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Full-Text Articles in Law

Exiting The Disaster, Evading The Responsibility? Wadi Al-Qamar -- The Moon Valley, Suzan Nada Jan 2024

Exiting The Disaster, Evading The Responsibility? Wadi Al-Qamar -- The Moon Valley, Suzan Nada

Perspectives

This essay explores a case that delivered no results for the complainants, where harm was not prevented, and where stakeholders who filed the complaint were not compensated. Investigated by the Compliance Advisor Ombudsman (CAO) of the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the Wadi al-Qamar case illustrates some of the limitations of accountability mechanisms in limiting the harms caused directly or indirectly by projects in which the International Financial Institutions (IFIs) invest.


Imf Human Rights Accountability: A Pragmatic Way To Break The Deadlock, Aldo Caliari Jan 2024

Imf Human Rights Accountability: A Pragmatic Way To Break The Deadlock, Aldo Caliari

Perspectives

In the three decades since the 1993 establishment of the World Bank Inspection Panel, almost all development finance institutions (DFIs) have established analogous panels, ombudsperson offices or other independent accountability mechanisms (IAMs) to allow people who believe they have been harmed by the DFI’s activities to directly trigger processes of fact-finding, dispute resolution, and, if applicable, redress. The primary exception has been the International Monetary Fund.


An Increased Normalization Of Iams Faces Ground Realities: Lack Of Transparency Impedes Access To Iams, Hamid Sharif Jan 2023

An Increased Normalization Of Iams Faces Ground Realities: Lack Of Transparency Impedes Access To Iams, Hamid Sharif

Perspectives

The creation of the Inspection Panel at the World Bank has led to the emergence of a norm that international financial institutions (IFIs) must hold themselves accountable to project-affected people through independent accountability mechanisms (IAMs). AIIB as a 21st century bank reflects this normalization of IAMs. As a new MDB, AIIB’s charter mandates creation of an oversight body that includes the independent accountability mechanism or the Project-affected People’s mechanism (PPM). The PPM is aligned with many features of IFI’s IAMs while incorporating some innovations.

The central question asked by civil society and board members across IFIs is why there …


Between Disruption And Legitimation Of Development: A Critical Perspective On The Inspection Panel And A Call For More Radical Thinking Within The Accountability Community, Dustin Schäfer Jan 2023

Between Disruption And Legitimation Of Development: A Critical Perspective On The Inspection Panel And A Call For More Radical Thinking Within The Accountability Community, Dustin Schäfer

Perspectives

The essay explores the Inspection Panel’s (the Panel) conflicting role of providing accountability for negatively affected people while facing political limitations. The Panel has proven its potential to disrupt harmful development practices. However, by reproducing “dev-speak” it also continuously contributes to legitimizing the same assumptions of “how to do development”, and thus to the continuation of harmful development practices. This ambivalent effect is inherent to the Panel because of its politically inhibited and depoliticized (i.e. technocratic) environment. To overcome this long-lasting and structural condition will require critical examination of the concept of development and the role it plays in …


Computer As Confidant: Digital Investment Advice And The Fiduciary Standard, Nicole G. Iannarone Mar 2018

Computer As Confidant: Digital Investment Advice And The Fiduciary Standard, Nicole G. Iannarone

Nicole G. Iannarone

Digital investment advisers are the fastest growing segment of financial technology (fintech) and are disrupting traditional investment advisory delivery models. The computer-led investment advisory service model may be growing particularly quickly due to a confluence of social and political factors. Politicians and regulators have increasingly focused on the standards of care applicable to investment advice providers. Fewer Americans are ready for retirement and many lack access to affordable investment advice. At the same time, comfort with digital platforms have increased, with some preferring electronic interaction over human interaction. Claiming that they can democratize retirement service by pro- viding advice meeting …


The Promise And Perils Of Algorithmic Lenders’ Use Of Big Data, Matthew Adam Bruckner Mar 2018

The Promise And Perils Of Algorithmic Lenders’ Use Of Big Data, Matthew Adam Bruckner

Chicago-Kent Law Review

Tens of millions of Americans lack access to traditional forms of credit and must rely on payday and pawn loans instead. “Algorithmic lending 2.0” promises to enable fintech companies to lend to those excluded from traditional forms of credit. Version 2.0 algorithmic lenders claim to use Big Data and machine learning to increase credit access by making better predictions about prospective borrowers’ creditworthiness and decreasing the cost of credit. Supporters also claim that algorithmic lending 2.0 removes human bias from the financial services sector. Detractors have cast doubt on both claims, arguing that there is scant evidence that algorithmic lending …


The Rise Of Automated Investment Advice: Can Robo-Advisors Rescue The Retail Market?, Benjamin P. Edwards Mar 2018

The Rise Of Automated Investment Advice: Can Robo-Advisors Rescue The Retail Market?, Benjamin P. Edwards

Chicago-Kent Law Review

Different types of financial advisers serve the massive and widely dispersed retail investment market. In a market riddled with conflicts of interests, many advisers exploit retail customers by pitching suboptimal products, leading to lower investment returns and lower overall growth—but also to greater profits for the financial advisers collecting kickback-style commissions. New financial technology firms, commonly known as Robo-Advisers, may disrupt this market and these exploitative practices. Still, these potentially disruptive automated investment advice firms face significant regulatory risks.


Regtech, Compliance And Technology Judgement Rule, Nizan Geslevich Packin Mar 2018

Regtech, Compliance And Technology Judgement Rule, Nizan Geslevich Packin

Chicago-Kent Law Review

This Article focuses on the rise of Financial Technology, which revolutionized consumer financial service products, and challenged policymakers with regulating the rapidly evolving financial industry. In particular, it explores Regulatory Technology, also known as RegTech, which is the finance industry’s use of technology, especially information technology, in the context of regulatory monitoring, reporting and compliance. RegTech is designed to solve industry needs for a more effective and efficient way to automate corporate governance and compliance processes. Not only has FinTech proven to be a vital revenue source, especially in connection with lending or money transmission services, but it also helps …


Fintech's Double Edges, Christopher G. Bradley Mar 2018

Fintech's Double Edges, Christopher G. Bradley

Chicago-Kent Law Review

This symposium essay examines the double-edged nature of financial technologies in financial transactions, especially transactions involving consumers. There are both benefits and risks—often undiscovered or hidden at first—in each new round of financial technologies. A FinTech tool may benefit consumers and then, applied later or in a different context, threaten consumer interests; a tool that harms consumer interests may then lead to development of a tool that favors them. This double-edged nature is an important but unappreciated structural feature of financial technologies. From the perspective of consumer protection, then, FinTech can neither be fully embraced as friend nor restricted as …


Computer As Confidant: Digital Investment Advice And The Fiduciary Standard, Nicole G. Iannarone Mar 2018

Computer As Confidant: Digital Investment Advice And The Fiduciary Standard, Nicole G. Iannarone

Chicago-Kent Law Review

Digital investment advisers are the fastest growing segment of financial technology (fintech) and are disrupting traditional investment advisory delivery models. The computer-led investment advisory service model may be growing particularly quickly due to a confluence of social and political factors. Politicians and regulators have increasingly focused on the standards of care applicable to investment advice providers. Fewer Americans are ready for retirement and many lack access to affordable investment advice. At the same time, comfort with digital platforms have increased, with some preferring electronic interaction over human interaction. Claiming that they can democratize retirement service by pro- viding advice meeting …


Fintech: Antidote To Rent-Seeking?, Jeremy Kidd J.D., Ph.D Mar 2018

Fintech: Antidote To Rent-Seeking?, Jeremy Kidd J.D., Ph.D

Chicago-Kent Law Review

Innovations in financial technology, or Fintech, has been ongoing for decades but has recently begun to accelerate. Some observers have argued that it will soon begin to outstrip the ability of regulators to keep pace. If those predictions are accurate, what would the world look like with a financial sector that cannot be effectively regulated? One possibility—drawn from public choice economics—is that rent-seeking will be inhibited or eliminated. Rent-seeking is the distortion of law and regulation for the benefit of special interests, who expend resources to guarantee those distortions in their favor. Rent-seeking is inefficient and inhibits growth and innovation, …


New Art For The People: Art Funds & Financial Technology, Brian L. Frye Mar 2018

New Art For The People: Art Funds & Financial Technology, Brian L. Frye

Chicago-Kent Law Review

Fine art sales have reached record levels, with the global art market achieving annual sales of over $60 billion. However, the art market is extremely risky and the most lucrative investment opportunities are typically at the high end of the market. In recent years, financial industry professionals with an interest in the art world have increasingly formed art investment funds, intended to enable smaller investors to take advantage of the opportunity to invest in the art world and diversify their portfolios. Some art funds also allow art investors to borrow against certain assets. About 45 art investment funds currently exist, …


Compromising Student Loans, W. Edward Afield Oct 2017

Compromising Student Loans, W. Edward Afield

South Carolina Law Review

No abstract provided.


Should We Defuse The Tax Bomb Facing Lawyers Who Are Enrolled In Income-Based Student Loan Repayment Plans, Gregory Crespi Oct 2016

Should We Defuse The Tax Bomb Facing Lawyers Who Are Enrolled In Income-Based Student Loan Repayment Plans, Gregory Crespi

South Carolina Law Review

No abstract provided.


Countercyclical Regulation And Its Challenges Jun 2016

Countercyclical Regulation And Its Challenges

Patricia A. McCoy

Historically, U.S. financial regulation has normally been procyclical, with federal regulators and Congress relaxing oversight during bull markets and cracking down once financial crises hit. After 2008, the wisdom of this approach came under attack. Critics argued that procyclical regulation left financial institutions undercapitalized and unable to withstand panics. Other critics asserted that economic downturns could be mitigated and even averted if regulators took steps to puncture asset bubbles.

The concept of countercyclical regulation responds to both of these critiques. This new approach posits that financial regulation would be more effective if financial regulation clamped down during financial expansions and …


New Kids On The Blockchain: How Bitcoin's Technology Could Reinvent The Stock Market, Larissa Lee Jan 2016

New Kids On The Blockchain: How Bitcoin's Technology Could Reinvent The Stock Market, Larissa Lee

Larissa Lee

Bitcoin is the first and most successful digital currency in the world. It is polarized in the news almost daily, with either glowing reviews of the many benefits of an alternative and international currency, or doomsday predictions of anarchy, deflation, and another tulip bubble.This Article focuses on the truly innovative aspect of Bitcoin—and that which has gone mostly unnoticed since its inception—the technological platform used to transfer Bitcoin from one party to another. This technology is called the Blockchain. The Blockchain eschews a bank or other middleman and allows parties to transfer funds directly to one another, using a peer-to-peer …


Lessons From The Efforts To Manage The Shift Away From Defined Benefit Plans To Defined Contribution Plans In Australia, The United Kingdom, And The United States, Elizabeth F. Brown Jan 2016

Lessons From The Efforts To Manage The Shift Away From Defined Benefit Plans To Defined Contribution Plans In Australia, The United Kingdom, And The United States, Elizabeth F. Brown

Elizabeth F Brown

This is an earlier version of this Article that was published in the 53 American Business Law Journal 315 (Summer 2016). Please see that journal for the final version of this Article. This Article examines what lessons may be learned from examining how Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States have tried to manage the shift away from defined benefit plans towards defined contribution plans. This shift has fundamentally changed the relationship between workers and the financial industry. While defined contribution plans provide employees with some advantages over defined benefit plans (e.g., portability, early vesting, greater autonomy), they also …


Some Key Things Entrepreneurs Need To Know About The Law And Lawyers, Lawrence J. Trautman, Anthony Luppino, Malika S. Simmons Sep 2015

Some Key Things Entrepreneurs Need To Know About The Law And Lawyers, Lawrence J. Trautman, Anthony Luppino, Malika S. Simmons

Lawrence J. Trautman Sr.

New business formation is a powerful economic engine that creates jobs. Diverse legal issues are encountered as a start-up entity approaches formation, initial capitalization and fundraising, arrangements with employees and independent contractors, and relationships with other third parties. The endeavors of a typical start-up in the United States will likely implicate many of the following areas of law: intellectual property; business organizations; tax laws; employment and labor laws; securities regulation; contracts and licensing agreements; commercial sales; debtor-creditor relations; real estate law; health and safety laws/codes; permits and licenses; environmental protection; industry specific regulatory laws and approval processes; tort/personal injury, products …


Who Sits On Texas Corporate Boards? Texas Corporate Directors: Who They Are And What They Do, Lawrence J. Trautman Sep 2015

Who Sits On Texas Corporate Boards? Texas Corporate Directors: Who They Are And What They Do, Lawrence J. Trautman

Lawrence J. Trautman Sr.

Corporate directors play an important role in governing American business, in the capital formation process, and are fundamental to the stewardship of economic growth. Texas businesses play a disproportionately important role among the states in aggregate U.S. job creation, responsible for 37% of all net new American jobs since the post 2008-2009 recovery began. It is the job of the board of directors to govern the corporation. The duties and responsibilities of a corporate director include: the duty of care; duty of loyalty; and duty of good faith. This paper results from the author’s previously assembled biographical data for most …


Democratizing Startups, Seth C. Oranburg Aug 2015

Democratizing Startups, Seth C. Oranburg

Seth C Oranburg

The Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 intends to “help entrepreneurs raise the capital they need to put Americans back to work and create an economy that’s built to last.” The goal is to “democratize startups” by making capital available to diverse entrepreneurs in new geographies. Yet the net effect of securities regulations and market conditions is the opposite. Startup companies are encouraged to stay private so capital is consolidating in large, mature firms instead of recycling into new startups. Evidence of consolidation is that once-rare “Unicorns” (billion-dollar startups) now number over 111. More money is going into huge …


An Approach To The Regulation Of Spanish Banking Foundations, Miguel Martínez Jun 2015

An Approach To The Regulation Of Spanish Banking Foundations, Miguel Martínez

Miguel Martínez

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the legal framework governing banking foundations as they have been regulated by Spanish Act 26/2013, of December 27th, on savings banks and banking foundations. Title 2 of this regulation addresses a construct that is groundbreaking for the Spanish legal system, still of paramount importance for the entire financial system insofar as these foundations become the leading players behind certain banking institutions given the high interest that foundations hold in the share capital of such institutions.


The Free Movement Of Capital In Europe: Is The European Court Of Justice Living Up To Its Framers' Intent And Setting An Example For The World?, Jarrod Tudor Apr 2015

The Free Movement Of Capital In Europe: Is The European Court Of Justice Living Up To Its Framers' Intent And Setting An Example For The World?, Jarrod Tudor

Jarrod Tudor

The benefits to free movement of international financial flows are numerous but include an efficient asset market and the opportunity for economic growth and development for countries engaged in an agreement allowing for such freedom. The free movement of capital is one of the four pillars of the Treaty on the Function of the European Union (TFEU) along with the free movement of goods, services, and labor. Article 63 of the TFEU prohibits limitations on the free movement of capital while Article 65 of the TFEU allows for some exceptions. Not only does the free movement of capital doctrine suppose …


Discriminatory Internal Taxation In The European Union: The Power Of The European Court Of Justice To Limit The Tax Sovereignty Of Member-States Under Article 110 Of The Tfeu, Jarrod Tudor Apr 2015

Discriminatory Internal Taxation In The European Union: The Power Of The European Court Of Justice To Limit The Tax Sovereignty Of Member-States Under Article 110 Of The Tfeu, Jarrod Tudor

Jarrod Tudor

Protectionism can come in a variety of methods including the use of internal taxation policies that discriminate against imports making those imports more expensive on the domestic market and thus favoring domestically-produced goods. Discriminatory taxation policies have been developed by member-states to mask protectionism by distinguishing products based on import status, product similarity, product life cycle, consumption, tax collection practices, transportation charges, and state aid. The Framers of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) wrote Article 110 with the objective in mind to prohibit internal taxation policies from discriminating against goods in made in other member-states. …


Mortgage Foreclosure In Buckhead, Terika L. Haynes Mar 2015

Mortgage Foreclosure In Buckhead, Terika L. Haynes

Terika L Haynes

The purpose of the quantitative ex post facto study was to determine whether a relationship exists between home occupancy type, purchase price, residency duration, and the incidence of mortgage foreclosure of homeowners residing in single-family residential homes in the eight zip codes (30305, 30309, 30318, 30319, 30324, 30326, 30327, and 30342) within the Buckhead community, a high-income community located in Atlanta, Georgia. The possible relationships were explored and evaluated by conducting an archival analysis to examine the Georgia Public Notice Statewide Database of public foreclosure records, Fulton County Property Assessor records, and Fulton County tax data for 2009. The occupancy …


The Law And Ethics Of High-Frequency Trading, Steven R. Mcnamara Mar 2015

The Law And Ethics Of High-Frequency Trading, Steven R. Mcnamara

Steven R. McNamara

Michael Lewis’s recent book Flash Boys has resurrected the controversy concerning “high-frequency trading” (HFT) in the stock markets. While HFT has been important in the stock markets for about a decade, and may have already peaked in terms of its economic significance, it touched a nerve with a public suspicious of financial institutions in the wake of the financial crisis of 2008-2009. In reality, HFT is not one thing, but a wide array of practices conducted by technologically adept electronic traders. Some of these practices are benign, and some even bring benefits such as liquidity and improved price discovery to …


What Loss Mitigation Taught Us About Housing Finance Reform, Patricia Mccoy Feb 2015

What Loss Mitigation Taught Us About Housing Finance Reform, Patricia Mccoy

Patricia A. McCoy

This blog post describes the implications of the recent US loss mitigation experience for housing reform.


A Whole New World: Income Tax Considerations Of The Bitcoin Economy, Benjamin W. Akins Jd, Llm, Jennifer L. Chapman Jd, Cpa, Jason M. Gordon Jd, Mba Feb 2015

A Whole New World: Income Tax Considerations Of The Bitcoin Economy, Benjamin W. Akins Jd, Llm, Jennifer L. Chapman Jd, Cpa, Jason M. Gordon Jd, Mba

Benjamin W. Akins

Bitcoin is a virtual, cryptocurrency growing rapidly in influence throughout the world. Numerous characteristics associated with the bitcoin system, including low transaction costs and greater user privacy, make it appealing as a medium of electronic payment. The number of users of bitcoin, including merchants accepting the currency as a form of payment, has grown considerably in recent years. Estimates indicate that there are more than 60,000 active bitcoin users as of September 2012, with nearly 11 million bitcoins in existence. According to the latest estimates, bitcoin market capitalization is roughly $9 billion. The growth of bitcoin as an accepted currency …


Optimized Theft: Why Some Controlling Shareholders “Generously” Expropriate From Minority Shareholders, Sang Yop Kang Jan 2015

Optimized Theft: Why Some Controlling Shareholders “Generously” Expropriate From Minority Shareholders, Sang Yop Kang

Sang Yop Kang

Although controlling shareholder agency problems have been well studied so far, many questions still remain unanswered. In particular, an important puzzle in a bad-law jurisdiction is: why some controlling shareholders (“roving controllers”) loot the entire corporate assets at once, and why others (“stationary controllers”) siphon a part of corporate assets on a continuous basis. To solve this conundrum, this Article provides analytical frameworks exploring the behaviors and motivations of controlling shareholders. To begin with, I reinterpret Olson’s political theory of “banditry” in the context of corporate governance in developing countries. Based on a new taxonomy of controlling shareholders (“roving controllers” …


The New Wild West: Preventing Money Laundering In The Bitcoin Network, Kavid Singh Jan 2015

The New Wild West: Preventing Money Laundering In The Bitcoin Network, Kavid Singh

Kavid Singh

Bitcoin is the most popular online decentralized currency in the world. Created by an enigmatic figure, Satoshi Nakamoto, in 2009, its propagation and use has caused heated controversy. On the legal side of its use, businesses both large and small have started to accept bitcoins as a form of payment. On the illegal side of its use, large quantities of bitcoins worth hundreds of millions of dollars have been stolen from businesses and large Bitcoin currency exchanges. The aim of this article is to introduce workable federal regulation that will help deter money laundering, a pervasive problem in the world …


The Case For The Regulation Of Bitcoin Mining As A Security, Benjamin W. Akins, Jason M. Gordon, Jennifer L. Chapman Jan 2015

The Case For The Regulation Of Bitcoin Mining As A Security, Benjamin W. Akins, Jason M. Gordon, Jennifer L. Chapman

Benjamin W. Akins

Bitcoin is rapidly increasing in use throughout the world. Instrumental to the Bitcoin system, the process for introducing new bitcoin into the system is known as “mining.” Mining involves the use of powerful computer systems and complex, computational algorithms to verify or validate prior bitcoin transactions. The reward for successfully undertaking this process is the creation and award of new bitcoin to the miner. Bitcoin mining has become a tedious and difficult process. The race to verify transactions, and thereby earn bitcoin, necessitates more sophisticated processes for verification and greater computational power.

Many bitcoin miners band together in groups called …