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Love V. Virginia: The Constitutionality Of The Marshall/Newman Amendment, Pavitra Mohan Ram Feb 2007

Love V. Virginia: The Constitutionality Of The Marshall/Newman Amendment, Pavitra Mohan Ram

ExpressO

My comment explores the constitutionality of a recent amendment in Virginia, the Marshall/Newman Amendment, which bans gay marriage and civil unions between unmarried people, and precludes Virginia from recognizing such arrangements formed in other states. The analysis is particularly timely, because even though the Democrats have regained a majority in Congress, and a traditionally Republican Virginian constituency just elected a Democratic senator, a majority of Virginians adopted this Amendment, indicating conservative values still reign.

The comment argues that the Amendment is demonstrably inconsistent with the mandates of the Fourteenth Amendment of the Federal Constitution. The first provision seeks to ...


Civil Unions And Choice Of Law: A Second Restatement Analysis Of Miller-Jenkins V Miller-Jenkins, Christina N. Lambe Jan 2007

Civil Unions And Choice Of Law: A Second Restatement Analysis Of Miller-Jenkins V Miller-Jenkins, Christina N. Lambe

ExpressO

At the end of 2000 Lisa and Janet Miller-Jenkins left their home state of Virginia and traveled to Vermont to enter into a civil union. Their union ended a few years later. Although their separation resulted in a bitter legal battle in both the Virginia and Vermont court systems neither state addressed whether the initial union was valid. This paper analyzes the civil union using the Second Restatement’s choice of law principles. This paper concludes that although the courts have continued to haggle over whether full faith and credit must be given to conflicting visitation orders the choice of ...


The Development, Interpretation And Scope Of The Word "Sex" Within Title Vii: With Particular Reference To "Sexual Orientation.", Abbas Kazerounian Nov 2006

The Development, Interpretation And Scope Of The Word "Sex" Within Title Vii: With Particular Reference To "Sexual Orientation.", Abbas Kazerounian

ExpressO

This is a paper demonstrating the shortcomings of the current jurisprudence in the U.S. with regards to the readings of Title VII's construction of the word "sex." Currently sexual minorities are not considered within Title VII and therefore sexual minorities are not offered the same protections under this Congressional Act. This paper shows how this is a misreading of the statute and how it should include protection for sexual minorities.


The Meaning Of “Life”: The Morning-After-Pill, The Question Of When Life Begins, And Judicial Review, Jason M. Horst Nov 2006

The Meaning Of “Life”: The Morning-After-Pill, The Question Of When Life Begins, And Judicial Review, Jason M. Horst

ExpressO

The Article foresees that certain state legislation limiting access to the morning-after-pill will thrust the question of when life begins onto the courts. This is due both to fact that the morning-after-pill has the potential to act at a point when the existence of potential life is in dispute and largely a matter of belief and to the fact that the constitutionality of the legislation may depend on whether courts consider the morning-after-pill abortion or contraception.

The Article argues that courts should address the question of whether to consider the morning-after-pill abortion or contraception by attempting to adopt and apply ...


Dignity And Degradation: Transnational Lessons From The Constitutional Protection Of Sex, Libby Adler Nov 2006

Dignity And Degradation: Transnational Lessons From The Constitutional Protection Of Sex, Libby Adler

ExpressO

This paper begins by tracing the history of the concept of human dignity from the time of Cicero through the Enlightenment, to the aftermath of WW II. It then examines the contemporary constitutional concept across multiple national jurisdictions, focusing on cases related to sex. Ultimately, the paper urges that while dignity has been regarded as an overarching value that promises to protect all human beings against threats to the most fundamental of human rights, it instead produces undesirable hierarchies and demeans a range of sexual practices that pro-sex feminists and queers want to see constitutionally protected.


A Complete Property Right Amendment, John H. Ryskamp Oct 2006

A Complete Property Right Amendment, John H. Ryskamp

ExpressO

The trend of the eminent domain reform and "Kelo plus" initiatives is toward a comprehensive Constitutional property right incorporating the elements of level of review, nature of government action, and extent of compensation. This article contains a draft amendment which reflects these concerns.


Plan B Contraceptive And The Role Of Politics In Medicine: A Comparative Analysis Of The "Switch" Of Emergency Contraception From Prescription To Non-Prescription In The United States, France, The United Kingdom, And Canada, Mary E. Armstrong Sep 2006

Plan B Contraceptive And The Role Of Politics In Medicine: A Comparative Analysis Of The "Switch" Of Emergency Contraception From Prescription To Non-Prescription In The United States, France, The United Kingdom, And Canada, Mary E. Armstrong

ExpressO

Of the approximately 6 million pregnancies in the United States each year, almost half are unintended. Of these unintended pregnancies, approximately four in ten will end in abortion. Plan B emergency contraception is a drug that has the potential to reduce the number of abortions performed each year in half. Despite contentions from various religious and political sects, Plan B is not an abortifacient. It acts by preventing a pregnancy from starting rather than terminating a pregnancy that is already established. On December 16, 2003, a panel of medical and scientific experts gathered by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA ...


The Abortion Rights Of Adolescents Should Be Coextensive With Those Of Adults--A Theoretical Framework, Chad M. Gerson Sep 2006

The Abortion Rights Of Adolescents Should Be Coextensive With Those Of Adults--A Theoretical Framework, Chad M. Gerson

ExpressO

The aim of this article is to argue that the abortion rights of adolescents should be coextensive with those of adults. The first section of the article reviews research in child development which has demonstrated that adolescents are able to make informed, mature decisions on procreative issues. The second section reviews cases which have defined the contours of adult women’s abortion rights, and argues that the reasoning behind those holdings also applies to adolescents.


“Actions As Words, Words As Actions: Sexual Harassment Law, The First Amendment And Verbal Acts, John F. Wirenius Sep 2006

“Actions As Words, Words As Actions: Sexual Harassment Law, The First Amendment And Verbal Acts, John F. Wirenius

ExpressO

The article examines the tension between the hostile work environment under the civil rights laws and the First Amendment’s protection of free speech, even when such speech is offensive and even discriminatory. After discussing the tension and its limits, the author examines other rationales proposed to resolve this tension, and rejecting them as unsatisfactory. Noting that hostile work environment doctrine, as a variable standard, employs a less “bright-line” approach than is typical of the First Amendment’s rule, the author nonetheless finds that the “open texture” of all rules, and the requirement that a hostile work environment be systematically ...


Imagining The Law-Trained Reader: The Faulty Description Of The Audience In Legal Writing Textbooks., Jessica E. Price Sep 2006

Imagining The Law-Trained Reader: The Faulty Description Of The Audience In Legal Writing Textbooks., Jessica E. Price

ExpressO

In law schools today, first-year legal writing courses play a crucial role in helping students learn to communicate about the law. Many legal writing teachers approach legal writing education in a practical way, attempting to pass on their own experiences in law practice settings to students. Unfortunately, as other writers have observed, such reliance on personal knowledge about “what lawyers are like” may lead legal writing teachers to oversimplify a complicated matter – the needs and preferences of the audience for legal writing – and may even amount to indoctrination in stereotypes about law practice. This article offers a closer look than ...


The Uncertain Future Of Marriage And The Alternatives, Daniel I. Weiner Aug 2006

The Uncertain Future Of Marriage And The Alternatives, Daniel I. Weiner

ExpressO

The cultural and institutional predominance of marriage in our society has lately been challenged by two important social trends: growing dissatisfaction with or indifference to marriage on the part of those eligible to marry, and the emergence of nontraditional families headed by adults who may wish to marry but are presently excluded from doing so. This Essay argues that proactive law reformers have responded to these trends by taking two very different approaches. The first approach, “diversity of forms,” is exemplified by the cultivation of alternatives and substitutes to traditional marriage ranging from same and opposite-sex domestic partnerships and other ...


Parental Consent And Notification Laws In The Abortion Context: Rejecting The "Maturity" Standard In Judicial Bypass Proceedings, Anna Bonny Aug 2006

Parental Consent And Notification Laws In The Abortion Context: Rejecting The "Maturity" Standard In Judicial Bypass Proceedings, Anna Bonny

ExpressO

The choice to become a parent, to give a baby up for adoption, or to terminate a pregnancy presents a life-altering decision for a minor. The majority of states require minors to engage their parents or legal guardians in their choice to obtain an abortion, but not in decisions to give their babies up for adoption or to become parents. Though the Supreme Court has held that parental consent and notification laws do not infringe on a minor's constitutional rights if judicial bypass options are available, the reality of these judicial proceedings demonstrates a biased and unworkable legal avenue ...


The Genuine Article: A Subversive Economic Perspective On The Law's Procreationist Vision Of Marriage , Courtney M. Cahill Aug 2006

The Genuine Article: A Subversive Economic Perspective On The Law's Procreationist Vision Of Marriage , Courtney M. Cahill

ExpressO

This Article provides a new perspective on the image of marriage that has emerged from the same-sex marriage debate. However flawed, the procreation rationale has enjoyed overwhelming success in recent same-sex marriage litigation. However absurd, the idea that same-sex marriage is a species of counterfeit has become so commonplace in the rhetoric surrounding same-sex marriage that it nearly escapes our notice. This Article argues that while neither the procreation rationale nor contemporary counterfeiting rhetoric makes much sense when considered in isolation, both make a great deal of sense when considered in concert. To that end, this Article looks at the ...


Marriage And The Elephant: The Liberal Democratic State’S Regulation Of Intimate Relationships Between Adults , Maxine Eichner Aug 2006

Marriage And The Elephant: The Liberal Democratic State’S Regulation Of Intimate Relationships Between Adults , Maxine Eichner

ExpressO

This essay considers the current debate in legal theory over the stance that the state should adopt toward intimate relationships between adults. Should the state, as some scholars argue, privilege marriage because of the benefits it provides to society? Or should it, as others argue, distance itself from relationships between adults on the ground that adults should be left to order their own affairs? The essay argues that scholars involved in this debate have reached such diametrically different conclusions from one another because each side has focused on a particular, narrow range of goods at issue in these relationships. Relationships ...


Multistable Figures: Sexual Orientation Visibility And Its Effects On The Experiences Of Sexual Minorities In The Courts, Todd Brower Aug 2006

Multistable Figures: Sexual Orientation Visibility And Its Effects On The Experiences Of Sexual Minorities In The Courts, Todd Brower

ExpressO

A multistable figure is a cognitive illusion in which a single drawing contains multiple, competing images. On first viewing a person will see one image, but not the other – it usually requires additional information to trigger the viewer’s awareness of the second image. However, once you know about the disparate figures in the illustration, you cannot erase that knowledge from your mind and see a sole image as you did originally. This inability to ignore information and its effect on subsequent experience has parallels in lesbians’ and gay men’s treatment in the courts.

Courts today are deeply involved ...


Domestic Violence And Legal Reforms In Nigeria: Prospects And Challenges, Itoro Eze-Anaba Aug 2006

Domestic Violence And Legal Reforms In Nigeria: Prospects And Challenges, Itoro Eze-Anaba

ExpressO

The article focuses on the challenges for women’s rights activists attempting to provide a better legal regime for victims of domestic violence in Nigeria. It is my desire to provide a resource material on the issue of domestic violence for activists, policy makers, legislators and law reformers who are engaged in providing a better legal framework for the protection and promotion of women’s rights in a developing country like Nigeria. Having worked extensively on this issue, the article documents my experience on law reform advocacy in Nigeria.


The Right To Swing? , Milan Markovic Aug 2006

The Right To Swing? , Milan Markovic

ExpressO

An analysis of the Supreme Court of Canada's decision in Labaye v. the Queen that held that the activities occurring in a Montral swingers club could not be classified as indecent. I posit that Labaye is best understood as concerning sexual liberty (as described in Lawrence v. Texas and other cases) and not as an indecency case.


Forgetting Freud: The Courts' Fear Of The Subconscious In Date Rape (And Other) Criminal Cases, Andrew E. Taslitz Jul 2006

Forgetting Freud: The Courts' Fear Of The Subconscious In Date Rape (And Other) Criminal Cases, Andrew E. Taslitz

ExpressO

Courts too often show a reluctance to learn the lessons taught by social science in criminal cases, especially where subconcious processes are involved. The subconscious is seen as rarely relevant and, in the unusual cases where it is relevant, it is viewed as a disease commandeering the conscious mind and thus helping to exculpate the accused. Drawing on the example of forensic linguistics in date rape cases as illustrative of a broader phenomenon, this article argues that the courts' misuse of social science stems from fear and misunderstanding of the workings of the subconscious mind. Accordingly, the piece contrasts the ...


Adult's Sexual Orientation And State Determinations Regarding Placement Of Children, Michael S. Wald Jul 2006

Adult's Sexual Orientation And State Determinations Regarding Placement Of Children, Michael S. Wald

ExpressO

No abstract provided.


Till Death Do Us Part: Marriage, Hiv/Aids And The Law In Zimbabwe, Slyvia Chirawu Jun 2006

Till Death Do Us Part: Marriage, Hiv/Aids And The Law In Zimbabwe, Slyvia Chirawu

ExpressO

Lying in Sub Saharan Africa, the epicenter of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, Zimbabwe has grappled since 1985 to prevent and mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS. Statistics point out to one glaring factor- the disproportionate impact of HIV/AIDS on women and in the case of Zimbabwe married women. Laws, policies and practices in relation to marriage predispose married women to HIV/AIDS infection. The answer to protecting women does not lie entirely in the law but in transformative gender equality.

Zimbabwe has two types of recognized marriages and the third type , the unregistered customary law union is given limited ...


Toward An International Standard Of Abortion Rights: Empirical Data From Africa, Chad M. Gerson May 2006

Toward An International Standard Of Abortion Rights: Empirical Data From Africa, Chad M. Gerson

ExpressO

In the Fall of 2005 I published a brief Development in the Chicago Journal of International Law concerning the prospects for establishing the right to obtain an abortion as a fundamental human right. See 5 Chi. J. Int’l L. 753. In that article I argued that the right to choose and access to abortion services would greatly improve the health and status of women and children in the developing world.

In this article, I follow up with empirical data regarding the status of abortion rights in African countries. These data are compared to maternal and infant mortality and contraceptive ...


The Law Of Unintended Consequences: The Far-Reaching Effects Of Same-Sex Marriage Ban Amendments, C. Susie Lorden May 2006

The Law Of Unintended Consequences: The Far-Reaching Effects Of Same-Sex Marriage Ban Amendments, C. Susie Lorden

ExpressO

In 2004, thirteen states passed same-sex marriage ban amendments in response to a Massachusetts ruling from the previous year that sanctioned marriage for gay couples. Most of the amendments contained two prongs that defined marriage and also prohibited legal recognition of unmarried relationships in an attempt to avoid marriage substitutes, such as civil unions.

These amendments not only blatantly discriminate against same-sex couples by barring them from marriage, but the amendments also insidiously cause further damage by using undefined and ambiguous language capable of discriminating against gays and lesbians in ways not admitted by the proponents and not intended by ...


Traditional Values, Or A New Tradition Of Prejudice? The Boy Scouts Of America Vs. The Unitarian Universalist Association Of Congregations, Eric Alan Isaacson May 2006

Traditional Values, Or A New Tradition Of Prejudice? The Boy Scouts Of America Vs. The Unitarian Universalist Association Of Congregations, Eric Alan Isaacson

ExpressO

President William Howard Taft, a Unitarian leader whose liberal faith had been viciously attacked by religious conservatives in the 1908 presidential campaign, used the White House as a platform in 1911 to launch a new nonsectarian organization for youth: The Boy Scouts of America (“BSA”). Lately, however, the BSA itself has come under the control of religious conservatives – who in 1992 banned Taft’s denomination from the BSA’s Religious Relationships Committee, and in 1998 threw Taft’s denomination out of its Religious Emblems Program. The denomination’s offense: A tradition of teaching its children that institutionalized discrimination is wrong ...


Legal Archaeology And Feminist Legal Theory: A Case Study Of A Violation Of A Protective Order , Debora L. Threedy Mar 2006

Legal Archaeology And Feminist Legal Theory: A Case Study Of A Violation Of A Protective Order , Debora L. Threedy

ExpressO

This article explores the intersection between the field of legal archaeology and feminist legal theory through the medium of a case study of the prosecution of the violation of a protective order.

Both legal archaeology and feminist theory employ “bottom up,” or grounded, theorizing; that is, they begin with specific context and move from there to generalization or abstraction, rather than the other way around. And both operate from a critical perspective that consciously challenges what we think we know about how law operates. For example, both are interested in exploring how systemic vulnerabilities, such as conscious or unconscious gender ...


The Focused Attention Of Others: A Conceptual And Normative Model Of Personal And Legal Privacy, Jeffery L. Johnson Mar 2006

The Focused Attention Of Others: A Conceptual And Normative Model Of Personal And Legal Privacy, Jeffery L. Johnson

ExpressO

The article defends an analysis of privacy as those areas of a person’s life where s/he is entitled to immunity from the illegitimate focused attention of others. It goes on to argue that such a model encompasses the concept of privacy in colloquial and legal contexts. The article concludes with an analysis of the normative value of privacy.


Fuck, Christopher M. Fairman Mar 2006

Fuck, Christopher M. Fairman

ExpressO

This Article is as simple and provocative as its title suggests: it explores the legal implications of the word fuck. The intersection of the word fuck and the law is examined in four major areas: First Amendment, broadcast regulation, sexual harassment, and education. The legal implications from the use of fuck vary greatly with the context. To fully understand the legal power of fuck, the nonlegal sources of its power are tapped. Drawing upon the research of etymologists, linguists, lexicographers, psychoanalysts, and other social scientists, the visceral reaction to fuck can be explained by cultural taboo. Fuck is a taboo ...


The Expressive Impact Of Patents, Timothy R. Holbrook Mar 2006

The Expressive Impact Of Patents, Timothy R. Holbrook

ExpressO

Patents represent a quid pro quo between the public and the inventor: in exchange for disclosing the invention, the inventor receives the right to exclude others from practicing her invention. They therefore serve as a source technical information. Patents also communicate information to markets and companies that serve to reduce various transaction costs, allowing more efficient transactions and investment. Patents consequently communicate various types of information beyond the technical.

There is no reason, however, that such messages must be limited to the technical or the pecuniary. This Article explores whether patents, like other governmental acts such as legislation, can create ...


Poor Whites, Benevolent Masters, And The Ideologies Of Slavery: A Slave Accused Of Rape In The Antebellum South, Jason A. Gillmer Mar 2006

Poor Whites, Benevolent Masters, And The Ideologies Of Slavery: A Slave Accused Of Rape In The Antebellum South, Jason A. Gillmer

ExpressO

This Article analyzes in detail a case involving a slave accused of raping a white woman in the 1850s to offer a fresh perspective on our basic assumptions about sex and race in the slave South. Joining a new group of “cultural-legal historians,” the author looks beyond the legal language of Southern legislatures and high courts, and focuses instead on the trial record of one case: State v. Pleasant. In doing so, the author uncovers the stories of ordinary men and women – the slave, his master, his accuser, his attorney, the jurors, and others – to see how the laws and ...


Principled Parentage: Abandoning The Gender-Based Underpinnings Of Legal Parentage Analysis As Applied In The Context Of Gestational Surrogacy, Jennifer A. Kimball Feb 2006

Principled Parentage: Abandoning The Gender-Based Underpinnings Of Legal Parentage Analysis As Applied In The Context Of Gestational Surrogacy, Jennifer A. Kimball

ExpressO

While reproductive technology has provided new options for women who want children, our legal understanding of parentage is still informed by the traditional conception model of two parents: one male and one female. A parent who both is a biological parent and has developed a parent-child relationship with a genetic child ought to be considered a legal parent as well. This conclusion ought not to be vulnerable to attack based on the gender of the other parent; rather, each parent’s claims should be evaluated independently. When gender becomes irrelevant and we abandon the gender-based underpinnings of legal parentage analysis ...


Superstition-Based Injustice In Africa And The United States: The Use Of Provocation As A Defense For Killing Witches And Homosexuals, Jennifer Dumin Jan 2006

Superstition-Based Injustice In Africa And The United States: The Use Of Provocation As A Defense For Killing Witches And Homosexuals, Jennifer Dumin

ExpressO

This Article examines two different instances where strong cultural and religious beliefs suggest that an individual is justified in taking another’s life. Focusing primarily on South Africa and the United States, it argues that the rationale used to defend those who kill suspected witches and those who kill suspected homosexuals is the same – merely because a criminal holds a belief that the victim is evil, the criminal is somehow entitled to a lesser punishment. In the United States, those who readily recognize the absurdity of the witchcraft defense may have some difficulty in recognizing the same level of absurdity ...