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Full-Text Articles in Law

Inconceivable Families, Malinda L. Seymore Sep 2022

Inconceivable Families, Malinda L. Seymore

Faculty Scholarship

Basic biology tells us that each child has no more than two biological parents, one who supplies the egg and one who supplies the sperm. Adoption law in this country has generally followed biology, insisting only two parents be legally recognized for each child. Thus, every adoption begins with loss. Before a child can be adopted, that child must first be cut off from their family of birth, rendering the equation of adoption one of subtraction, not addition. This Article examines the biological model of adoption that insists on mimicking the nuclear family—erasing one set of parents and replacing ...


_Not That Bad_: Lessons Women Learn In A Rape Culture, Sydney J. Selman Jul 2022

_Not That Bad_: Lessons Women Learn In A Rape Culture, Sydney J. Selman

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at The University of Tennessee

In 2018, Roxane Gay assembled an anthology that addresses the severity of rape, rejecting the common belief that some sexually violent acts, compared to others, are not that bad. This collection, titled Not That Bad: Dispatches from Rape Culture, compiles pieces from thirty different authors and sheds light on how the notion of not that bad contributes to a broader structural social problem involving sexual violence. This social problem, known as rape culture, is commonly defined as a culture that normalizes sexual violence and blames victims of sexual assault (“What is Rape Culture?”). In other words, rape culture trivializes sexual ...


Transparency And Reliance In Antidiscrimination Law, Steven L. Willborn Jun 2022

Transparency And Reliance In Antidiscrimination Law, Steven L. Willborn

Catholic University Law Review

All antidiscrimination laws have two structural features – transparency and reliance – that are important, even central, to their design, but have gone largely unnoticed. On transparency, some laws, like the recent salary-ban laws, attempt to prevent the employer from learning about the disfavored factor on the theory that an employer cannot rely on an unknown factor. Other laws require publication of the disfavored factor, such as salary, on the theory that it is harder to discriminate in the sunlight. Still other laws are somewhere between these two extremes. The Americans with Disabilities Act, for example, limits but does not preclude employer ...


Determining Marriage Length In Support Calculations: Should Cohabitation Count?, Mark Strasser Jun 2022

Determining Marriage Length In Support Calculations: Should Cohabitation Count?, Mark Strasser

Journal of Law and Policy

Many states have sought to make spousal support awards more predictable by linking them to marital length. States doing so must decide whether to include premarital cohabitation within the calculation determining marriage duration, which for many couples will significantly affect the ultimate determination. This Article discusses some of the difficulties in achieving consistency and predictability in marital length determinations, focusing on how the supreme courts in Massachusetts and North Dakota have sacrificed those goals in their attempts to achieve what they likely thought to be more equitable results in individual cases.


Book Review: The Mighty Roe Has Fallen (Probably): A Call To Action As An Antidote To Despair, Loreen Peritz Jun 2022

Book Review: The Mighty Roe Has Fallen (Probably): A Call To Action As An Antidote To Despair, Loreen Peritz

Journal of Law and Policy

Reviewing CONTROLLING WOMEN: WHAT WE MUST DO NOW TO SAVE REPRODUCTIVE FREEDOM. By Kathryn Kolbert & Julie Kay. New York, NY: Hachette Books, 2021. 304 pp., $29.00


Defining Sexual Orientation: A Proposal For A New Definition, Andrew Park Jun 2022

Defining Sexual Orientation: A Proposal For A New Definition, Andrew Park

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

Laws prohibiting discrimination based on sexual orientation are becoming more common in all parts of the world. Few of these laws provide useful definitions of the term sexual orientation. As a result, the meaning and impact of these laws remains unclear. This Article reviews past and current definitions of sexual orientation according to how well they incorporate current empirical knowledge of sexual orientation, and how their use in human rights laws impacts the dignity, right to equality, and human development of sexual minorities. The Article gives particular attention to the definition of sexual orientation found in the Yogyakarta Principles which ...


The Effects Of “No Pro Homo” Policies On Lgbtq+ Perceptions In The American South, Isabella L. Brocato Jun 2022

The Effects Of “No Pro Homo” Policies On Lgbtq+ Perceptions In The American South, Isabella L. Brocato

Honors Theses

Five states in the American South currently have “no pro homo” policies in place, while an increasing number of bills targeting discussions about sexuality and gender identity in public schools are being introduced to House floors around the country. Although there is extensive research on the ways in which these policies put the physical and mental well-being of LGBTQ+ students at risk, there is little to no research about how they shape public perceptions of the LGBTQ+ community collectively. With inspiration from Kenneth and Mamie Clark’s social science study cited in Brown v. Board of Education (1954), this study ...


The Not-So-Straight First Amendment: Why Prohibitions On Conversion Therapy For Children Survive Strict Scrutiny, Samuel G. Bernstein May 2022

The Not-So-Straight First Amendment: Why Prohibitions On Conversion Therapy For Children Survive Strict Scrutiny, Samuel G. Bernstein

Boston College Law Review

In November 2020, the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit, in Otto v. City of Boca Raton (Otto II), became the first federal appellate court to hold that bans on Sexual Orientation Change Efforts (“SOCE”) therapy, also known as conversion therapy, for minors are unconstitutional restrictions of freedom of speech. In reviewing the bans under the strict scrutiny standard, the Eleventh Circuit’s decision in Otto departs from the other circuits’ decisions not only in outcome but also in analysis. The Eleventh Circuit, following recent Supreme Court’s decisions, concluded that courts must apply strict scrutiny and ...


Indiana In The Midst Of #Metoo: The Argument For Enforcing Arbitration In Sexual Harassment Claims, Jonathan Cisneros May 2022

Indiana In The Midst Of #Metoo: The Argument For Enforcing Arbitration In Sexual Harassment Claims, Jonathan Cisneros

Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal

This note argues that it is in the best interest of sexual harassment victims and the state of Indiana to not follow suit in passing legislation that prohibits employers from requiring mandatory arbitration in sexual harassment cases. This is based on an analysis of the potential factors underlying Indiana’s current lack of legislative movement, the weight of the arguments for and against mandatory arbitration, and consideration of the preemption issues surrounding state laws banning mandatory arbitration. Part II sets the foundation for this note by laying out the most pertinent parts of the FAA and analyzing how the U ...


Disposable Immigrants: The Reality Of Sexual Assault In Immigration Detention Centers, Valerie Gisel Zarate May 2022

Disposable Immigrants: The Reality Of Sexual Assault In Immigration Detention Centers, Valerie Gisel Zarate

St. Mary's Law Journal

Abstract forthcoming.


Three Observations About Justice Alito's Draft Opinion In Dobbs - Commentary, John M. Greabe May 2022

Three Observations About Justice Alito's Draft Opinion In Dobbs - Commentary, John M. Greabe

Law Faculty Scholarship

[Excerpt] "There is much to say about Justice Samuel Alito's draft opinion in Dobbs v. Jackson Women's Health Organization, which was leaked from the United States Supreme Court on May 2 [2022].

Obviously, the most significant direct consequence of the proposed decision, which overrules Roe v. Wade (1973) and Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992) while upholding the constitutionality of a Mississippi law that outlaws most abortions after 15 weeks of pregnancy, would be the restriction or elimination of abortion services throughout much of the nation. This will have all sorts of attendant consequences, large and smaller, many of ...


Bostock, Backlash, And Beyond The Pale: Religious Retrenchment And The Future Of Lgbtq Antidiscrimination Advocacy In The Wake Of Title Vii Protection, Kyler J. Palmer May 2022

Bostock, Backlash, And Beyond The Pale: Religious Retrenchment And The Future Of Lgbtq Antidiscrimination Advocacy In The Wake Of Title Vii Protection, Kyler J. Palmer

DePaul Journal for Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Madeira Serves As Legal Commentator In Netflix’S “Our Father”, James Owsley Boyd May 2022

Madeira Serves As Legal Commentator In Netflix’S “Our Father”, James Owsley Boyd

Keep Up With the Latest News from the Law School (blog)

No abstract provided.


"Sexual Activity": What Qualifies Under 18 U.S.C. § 2422?, Max Doherty May 2022

"Sexual Activity": What Qualifies Under 18 U.S.C. § 2422?, Max Doherty

Boston College Law Review

On May 13, 2021, in United States v. Dominguez, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit joined a pre-existing circuit split regarding the meaning of “sexual activity” under 18 U.S.C. § 2422 and whether that term requires physical contact between the defendant and the victim. The statute prohibits individuals from coercing or enticing others to participate in illegal sexual activity, including when the victim is a minor. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth and Seventh Circuits previously reached opposite interpretations of the phrase’s meaning. The court in Dominguez agreed with the Fourth ...


Is The End Of Roe V. Wade Near? Leaked Scotus Brief Says Yes, Nicole Huberfeld, Linda C. Mcclain May 2022

Is The End Of Roe V. Wade Near? Leaked Scotus Brief Says Yes, Nicole Huberfeld, Linda C. Mcclain

Shorter Faculty Works

Protesters on both sides of the abortion debate descended on the US Supreme Court Monday night and into Tuesday after a leaked secret draft of a US Supreme Court opinion indicated that a majority of justices support overturning Roe v. Wade, after almost 50 years of legalized abortion rights in America. If finalized, possibly as soon as this summer, the bombshell could trigger a cultural tsunami across American life, forcing some women to travel to another state for an abortion and putting the divisive issue at the heart of the fall midterm elections.


Beyond "Restoration Of Honor": Compensating Veterans For The Psychological Injuries Of The Gay And Transgender Bans, Evan R. Seamone May 2022

Beyond "Restoration Of Honor": Compensating Veterans For The Psychological Injuries Of The Gay And Transgender Bans, Evan R. Seamone

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

This Article is titled “Beyond Restoration of Honor” specifically to introduce the policy priority of ensuring that all Sexual and Gender Identity Minority (SGIM) veterans who were harmed by...discriminatory policies [like Don't Ask, Don't Tell] can obtain and use Veterans Affairs (VA) disability benefits for injuries resulting from discrimination while in the military. While this Article highlights the value of codifying a series of specific SGIM stressor markers for PTSD in the VA’s regulations concerning personal assault and creating presumptions of service-connection for specific military experiences, existing laws and regulations permit service-connection for these injuries without ...


Don’T Say Gay…At Least, Not In Front Of Your Teachers, Esra Coskun-Crabtree Apr 2022

Don’T Say Gay…At Least, Not In Front Of Your Teachers, Esra Coskun-Crabtree

GGU Law Review Blog

The Florida Senate passed The Parental Rights in Education bill, also known as the “Don’t Say Gay” bill by the media on March 28, 2022. This Bill proposes that a school district may not “discourage or prohibit parental notification of and involvement in critical decisions affecting a student’s mental, emotional, or physical health or well-being,” nor “encourage classroom discussion about sexual orientation or gender identity in primary grade levels or in a manner that is not age-appropriate or developmentally appropriate for students.” The bill would allow parents to “bring an action against a school district to obtain a ...


Identity Documents For Transgender Texans: A Proposal For A Uniform System For Correcting Gender Markers In Texas, Lydia R. Harris Apr 2022

Identity Documents For Transgender Texans: A Proposal For A Uniform System For Correcting Gender Markers In Texas, Lydia R. Harris

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

Texas’s lack of a codified gender correction process is unjust, illegal, and against public policy. This comment highlights the injustice faced by transgender Texans without gender concordant identity documents. These injustices include discrimination based on gender stereotypes, violation of the transgender individual’s right to privacy, and violations of public policy. This comment explores possible solutions to the injustices faced by transgender Texans due to the lack of a codified uniform way to correct gender markers in Texas modeled on other jurisdictions’ approaches to this problem.

First, this comment traces the history of the recognition of transgender people and ...


Sexual Profiling & Blaqueer Furtivity: Blaqueers On The Run, T. Anansi Wilson Apr 2022

Sexual Profiling & Blaqueer Furtivity: Blaqueers On The Run, T. Anansi Wilson

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

This article has taken some time to recollect. I have been struggling to find the grammar to communicate a phenomenon that is both central to BlaQueer life and beyond BlaQueer living. This difficulty, the silences, the gaps, the nonsensical and agrammatical nature of this phenomena—that of BlaQueer furtivity, the strict scrutiny of Black life and sexual profiling—are central features not only of this project but of the legal, extralegal and social logics and powers that mark, make and remake BlaQueer folks as always, already furtive, subject to strict scrutiny and necessarily sexual profiling. I have been struggling with ...


Reproduction And Gender Self-Determination: Fertile Grounds For Trans Legal Advocacy, Samira Seraji Apr 2022

Reproduction And Gender Self-Determination: Fertile Grounds For Trans Legal Advocacy, Samira Seraji

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

Current medical constructions of trans identities reflect heterosexist understandings of gender expression—understandings that deny access to gender-affirming healthcare to those who fail to perform normative binary genders. As medical providers establish norms for how to “properly” be trans, the state codifies these norms, basing trans existence on rigidly defined and harshly enforced understandings of binary gender. When this construction of transness is codified on an institutional level, such as with gender reclassification rules for government identification, it forces trans people to conform their bodies to cisgender norms, and dangerously disrupts trans people’s bodily autonomy and diminishes their control ...


Pornography Isn't The Problem: A Feminist Theoretical Perspective On The War Against Pornhub, Taylor Comerford Mar 2022

Pornography Isn't The Problem: A Feminist Theoretical Perspective On The War Against Pornhub, Taylor Comerford

Boston College Law Review

Over the last year, Pornhub and its parent company, MindGeek, ignited public outcry against the prevalence of content users posted to their sites featuring sexual violence, nonconsensual pornography, and sex trafficking. Activists, journalists, and legislators allege that Pornhub and similar pornography sites are apathetic toward the victims in these videos and photos while profiting from the ad revenue such content brings to their sites. In December 2021, Senator Josh Hawley proposed the Survivors of Human Trafficking Fight Back Act, proposing to add criminal penalties and a federal cause of action against websites that either post or refuse to remove criminal ...


The Prep Penalty, Doron Dorfman Mar 2022

The Prep Penalty, Doron Dorfman

Boston College Law Review

Pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, is a novel treatment shown to be highly effective in preventing HIV infection. Although this preventive measure signals a new dawn in eliminating HIV/AIDS, this Article exposes the paradoxical legal treatment of PrEP. On one hand, PrEP has been approved by the FDA, endorsed by the CDC, and promoted through financial incentives in the Affordable Care Act. On the other, the FDA restricts PrEP users, predominately sexually active gay men, from donating blood through a legal policy known as the “blood ban.” This Article uses an innovative experimental study to demonstrate counterintuitive and illogical responses ...


Adjudicating Identity, Laura Lane-Steele Mar 2022

Adjudicating Identity, Laura Lane-Steele

Texas A&M Law Review

Legal actors examine identity claims with varying degrees of intensity. For instance, to be considered “female” for the U.S. Census, self-identification alone is sufficient, and no additional evidence is necessary. To change a sex marker on a birth certificate to “female,” however, self-identification is not enough; some states require people to show that they do not have a penis to be considered “female.” Similar examples of discrepancies in the type and amount of evidence considered for identity claims abound across identities and areas of law. Yet legal actors rarely acknowledge that they are adjudicating identity in the first place ...


Taking The "Fam" Out Of Family: Adjudicating The State Department's Discriminatory Treatment Of Same-Sex Parents On The Merits, Camrin M. Rivera Mar 2022

Taking The "Fam" Out Of Family: Adjudicating The State Department's Discriminatory Treatment Of Same-Sex Parents On The Merits, Camrin M. Rivera

Maine Law Review

Cisgender same-sex male married couples, unlike cisgender opposite-sex married couples, will always require artificial reproductive technology (ART) for at least one of the spouses to attain biological parenthood. Due to legal and financial barriers to ART, many of these couples turn to international ART services to grow their families. In doing so, these families may face immigration battles when they apply for recognition of their child’s United States citizenship. For example, a prior State Department policy sparked three lawsuits after the State Department refused to recognize children as United States citizens from birth because the children were not biologically ...


Queer And Convincing: Reviewing Freedom Of Religion And Lgbtq+ Protections Post-Fulton V. City Of Philadelphia, Arianna Nord Mar 2022

Queer And Convincing: Reviewing Freedom Of Religion And Lgbtq+ Protections Post-Fulton V. City Of Philadelphia, Arianna Nord

Washington Law Review

Recent increases in LGBTQ+ anti-discrimination laws have generated new conversations in the free exercise of religion debate. While federal courts have been wrestling with claims brought under the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment since the nineteenth century, city and state efforts to codify legal protections for LGBTQ+ individuals in the mid-twentieth century birthed novel challenges. Private individuals who do not condone intimate same-sex relationships and/or gender non-conforming behavior, on religious grounds seek greater legal protection for the ability to refuse to offer goods and services to LGBTQ+ persons. Federal and state courts must determine how to resolve ...


The Public Accommodations Dilemma - Whose Right Prevails, Meg Penrose Mar 2022

The Public Accommodations Dilemma - Whose Right Prevails, Meg Penrose

Faculty Scholarship

This essay gives a brief history of religious liberty-based objections to public accommodations law promoting societal integration and provides a potential solution. It argues there are parallels between LGBTQ discrimination and race discrimination, including the continued resistance to full integration and equality. The essay suggests a potential solution to the public accommodations dilemma between anti-discrimination and religious liberty in redefining the scope of religious liberty. Courts should protect religious services and activities—not secular services and activities. The status (religious or secular) of the person providing services should be irrelevant. The focus of public accommodations laws, and legal challenges to ...


Pleasure Patents, Andrew Gilden, Sarah R. Wasserman Rajec Feb 2022

Pleasure Patents, Andrew Gilden, Sarah R. Wasserman Rajec

Boston College Law Review

The United States Patent and Trademark Office has granted thousands of patents for inventions whose purpose is to facilitate the sexual pleasure of their users. These “pleasure patents” raise a range of novel questions about both patent theory and the relationship between law and sexuality more broadly. Given that “immoral” inventions were long excluded from the patent system, and that sexual devices were widely criminalized for much of the past 150 years, how have patentees successfully framed the contributions of their sexual inventions? If a patentable invention must be both new and useful, how have patentees described the utility of ...


Is A Rainbow Pink Or Blue? Creating Jail Policies For Transgender Inmates, Hunter Schultz Feb 2022

Is A Rainbow Pink Or Blue? Creating Jail Policies For Transgender Inmates, Hunter Schultz

Master of Arts in Criminal Justice Leadership

The United States prison system functions on a binary of male and female inmates. Transgender, non-binary, gender non-conforming, and intersex individuals challenge the limits of these systems and their policies. This paper addresses how to create policy for transgender individuals and what the policies should include. The best practice for creating policies involves basing them in solid ethics. Looking at different ethical theories will help solve ethical dilemmas involving housing, searching, and other policies for transgender and gender non-conforming inmates. To ensure that policies coincide with the law, an examination of case law provides the legal background for these policies ...


Justice For All? Impeding The Villainization Of Human Trafficking Victims Via The Expansion Of Vacatur Laws, Sarah Devaney Feb 2022

Justice For All? Impeding The Villainization Of Human Trafficking Victims Via The Expansion Of Vacatur Laws, Sarah Devaney

Pepperdine Law Review

It is common for human trafficking victims to acquire a criminal record as a result of the activities they are forced to engage in whilst being trafficked. Once these victims become survivors, their criminal record hinders them from wholly reacclimating to society. The current state of human trafficking laws provides little to no relief for human trafficking survivors in regard to alleviating their criminal records. Accordingly, human trafficking survivors are perpetually victimized by the United States criminal justice system. This Article explores the current state of human trafficking laws and their enduring effect on survivors. Specifically, the Article examines California ...


Curing Corrective Rape: Socio-Legal Perspectives On Sexual Violence Against Black Lesbians In South Africa, Waruguru Gaitho Feb 2022

Curing Corrective Rape: Socio-Legal Perspectives On Sexual Violence Against Black Lesbians In South Africa, Waruguru Gaitho

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

Corrective rape can be defined as a hate crime that entails the rape of any member of a group that does not conform to gender or sexual orientation norms, where the motive of the perpetrator is to “correct” the individual, fundamentally combining gender-based violence and homophobic violence. In the South African context, these biases intersect with systemic racism, producing a disproportionate impact on Black, queer, womxn. While the legal framework has evolved to better address sexual violence crimes, Black lesbians remain prone to falling through the legal cracks, and South African society continues to sanction the homophobia and misogyny that ...