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Full-Text Articles in Law

Reflections On Fees And Fines As Stategraft, Rebekah Diller, Mitali Nagrecha, Alicia Bannon Apr 2023

Reflections On Fees And Fines As Stategraft, Rebekah Diller, Mitali Nagrecha, Alicia Bannon

Articles

In A Theory of Stategraft, Bernadette Atuahene advances the concept of “stategraft” to describe situations in which “state agents transfer property from persons to the state in violation of the state’s own laws or basic human rights.” This Essay delineates the ways in which criminal legal system fees and fines can be characterized as stategraft and explores the value of this concept for social movements. In many ways, the stategraft frame, with its focus on illegality, fits well with much of the litigation and advocacy against unconstitutional fees-and-fines practices that have occurred over the last decade. Exposing illegal practices …


No Sense Of Decency, Kathryn E. Miller Mar 2023

No Sense Of Decency, Kathryn E. Miller

Articles

For nearly seventy years, the Court has assessed Eighth Amendment claims by evaluating “the evolving standards of decency that mark the progress of a maturing society.” In this Article, I examine the evolving standards of decency test, which has long been a punching bag for critics on both the right and the left. Criticism of the doctrine has been fierce, but largely academic until recent years. Some fault the test for being too majoritarian, while others argue that it provides few constraints on the Justices’ discretion, permitting their personal predilections to rule the day. For many, the test is seen …


Oral Argument In Moore V. Harper And The Perils Of Finding “Compromise” On The Independent State Legislature Theory, Katherine A. Shaw Dec 2022

Oral Argument In Moore V. Harper And The Perils Of Finding “Compromise” On The Independent State Legislature Theory, Katherine A. Shaw

Online Publications

The Supreme Court’s cert grant last June in Moore v. Harper was an ominous note on which to end an explosive term. The grant seemed to broadcast an openness to embracing what’s known as the “independent state legislature theory,” or ISLT. It is a once-fringe idea that the U.S. Constitution, and in particular Article I’s “elections clause,” grants to state legislatures alone, and withholds from other state entities (think: courts and constitutions), the power to regulate elections for federal office.


"A Mystifying And Distorting Factor": The Electoral College And American Democracy, Katherine A. Shaw Apr 2022

"A Mystifying And Distorting Factor": The Electoral College And American Democracy, Katherine A. Shaw

Articles

A Review of Let the People Pick the President: The Case for Abolishing the Electoral College. By Jesse Wegman.


Counterterrorism 2.0, Deborah Pearlstein Jan 2021

Counterterrorism 2.0, Deborah Pearlstein

Articles

Are there any lessons to be gleaned for combatting the rising threat of white nationalist terrorism today from the U.S. response to the attacks of 9/11 twenty years on? This symposium reflection suggests that among the most important lessons may be in avoiding the conceptually defining characteristics of the early U.S. response in 2001. Detainee torture and abuse, the embrace of trial by newly formed military commission, and other misguided policies and practices whose effects are still felt today were set in motion in the first few weeks after the attacks, driven by the instinct to do something, bolstered by …


Courts Beyond Judging, Michael Pollack Jan 2021

Courts Beyond Judging, Michael Pollack

Articles

Across all fifty states, a woefully understudied institution of government is responsible for a broad range of administrative, legislative, law enforcement, and judicial functions. That important institution is the state courts. While the literature has examined the federal courts and federal judges from innumerable angles, study of the state courts as institutions of state government — and not merely as sources of doctrine and resolvers of disputes — has languished. This Article remedies that oversight by drawing attention for the first time to the wide array of roles state courts serve, and by evaluating the suitability of both the allocation …


Abolish Ice . . . And Then What?, Peter L. Markowitz Nov 2019

Abolish Ice . . . And Then What?, Peter L. Markowitz

Articles

In recent years, activists and then politicians began calling for the abolition of the United States’s interior immigration-enforcement agency: U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). Many people have misinterpreted the call to “Abolish ICE” as merely a spontaneous rhetorical device used to express outrage at the current Administration’s brutal immigration policies. In fact, abolishing ICE is the natural extension of years of thoughtful organizing by a loose coalition of grassroots immigrant-rights groups. These organizations are serious, not only about their literal goal to eliminate the agency, but also about not replacing it with another dedicated agency of immigration police. Accordingly, …


Qualified Immunity At Trial, Alexander A. Reinert May 2018

Qualified Immunity At Trial, Alexander A. Reinert

Articles

Qualified immunity doctrine is complex and important, and for many years it was assumed to have an outsize impact on civil rights cases by imposing significant barriers to success for plaintiffs. Recent empirical work has cast that assumption into doubt, at least as to the impact qualified immunity has at pretrial stages of litigation. This Essay adds to this empirical work by evaluating the impact of qualified immunity at trial, a subject that to date has not been empirically tested. The results reported here suggest that juries are rarely asked to answer questions that bear on the qualified immunity defense. …


Land Use Federalism's False Choice, Michael C. Pollack Jan 2017

Land Use Federalism's False Choice, Michael C. Pollack

Articles

Debates about land use federalism — like those about federalism more broadly — often focus on whether policies and priorities ought to be set at the national or local level. But such categorical judgments about national intervention are inadequate because they obscure the diversity of mechanisms by which nationalization can and does occur. This Article draws attention to the importance of this underappreciated legislative design choice and develops a framework within which to evaluate it. This Article observes that nationalization can take the form of rules that either displace local decisionmaking or channel it, and that those rules can be …


Retirement In The Land Of Lincoln: The Illinois Secure Choice Savings Program Act, Edward A. Zelinsky Jan 2016

Retirement In The Land Of Lincoln: The Illinois Secure Choice Savings Program Act, Edward A. Zelinsky

Articles

In 2015, Illinois became the first state to enact a state-mandated and state-operated retirement system for private sector employers: The Illinois Secure Choice Savings Program Act. The Illinois program resembles a system approved by the California legislature—a system that has not yet been enacted since it is conditioned on an additional vote by the legislature. Illinois’ program and the one proposed in California have notable differences in that (1) the Illinois retirement accounts will qualify as individual retirement accounts (“IRAs”) under the Internal Revenue Code (“Code”); (2) the Illinois IRAs will be Roth IRAs; (3) the California program requires participation …


California Dreaming: The California Secure Choice Retirement Savings Trust Act, Edward A. Zelinsky Jan 2013

California Dreaming: The California Secure Choice Retirement Savings Trust Act, Edward A. Zelinsky

Articles

Half of American workers are not covered by employer-sponsored retirement arrangements. The recently passed California Secure Choice Retirement Savings Trust Act seeks to solve this problem by mandating retirement savings arrangements for California employers, coupled with a public investment vehicle for investing these private retirement savings. The Act is important because of California’s size and status as a trendsetter for other states.

This Article is the first to examine the important legal questions the Act raises under the Internal Revenue Code and ERISA. Contrary to the drafters’ intent, the savings accounts authorized under the Act do not qualify as individual …


Expression By Ordinance: Preemption And Proxy In Local Legislation, Lindsay Nash Jan 2011

Expression By Ordinance: Preemption And Proxy In Local Legislation, Lindsay Nash

Articles

Local laws based on immigration status have prompted heated national debate on federalism and discrimination. A second strain of nuisance-related legislation has emerged in recent years, which often targets these same immigrant communities. This paper examines the hitherto-unstudied correlation between ordinances explicitly related to immigrants and legislation regarding nuisance–as illuminated through primary research into municipal legislation across the nation. Evaluating these laws and the context of their enactment, this research shows when and how nuisance laws target certain populations. Ultimately, this inquiry reveals troubling parallels to previous community responses to disfavored subgroups and the harm resulting from proxy legislation.


Maryland’S "Wal-Mart" Act: Policy And Preemption, Edward A. Zelinsky Nov 2006

Maryland’S "Wal-Mart" Act: Policy And Preemption, Edward A. Zelinsky

Articles

Maryland's Wal-Mart Act raises two fundamental questions: Is the Act legal? Does the Act represent sound policy?

With respect to the legality of the Maryland statute, I conclude that the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) preempts the Maryland law. As a matter of policy, the Maryland statute is ill-conceived. The Maryland Act raises prices on Wal-Mart's predominantly low-income customers and, for the long run, will reduce Wal-Mart's employment.

In the final analysis, Maryland's Wal-Mart Act is a poorly-designed exercise in political symbolism, rather than a carefully-crafted response to the pressing problem of health care in America.


Reinventing Structural Reform Litigation: Deputizing Private Citizens In The Enforcement Of Civil Rights, Myriam E. Gilles Oct 2000

Reinventing Structural Reform Litigation: Deputizing Private Citizens In The Enforcement Of Civil Rights, Myriam E. Gilles

Articles

The aim of this Article is to explore the possibility of constructing a model that harnesses the power of private citizens to reform unconstitutional practices, particularly in the critical area of police-related rights violations. I seek here to reintegrate private citizens into the enforcement of public laws; to tap the private experiential and financial resources that were a necessary condition of the great structural reform efforts of the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s.

The vehicle by which I propose to accomplish these ends is a simple, yet novel, amendment to 42 U.S.C. § 14141, the statute which …


Breaking The Code Of Silence: Rediscovering "Custom" In Section 1983 Municipal Liability, Myriam E. Gilles Feb 2000

Breaking The Code Of Silence: Rediscovering "Custom" In Section 1983 Municipal Liability, Myriam E. Gilles

Articles

No abstract provided.


Unfunded Mandates, Hidden Taxation, And The Tenth Amendment: On Public Choice, Public Interest, And Public Services, Edward A. Zelinsky Nov 1993

Unfunded Mandates, Hidden Taxation, And The Tenth Amendment: On Public Choice, Public Interest, And Public Services, Edward A. Zelinsky

Articles

Few contemporary issues concern state and local policymakers as intensely as unfunded mandates. Mayors, county executives, city councilmen, and the professional associations representing them routinely argue that the federal and state governments have, in recent years, imposed at an accelerating rate expensive requirements on municipalities without granting corresponding funds for compliance, thereby irresponsibly straining the fiscal capacity of municipalities, hampering their ability to provide essential services, and improperly infringing upon the scope of local control. The complaints of municipal policymakers have provoked a variety of proposals for restraining unfunded mandates: obligatory disclosure of the projected costs of proposed mandates, requirements …


The Tax Treatment Of Qualified Plans: A Classic Defense Of The Status Quo, Edward A. Zelinsky Jan 1988

The Tax Treatment Of Qualified Plans: A Classic Defense Of The Status Quo, Edward A. Zelinsky

Articles

The current tax treatment of qualified pension and profit sharing plans has been criticized by commentators as an unfair and expensive tax expenditure. In this Article, Professor Zelinsky challenges this characterization and defends the current treatment of qualified plans on the ground that it is at least as attractive as its alternatives and superior to many of them. After evaluating the current treatment and the alternatives under the criteria of measurability, administrability, liquidity, equity, and simplicity, Professor Zelinsky concludes that the present treatment of qualified plans can be viewed as an acceptable part of a normative income tax.