect from the debtor in such a way that will push an insolvent debtor into bankruptcy. But empirical evidence strongly suggests that, at least in chapter 11 reorganization proceedings, preference actions do not fulfill either of these stated goals. Interviews …


Is It Fair To Discriminate In Favor Of Pensioners In A Chapter 11 Plan?, Summer B. Chandler Apr 2019

Is It Fair To Discriminate In Favor Of Pensioners In A Chapter 11 Plan?, Summer B. Chandler

Summer Chandler

“A number of U.S. cities are plagued with debt obligations that cannot be met. As municipalities1 have turned to chapter 9 protection to ease their financial burdens, various creditor constituencies have found themselves pitted against each other as they realize that they might be forced to share a finite amount of assets and funds that are insufficient to cover all of the a municipality’s debts. The ultimate goal of a chapter 9 filing is the confirmation of an adjustment plan that implements a feasible and comprehensive restructuring of a municipality’s obligations. A municipality’s proposed plan must be approved by …


The Lehman Brothers Bankruptcy H: The Global Contagion, Rosalind Z. Wiggins, Andrew Metrick Mar 2019

The Lehman Brothers Bankruptcy H: The Global Contagion, Rosalind Z. Wiggins, Andrew Metrick

Journal of Financial Crises

When Lehman Brothers filed for bankruptcy on September 15, 2008, it was the largest such filing in U.S. history and a huge shock to the world’s financial markets, which were already stressed from the deflated housing bubble and questions about subprime mortgages. Lehman was the fourth-largest U.S. investment bank with assets of $639 billion and its operations spread across the globe. Lehman’s clients and counterparties began to disclose millions of dollars of potential losses as they accounted for their exposures. But the impact of Lehman’s demise was felt well beyond its counterparties. Concern regarding its real estate assets, its large …


The Lehman Brothers Bankruptcy G: The Special Case Of Derivatives, Rosalind Z. Wiggins, Andrew Metrick Mar 2019

The Lehman Brothers Bankruptcy G: The Special Case Of Derivatives, Rosalind Z. Wiggins, Andrew Metrick

Journal of Financial Crises

When it filed for bankruptcy protection in September 2008, Lehman Brothers was an active participant in the derivatives market and was party to 906,000 derivative transactions of all types under 6,120 ISDA Master Agreements with an estimated notional value of $35 trillion. The majority of Lehman’s derivatives were bilateral agreements not traded on an exchange but in the over-the-counter (OTC) market. Because derivatives enjoyed an exemption from the automatic stay provisions of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code, parties to Lehman’s derivatives could seek resolution and self-protection without the guidance and restraint of the bankruptcy court. The rush of counterparties to novate …


The Lehman Brothers Bankruptcy F: Introduction To The Isda Master Agreement, Christian M. Mcnamara, Andrew Metrick Mar 2019

The Lehman Brothers Bankruptcy F: Introduction To The Isda Master Agreement, Christian M. Mcnamara, Andrew Metrick

Journal of Financial Crises

When Lehman Brothers Holdings, Inc. (LBHI) sought Chapter 11 protection, the more than 6,000 counterparties with which its subsidiaries had entered into over 900,000 over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives transactions faced the question of how best to respond to protect their interests. The existence of standardized documentation developed by the International Swaps and Derivatives Association (ISDA) for entering into such transactions meant that the counterparties likely thought that they were dealing with a well-defined and robust set of options in answering this question. Yet, in practice, the resolution of Lehman’s OTC derivatives portfolio ended up being less orderly than the existence of …