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State and Local Government Law

2012

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Drone Federalism: Civilian Drones And The Things They Carry, Margot E. Kaminski Dec 2012

Drone Federalism: Civilian Drones And The Things They Carry, Margot E. Kaminski

Publications

Civilian drones are scheduled to be permitted in the national airspace as early as 2015. Many think Congress should establish the necessary nationwide regulations to govern both law enforcement and civilian drone use. That thinking, however, is wrong. This Essay suggests drone federalism instead: a state-based approach to privacy regulation that governs drone use by civilians, drawing on states’ experience regulating other forms of civilian-on-civilian surveillance. This approach will allow necessary experimentation in how to best balance privacy concerns against First Amendment rights in the imminent era of drone-use democratization. This Essay closes by providing some guidance to states as …


Massachusetts Implements Municipal Health Insurance Reform, Karen Breda Dec 2012

Massachusetts Implements Municipal Health Insurance Reform, Karen Breda

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

In July, 2011, Massachusetts enacted a municipal health insurance reform law. In Massachusetts each city and town negotiates and contracts for health benefits separately, while state employees are insured through the state Group Insurance Commission. Facing exorbitant health care costs and decreased revenues, some municipalities had resorted to laying off employees and diverting funds earmarked for public services in order to pay for health benefits. The purpose of the legislation is to provide municipalities with the tools to effectively manage escalating health care costs.


Climate Change Adaptation Chapter: Marshfield, Massachusetts, Joshua H. Chase, Jonathan G. Cooper, Rory Elizabeth Fitzgerald, Filipe Antunes Lima, Sally R. Miller, Toni Marie Pignatelli Dec 2012

Climate Change Adaptation Chapter: Marshfield, Massachusetts, Joshua H. Chase, Jonathan G. Cooper, Rory Elizabeth Fitzgerald, Filipe Antunes Lima, Sally R. Miller, Toni Marie Pignatelli

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Studio and Student Research and Creative Activity

Climate change, understood as a statistically significant variation in the mean state of the climate or its variability, is the greatest environmental challenge of this generation (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2001). Marshfield is already being affected by changes in the climate that will have a profound effect on the town’s economy, public health, coastal resources, natural features, water systems, and public and private infrastructure. Adaptation strategies have been widely recognized as playing an important role in improving a community’s ability to respond to climate stressors by resisting damage and recovering quickly.

Based on review of climate projections for the …


Reverse-Commandeering, Margaret Hu Dec 2012

Reverse-Commandeering, Margaret Hu

Faculty Publications

Although the anti-commandeering doctrine was developed by the Supreme Court to protect state sovereignty from federal overreach, nothing prohibits flipping the doctrine in the opposite direction to protect federal sovereignty from state overreach. Federalism preserves a balance of power between two sovereigns. Thus, the reversibility of the anticommandeering doctrine appears inherent in the reasoning offered by the Court for the doctrine’s creation and application. In this Article, I contend that reversing the anti-commandeering doctrine is appropriate in the context of contemporary immigration federalism laws. Specifically, I explore how an unconstitutional incursion into federal sovereignty can be seen in state immigration …


Urban Politics And The Assimilation Of Immigrant Voters, Rick Su Dec 2012

Urban Politics And The Assimilation Of Immigrant Voters, Rick Su

Journal Articles

Despite the growing strength of immigrant voters in the U.S., immigrants continue to participate at the polls in much lower rates than not only native voters, but also immigrants in the past. What accounts for this disparity? Looking beyond the characteristics of the immigrants themselves, this essay argues that a major reason lies in the different political structure that immigrants face upon their arrival, especially at the local level. Tracing the evolution of big city politics alongside, and in response to, the three major waves of foreign immigration to the U.S., this essay outlines three competing models of immigrant political …


Income Inequality: Challenges In Bridging The Gap, Singapore Management University Nov 2012

Income Inequality: Challenges In Bridging The Gap, Singapore Management University

Perspectives@SMU

Increase social spending. Fine-tune foreign labour policies. Create more job opportunities.

These were just a few of the suggestions made during a forum organized by the anti-poverty group, ONE (Singapore) and Singapore Management University's Wee Kim Wee Centre on how to bridge the income inequality gap in Singapore.

Halimah Yacob, the Minister of State for the Ministry of Social and Family Development, said in the forum that a concern with income inequality is its impact on social mobility, as people need to have “a sense of hope and optimism that they can aspire to a better life”. How each society …


Land Use And Zoning Law, Andrew E. Tarne Nov 2012

Land Use And Zoning Law, Andrew E. Tarne

Law Student Publications

Since the early days of nuisance law, but especially since the early twentieth century and the validation of zoning ordinances, land use planning and management have been fundamental roles of local government. As evinced by its state code, the Commonwealth of Virginia recognizes the essential role that localities play in land use planning. The Virginia Code requires that localities create planning commissions, adopt comprehensive plans, and, if the localities have adopted zoning ordinances, establish boards of zoning appeals. As most of the implementation of these mandates is left to individual localities, the form of implementation is not uniform but naturally …


Lifting The Fog: Ending Felony Disenfranchisement In Virginia, Dori Elizabeth Martin Nov 2012

Lifting The Fog: Ending Felony Disenfranchisement In Virginia, Dori Elizabeth Martin

Law Student Publications

This comment explores how Virginia's disenfranchisement law originated, how it has managed to survive throughout Virginia's history, and whether it may be vulnerable to various legal challenges. Part II outlines the history of felony disenfranchisement in Virginia. Part III analyzes common policy justifications for the current law and discusses the widely held beliefs about the role of race in the law's inception. Part IV examines legal challenges to similar laws in the federal courts and evaluates the potential for success of comparable challenges in Virginia. Part V looks to recent attempts at enacting solutions at the state level. Part VI …


Antitrust’S State Action Doctrine And The Ordinary Powers Of Corporations, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Oct 2012

Antitrust’S State Action Doctrine And The Ordinary Powers Of Corporations, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

The Supreme Court has now agreed to review the Eleventh Circuit's decision in Phoebe-Putney, which held that a state statute permitting a hospital authority to acquire hospitals implicitly authorized such acquisitions when they were anticompetitive – in this particular case very likely facilitating a merger to monopoly. Under antitrust law’s “state action” doctrine a state may in fact authorize such an acquisition, provided that it “clearly articulates” its desire to approve an action that would otherwise constitute an antitrust violation and also “actively supervises” any private conduct that might fall under the state’s regulatory scheme.

“Authorization” in the context of …


Dispatch From The Culture War: Virginia's Failed Hpv Vaccination Mandate, Rachel Reynolds Oct 2012

Dispatch From The Culture War: Virginia's Failed Hpv Vaccination Mandate, Rachel Reynolds

Law Student Publications

This paper will inquire into what makes Gardasil different from other vaccines, and how that impacts its administration. Part I will describe the specifics of the HPV vaccine: how it works and how Virginia decided to promote its usage. Part II will examine the ways in which jurisdictions have traditionally understood vaccination policy, and contrast it with the ways in which they have handled the HPV vaccine. Part III will examine the disadvantages of continuing the mandate’s ineffective political war of attrition, and suggest a coalition-building strategy to effect policy that honors communal values and meaningfully increases access to the …


States' Rights Apogee, 1760-1840, Ryan Setliff Oct 2012

States' Rights Apogee, 1760-1840, Ryan Setliff

Masters Theses

America's states' rights tradition has held much influence since the ratification of the U.S. Constitution in 1788. In late 1798, in response to the Federalist administration's adoption of the Alien and Sedition Acts, the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions were formally adopted by the legislatures of Virginia and Kentucky respectively. These resolutions set a lasting precedent for state interposition and nullification. As well concurrence with these doctrines can be found in the Virginia Resolves of 1790, the constitutional debates of 1787-1790, and all throughout the colonial-revolutionary period of the 1760s to 1780s. In time, the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions would gain …


Putting Nevada In Perspective: State And Local Government Budgets In Recession And Recovery, Tracy M. Gordon Sep 2012

Putting Nevada In Perspective: State And Local Government Budgets In Recession And Recovery, Tracy M. Gordon

Brookings Scholar Lecture Series

Nevada, the state most affected by the Great Recession of 2008, faced one of the nation's worst state budget shortfalls in 2011. This presentation examines state budget drivers, including constitutional requirements, tax and spending limitations, federal statutes, demographics, and the resulting policy choices to evaluate how state-level decisions affect local jurisdictions that continue to cope with lower property values, foreclosures, and high unemployment. It will also discuss longer term challenges including rising health care costs and retiree pensions as well as issues surrounding implementation of the Affordable Care Act.


Appeal No. 0839: Municipality Of Sebring, Ohio V. Division Of Oil & Gas Resources Management And Ohio Valley Energy Systems, Ohio Oil & Gas Commission Aug 2012

Appeal No. 0839: Municipality Of Sebring, Ohio V. Division Of Oil & Gas Resources Management And Ohio Valley Energy Systems, Ohio Oil & Gas Commission

Ohio Oil & Gas Commission Decisions

Chief's Order 2011-37; (Ohio Valley Energy Systems, Grindley #1 Well)


Moral Markets And The Problematic Proprietor: How Neoliberal Values Shape Lottery Debates In Nevada, Christopher Wetzel Aug 2012

Moral Markets And The Problematic Proprietor: How Neoliberal Values Shape Lottery Debates In Nevada, Christopher Wetzel

Occasional Papers

All but seven states have legalized lotteries since New Hampshire ushered in the modern lottery era in 1964. Although casino gaming has been permitted since 1931, Nevada has rejected multiple legislative proposals amend the State Constitution and create a state-run lottery. This paper theorizes the lottery’s absence in Nevada, focusing in particular on the role of the state. Lotteries are distinct from other forms of gaming because states act simultaneously as the operation’s regulator and proprietor. In this case, Nevada’s lottery legalization debates over the last half century reflect the profound moral valence of markets. The state as a potential …


14th Annual Open Government Summit: Access To Public Records Act & Open Meetings Act, 2012, Department Of Attorney General, State Of Rhode Island Jul 2012

14th Annual Open Government Summit: Access To Public Records Act & Open Meetings Act, 2012, Department Of Attorney General, State Of Rhode Island

School of Law Conferences, Lectures & Events

No abstract provided.


Development And Dissemination Of Clean Cookstoves: A Model Law For Developed Countries, Scott Miller Jul 2012

Development And Dissemination Of Clean Cookstoves: A Model Law For Developed Countries, Scott Miller

Drafting Model Laws on Indoor Pollution for Developing and Developed Nations (July 12-13)

21 pages.

"This model law was developed at a legislative drafting workshop on July 12-13, 2012, entitled Drafting Model Laws on Indoor Pollution for Developing and Developed Nations, which was sponsored by the Center for Energy & Environmental Security and the Colorado Natural Resources, Energy & Environmental Law Review at the University of Colorado Law School in Boulder, Colorado."-- Excerpted from 24 Colo. Nat. Resources, Energy & Envtl. L. Rev. 355 (2013).

"Scott Miller ed."


Drafting Model Laws On Indoor Pollution For Developing And Developed Nations Workshop, July 12-13, 2012, Boulder, Colorado: Introduction, Lakshman Guruswamy Jul 2012

Drafting Model Laws On Indoor Pollution For Developing And Developed Nations Workshop, July 12-13, 2012, Boulder, Colorado: Introduction, Lakshman Guruswamy

Drafting Model Laws on Indoor Pollution for Developing and Developed Nations (July 12-13)

11 pages.

"This Essay introduces the framework for deliberation and legislative drafting undertaken at the workshop: Drafting Model Laws on Indoor Pollution for Developing and Developed Nations on July 12-13, 2012, in Boulder, Colorado. There are a number of fundamental premises upon which the workshop was based, and this Essay refers to the most salient among them."-- Excerpted from 24 Colo. Nat. Resources, Energy & Envtl. L. Rev. 319 (2013).


Agenda: Drafting Model Laws On Indoor Pollution For Developing And Developed Nations, University Of Colorado Boulder. Center For Energy & Environmental Security, Colorado Natural Resources, Energy And Environmental Law Review Jul 2012

Agenda: Drafting Model Laws On Indoor Pollution For Developing And Developed Nations, University Of Colorado Boulder. Center For Energy & Environmental Security, Colorado Natural Resources, Energy And Environmental Law Review

Drafting Model Laws on Indoor Pollution for Developing and Developed Nations (July 12-13)

On July 12 and 13, 2012, experts convened at Colorado Law to demonstrate the extent to which a model law could help address the global problem of indoor air pollution from inefficient cook stoves. The air pollution that results from inefficiently burning biomass as fuel for cooking has serious health and climatic consequences. The workshop produced two sets of Model Laws and commentaries to help nations solve the problem, and the commentaries were published in the Colorado Natural Resources, Energy, and Environmental Law Review.


Development And Dissemination Of Clean Cookstoves: A Model Law For Developing Countries, Lakshman Guruswamy Ed. Jul 2012

Development And Dissemination Of Clean Cookstoves: A Model Law For Developing Countries, Lakshman Guruswamy Ed.

Drafting Model Laws on Indoor Pollution for Developing and Developed Nations (July 12-13)

24 pages.

"This model law was developed at a legislative drafting workshop on July 12-13, 2012, entitled Drafting Model Laws on Indoor Pollution for Developing and Developed Nations, which was sponsored by the Center for Energy & Environmental Security and the Colorado Natural Resources, Energy & Environmental Law Review at the University of Colorado Law School in Boulder, Colorado." Excerpted from 24 Colo. Nat. Resources, Energy & Envtl. L. Rev. 331 (2013).


Child Abuse Reporting: Rethinking Child Protection, Susan C. Kim, Lawrence O. Gostin, Thomas B. Cole Jul 2012

Child Abuse Reporting: Rethinking Child Protection, Susan C. Kim, Lawrence O. Gostin, Thomas B. Cole

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The general public has been bewildered by the magnitude of sex abuse cases and the widespread failure by pillars of the community to notify appropriate authorities. The crime of sexually abusing children is punishable in all jurisdictions and this article examines the duty to report suspected cases by individuals in positions of trust over young people, such as in the church or university sports. The Federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) defines child maltreatment as an act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caregiver that results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, …


Pardon Me - The Need For A Fair And Impartial Judiciary, Jim Rosenblatt Jul 2012

Pardon Me - The Need For A Fair And Impartial Judiciary, Jim Rosenblatt

Journal Articles

The pardons issued by former Mississippi Governor Haley Barbour shortly before he left office created a swirl of controversy in Mississippi that played out in the national media. The Governor's Mansion, the Hinds County Courthouse, the State Capitol, and the Gartin Justice Building were frequent backdrops for media stories that took place over a two-month period reporting on "Pardongate." Several elements combined to make these pardons controversial and to make the issue such good fodder for the media.


Affirmatively Furthering Fair Housing: The Search For Solutions That Are Just Right, John R. Nolon, Tiffany Zezula Jul 2012

Affirmatively Furthering Fair Housing: The Search For Solutions That Are Just Right, John R. Nolon, Tiffany Zezula

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

A federal False Claims Act action against Westchester County, New York launched a unique effort to explore whether zoning, subsidies, and advocacy could significantly Increase the percentage of minorities living in largely white communities. A Voluntary Cooperation Agreement entered into by Marin County, California raises a similar question. This article describes the legal background of the lawsuit brought against Westchester County, the Settlement Agreement that arose from it, and the attempt by Westchester County to carry out its obligations to affirmatively further fair housing. It traces the evolution of exclusionary zoning law in New York State courts, contrasts it to …


Appeal No. 0842: Lee & Angela Vickers V. Division Of Oil & Gas Resources Management, Ohio Oil & Gas Commission Jun 2012

Appeal No. 0842: Lee & Angela Vickers V. Division Of Oil & Gas Resources Management, Ohio Oil & Gas Commission

Ohio Oil & Gas Commission Decisions

abandonment questions


Agenda: A Low-Carbon Energy Blueprint For The American West, University Of Colorado Boulder. Natural Resources Law Center, University Of Colorado Boulder. Renewable And Sustainable Energy Institute, Western Resource Advocates, Rocky Mountain Research Station (Fort Collins, Colo.) Jun 2012

Agenda: A Low-Carbon Energy Blueprint For The American West, University Of Colorado Boulder. Natural Resources Law Center, University Of Colorado Boulder. Renewable And Sustainable Energy Institute, Western Resource Advocates, Rocky Mountain Research Station (Fort Collins, Colo.)

A Low-Carbon Energy Blueprint for the American West (Martz Summer Conference, June 6-8)

The future of the planet may depend upon our ability to increase energy supplies even as we reduce carbon emissions. This conference will address how a low-carbon energy program might evolve with a particular focus on the American West. It will focus on the future of energy in the West--on a “managed transition” to a different energy mix, on the need to nest this effort in a framework that acknowledges interconnections, and on identifying the most salient opportunities to consider the legal, political, financial, and technical challenges.


Denial Of Health Insurance Premium Assistance To Legal Aliens Violates Equal Protection Provision Of Massachusetts Constitution, Karen Breda Jun 2012

Denial Of Health Insurance Premium Assistance To Legal Aliens Violates Equal Protection Provision Of Massachusetts Constitution, Karen Breda

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

In 2006, the Massachusetts legislature created Commonwealth Care, a health insurance premium assistance program for low-income residents, including lawfully-residing aliens. Commonwealth Care is supported by both state and federal funds. Federal funding is provided via a Medicaid demonstration project pursuant to 42 U.S.C. §1315, so that Commonwealth Care is partially reimbursed by the federal government for payments made on behalf of individuals eligible for Medicaid. Legal aliens who have resided in the United States less than five years are ineligible for federal benefits, such as Medicaid, under the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA), 8 U.S.C. …


Locating Keith Aoki: Space, Geography, And Local Government Law, Rick Su Jun 2012

Locating Keith Aoki: Space, Geography, And Local Government Law, Rick Su

Journal Articles

The late legal scholar Keith Aoki wrote on a wide range of legal issues, from intellectual property and genetic engineering to immigration and racial politics. This retrospective highlights his work on space, legal geography, and local government law. Aoki not only began his legal career exploring these issues, he also continuously drew upon their insights to frame legal inquiries in other fields as the scope of his research expanded. This essay shows Aoki to be more than an innovator in the study of space, legal geography and local government law. Indeed, he was one of their most important ambassadors.


Agenda: A Life Of Contributions For All Time: Symposium In Honor Of David H. Getches, University Of Colorado Boulder. School Of Law, University Of Colorado Law Review Apr 2012

Agenda: A Life Of Contributions For All Time: Symposium In Honor Of David H. Getches, University Of Colorado Boulder. School Of Law, University Of Colorado Law Review

A Life of Contributions for All Time: Symposium in Honor of David H. Getches (April 26-27)

On April 26-27, 2012, Colorado Law honored David H. Getches with a symposium to celebrate his life and legacy of trailblazing scholarship. “A Life of Contributions for All Time” featured a keynote address by Distinguished Professor Charles Wilkinson entitled, “Hero for the People, Hero for the Land and Water: Reflections on the Enduring Contributions of David Getches.” Top scholars in the fields of natural resources, water, and American Indian law reflected on Dean Getches’ contributions and their own insights into these fields, including Professor John Leshy, John Echohawk, Professor Carole Goldberg, Professor Joe Sax, Professor Rebecca Tsosie, Justice Greg Hobbs, …


Partnerships That Benefit State Systems, Suzzanne Freeze, John Butterworth, Daria Domin, Allison Hall, Jean Winsor, Institute For Community Inclusion, University Of Massachusetts Boston Apr 2012

Partnerships That Benefit State Systems, Suzzanne Freeze, John Butterworth, Daria Domin, Allison Hall, Jean Winsor, Institute For Community Inclusion, University Of Massachusetts Boston

Office of Community Partnerships Posters

Our work assists states with building a comprehensive understanding of the factors that influence employment outcomes at all levels: individuals and family, service providers, and state policy. The Framework for Employment, developed through extensive experience and research conducted within the state, is used to guide the much of the system improvement strategy work. The elements represent practices and outcomes known to be effective at enabling states to develop and sustain high-preforming integrated employment system.


Fracturing Regulation Applied, Hannah J. Wiseman Apr 2012

Fracturing Regulation Applied, Hannah J. Wiseman

Scholarly Publications

No abstract provided.


Beyond Bailouts: Federal Options For Preventing State Budget Crises, Brian D. Galle, Kirk J. Stark Apr 2012

Beyond Bailouts: Federal Options For Preventing State Budget Crises, Brian D. Galle, Kirk J. Stark

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

More than two years after the official end of the Great Recession, state governments still face significant budget deficits that cannot be addressed without further drastic spending cuts or substantial revenue increases. The structural origins of the ongoing state fiscal crisis are well known. Excessively procyclical revenue structures, combined with spending obligations that increase with economic downturns, have resulted in a budget dynamic for the states that is not sustainable over the long term. The consensus solution to this problem is for states to save money during boom times (via budget stabilization or “rainy day” funds) and to draw on …