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Dark "Oro Y Plata" In Montana: The Green Amendment's Defense Of Campaign Finance Transparency, Lucas Della Ventura Jan 2024

Dark "Oro Y Plata" In Montana: The Green Amendment's Defense Of Campaign Finance Transparency, Lucas Della Ventura

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

In the post–Citizens United dark money age, state disclosure regulations are the last line of defense for citizens to learn who is behind unlimited independent expenditures and electioneering communications flooding their states. Underpinning the ability of state governments to promulgate such transparency measures are the informational benefits provided to the public. However, the Supreme Court’s decision in Americans for Prosperity Foundation v. Bonta to invalidate a California disclosure regulation on dark money groups, marks disclosure regulations—the Court’s repeated fallback when striking down more robust campaign finance regulations—with a bull’s-eye. In the face of repeated legal challenges to disclosure regulations, …


Assessing State Invasive Species Schemes Through The Lens Of The Spotted Lanternfly, Susanna Clark Jan 2024

Assessing State Invasive Species Schemes Through The Lens Of The Spotted Lanternfly, Susanna Clark

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

Invasive species have long presented an issue across the United States, and continue to do so. They have become more prevalent as the world has become more interconnected. Nonnative species are not always invasive, but many of them are. A somewhat recently introduced invasive species, the spotted lanternfly, has proven to be especially destructive and will put current invasive species laws to the test. The federal government does have some laws on the books regarding invasive species, but much of the legislation and subsequent regulations can be found at the state level. No two states have the same legal and …


Preparing For The Flood: Virginia Local Governments' Stormwater Management Liability, James E. Davidson Oct 2023

Preparing For The Flood: Virginia Local Governments' Stormwater Management Liability, James E. Davidson

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

This Note explains that modern interpretations of Virginia Code § 15.2-970 have made Virginia municipalities immune to tort suits arising from the negligent maintenance of stormwater systems. Due to the Virginia Supreme Court’s holdings in Livingston v. Virginia Department of Transportation and other inverse condemnation suits, localities may be found liable when their stormwater management decisions cause property damage. However, following the Court’s holding in AGCS Marine Insurance Co. v. Arlington County, which prevented inverse condemnation claims arising from municipal negligence, residents are still unlikely to find legal redress for negligent stormwater management that results in property damage. Therefore, this …


Frontiers In Regulating Building Emissions: An Agenda For Cities, Danielle Spiegel-Feld Oct 2022

Frontiers In Regulating Building Emissions: An Agenda For Cities, Danielle Spiegel-Feld

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

Recent developments in Congress and the Supreme Court have highlighted the folly of relying solely on the federal government to contain global climate change. If the United States is to help rein in the climate crisis, state and local governments will need to accelerate their efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In many urban areas, where most Americans now live, the most important step that local governments can take to curtail these emissions is to reduce energy use in buildings. Recognizing this, a number of American cities have adopted building performance standards (“BPSs”) in recent years, which limit the annual …


No Time To Waste: Can A State Prevent Nuclear Waste Transportation Within Its Borders Once Yucca Mountain Becomes Operational?, Ryan Franklin Jun 2021

No Time To Waste: Can A State Prevent Nuclear Waste Transportation Within Its Borders Once Yucca Mountain Becomes Operational?, Ryan Franklin

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

Following the drop of the first atomic bomb over Hiroshima on August 6th, 1945, the United States seriously began contemplating the use of atomic energy not just as a weapon, but as an efficient energy source. President Eisenhower delivered his “Atoms for Peace” speech in front of the United Nations eight years later, effectively launching a massive American campaign to build numerous nuclear power plants to generate enough clean energy to power the entire nation. As these plants were being constructed, however, policymakers and lawmakers who were champions of this endeavor failed to consider the problem of nuclear waste generated …


Congestion Pricing And The Opportunity To Confront New York City's Air Quality Emergency, Chad Hughes Jun 2021

Congestion Pricing And The Opportunity To Confront New York City's Air Quality Emergency, Chad Hughes

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

Poor air quality in New York City is a public health emergency that disproportionately harms the city’s most vulnerable populations. Recent studies have found that exposure to particulate matter pollution previously thought “safe” causes significant damage to perhaps every organ of the human body. While New York City has reduced particulate matter exposure over the last decade, progress has stalled. In fact, climate change, the shift in the automobile market from sedans to SUVs and “light” trucks, and the federal pullback of environmental enforcement under Trump suggest that air pollution in New York City is likely to worsen.

While the …


Breaking Up With Dillion: A Practical Call For Virginia State & Local Government Law Reform, Karly Newcomb Feb 2021

Breaking Up With Dillion: A Practical Call For Virginia State & Local Government Law Reform, Karly Newcomb

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

States’ long-standing allegiance to the Dillon Rule stems from the theory that it prevents localities from passing unequal and corrupt laws. However, states with strict adherence to the Dillon Rule have stifled localities from addressing their own issues and priorities. Though the debates surrounding the Dillon Rule’s strengths and weaknesses have existed since its inception, the burdensome effects on a locality’s ability to serve and protect its citizens are constantly evolving. In particular, localities in Dillon Rule states have been unable to enact laws that directly address environmental issues, citing the Dillon Rule as their main obstacle.

Although lobbying Virginia …


Solving The First Mile/ Last Mile Problem: Electric Scooter And Dockless Bicycles Are Positioned To Provide Relief To Commuters Struggling With A Daily Commute, Kelly Grosshuesch Jul 2020

Solving The First Mile/ Last Mile Problem: Electric Scooter And Dockless Bicycles Are Positioned To Provide Relief To Commuters Struggling With A Daily Commute, Kelly Grosshuesch

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

Commuters in cities across the United States struggle to find ease in their daily commute. Public transportation no longer provides residents with an adequate and reliable source of transportation.1 For many commuters, getting to and from nodes of public transportation is difficult and a deterrent from using public or shared transportation instead of driving.2 This, therefore, increases vehicle congestion and car emissions in cities. While multiple new technologies and innovations have emerged to attempt to help commuters with the trip to and from public transportation, most have fallen short.3 But two new innovations that have gained major popularity among consumers, …


Environmental Federalism As Forum Shopping, Cale Jaffe Jul 2020

Environmental Federalism As Forum Shopping, Cale Jaffe

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

Public policy advocates of all stripes—litigators, politicians, or newspaper columnists—invoke principles of federalism when they are imploring Congress to respect limits imposed by Article I, and when they are insisting that a state legislature accede to the supremacy of a duly enacted national law, invoking Article VI. Yet historically, application of the term, “federalism,” at least in the context of environmental law, has been driven far more by pragmatic considerations than constitutional ones.

This pragmatic approach should not be surprising because, at its core, federalism simply asks what is the right level of government to solve a given problem. After …


Out Of Sight, But Not Out Of Mind: Reevaluating The Role Of Federalism In Adequately Regulating Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations, Madhavi Kulkarni Mar 2020

Out Of Sight, But Not Out Of Mind: Reevaluating The Role Of Federalism In Adequately Regulating Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations, Madhavi Kulkarni

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

No abstract provided.


When The Well Runs Dry: Why Water-Rich States Need To Prepare For Climate Change And Protect Their Groundwater, Danielle Takacs Oct 2018

When The Well Runs Dry: Why Water-Rich States Need To Prepare For Climate Change And Protect Their Groundwater, Danielle Takacs

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

It may seem surprising to see such concern over groundwater usage in a state like Wisconsin. While known for its dairy and cheese production, Wisconsin is first in the nation for producing snap beans and cranberries. Agriculture contributes $88.3 billion annually to Wisconsin’s economy alone. In addition to bordering two of the Great Lakes, Lake Michigan and Lake Superior, Wisconsin boasts that it is home to about 15,000 lakes. And this does not include the numerous rivers and streams throughout the state. These facts alone may make Wisconsin seem an unlikely place for disputes over groundwater, as water seems to …


California Rushes In—Keeping Water Instream For Fisheries Without Federal Law, Paul Stanton Kibel Feb 2018

California Rushes In—Keeping Water Instream For Fisheries Without Federal Law, Paul Stanton Kibel

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

No abstract provided.


The Impact Of The Tobacco Buyout On The Commonwealth's Open Spaces: Protecting Open Land By Expanding The Scope Of Use Value Assessment, Mary Atkinson Nov 2017

The Impact Of The Tobacco Buyout On The Commonwealth's Open Spaces: Protecting Open Land By Expanding The Scope Of Use Value Assessment, Mary Atkinson

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

No abstract provided.


When States’ Legislation And Constitutions Collide With Angry Locals: Shale Oil And Gas Development And Its Many Masters, Heidi Gorovitz Robertson Nov 2016

When States’ Legislation And Constitutions Collide With Angry Locals: Shale Oil And Gas Development And Its Many Masters, Heidi Gorovitz Robertson

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

This Article explores the nationally common problem of tension and conflict among state oil and gas statutes, constitutional home rule, and local control by considering intersections and tensions among the Ohio Constitution’s home rule authority, the Ohio oil and gas law’s preemption provision, and the many regulatory efforts of Ohio’s local governments. It explores the scope of the Ohio Constitution’s home rule authority, in part, by evaluating courts’ statements on the validity of several types of local ordinances, as they confront home rule and a legislative attempt at preemption. Types of local ordinances evaluated include those that prohibit or ban …


Thinking Under The Box--Public Choice And Constitutional Law Perspectives On City-Level Environmental Policy, Harri Kalimo, Reid Lifset Nov 2015

Thinking Under The Box--Public Choice And Constitutional Law Perspectives On City-Level Environmental Policy, Harri Kalimo, Reid Lifset

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

No abstract provided.


Local Promise For Climate Mitigation: An Empirical Assessment, Uma Outka, Richard Feiock May 2012

Local Promise For Climate Mitigation: An Empirical Assessment, Uma Outka, Richard Feiock

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

This interdisciplinary work contributes empirical grounding to the growing literature in law and public policy on local governments and climate mitigation. Much of the recent scholarship presents an optimistic view of the potential in local climate action. Here, we refine the optimism for local governments’ impact with new performance data that probes local progress and capacity for climate governance. Our analysis—based on a new study measuring policy choice, implementation, and influences— reevaluates a number of assumptions undergirding this scholarship and provides direction for targeted investment and research.


We Didn't Start The Fire...And We Won't Pay To Stop It: Financing Wildfire Management In America's Wildland-Urban Interface, Garrett D. Trego Feb 2012

We Didn't Start The Fire...And We Won't Pay To Stop It: Financing Wildfire Management In America's Wildland-Urban Interface, Garrett D. Trego

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

No abstract provided.


The Land Use Stabilization Wedge Strategy: Shifting Ground To Mitigate Climate Change, John R. Nolon Oct 2009

The Land Use Stabilization Wedge Strategy: Shifting Ground To Mitigate Climate Change, John R. Nolon

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

This article describes how local governments, through the clever application of existing land use techniques, can mitigate climate change. This strategic path follows one developed by Princeton professor Robert Socolow, who identified and described fifteen categories for organizing society's climate change mitigation efforts.1 Five of Socolow's strategic categories fall within the reach of local land use authority: reduced use of vehicles, energy efficient buildings, vegetative carbon sequestration, wind power, and solar power.2 Through the aggregation of these local land use techniques, significant energy savings and carbon dioxide ("C02") reduction can be achieved. After making some background points, this article describes …


Developing Wind Power In The Commonwealth: No Longer A Quixotic Quest To Build Wind Farms In Virginia, Brian E. Maxted Oct 2008

Developing Wind Power In The Commonwealth: No Longer A Quixotic Quest To Build Wind Farms In Virginia, Brian E. Maxted

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

No abstract provided.


Increasing The Role Of Local Governments In Infrastructure Projects In Russia And Bulgaria As A Tool For Environmental Protection, Stanimir N. Kostov Oct 2008

Increasing The Role Of Local Governments In Infrastructure Projects In Russia And Bulgaria As A Tool For Environmental Protection, Stanimir N. Kostov

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

No abstract provided.