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Full-Text Articles in Law

Hostile Restructurings, Diane L. Dick Dec 2021

Hostile Restructurings, Diane L. Dick

Washington Law Review

The conventional wisdom holds that out-of-court loan restructurings are mostly consensual and collaborative. But this is no longer accurate. Highly aggressive, nonconsensual restructuring transactions—what I call “hostile restructurings”—are becoming a common feature of the capital markets. Relying on hypertechnical interpretations of loan agreements, one increasingly popular hostile restructuring method involves issuing new debt that enjoys higher priority than the existing debt; another involves transferring the most valuable collateral away from existing lenders to secure new borrowing.

These transactions are distinguishable from normal out-of-court restructurings by their use of coercive tactics to overcome not only the traditional minority lender holdout problem, …


A Sea Change In Creditor Priorities, Kristen Van De Biezenbos Apr 2015

A Sea Change In Creditor Priorities, Kristen Van De Biezenbos

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Article argues that the operation of maritime law undermines a primary justification for creditor priorities under U.S. law. Under current law, when a debtor becomes insolvent, its secured creditors will be paid the full amount of their debt to the extent of their security interest, even if that leaves nothing to pay unsecured creditors. This is controversial with respect to involuntary unsecured creditors, particularly those with tort claims against the debtor. Defenders of this scheme of priorities have argued that allowing greater priority to involuntary creditors would hinder the availability or increase the cost of credit. However, involuntary creditors …


Creditors And Debt Governance.Pdf, Charles K. Whitehead Feb 2011

Creditors And Debt Governance.Pdf, Charles K. Whitehead

Charles K Whitehead

This chapter from the book Research Handbook on the Economics of Corporate Law (Claire Hill & Brett McDonnell, eds.), provides an introduction to the law and economic theory relating to creditors and debt governance. The chapter begins with a look at the traditional role of debt, focusing on the impact of debt on corporate governance and, in particular, the effect of an illiquid credit market on creditors’ reliance on covenants and monitoring. It then turns to changes in the private credit market and their effect on lending structure. Greater liquidity raises its own set of agency costs. In response, loans …


Chuck And Steve's Peccadillo (Symposium: Threats To Secured Lending And Asset Securitization), James J. White Jan 2004

Chuck And Steve's Peccadillo (Symposium: Threats To Secured Lending And Asset Securitization), James J. White

Articles

Are investors in securitized receivables to be treated as the owners of an asset whose sale has taken it beyond the reach of the trustee in bankruptcy of their sellers? O are they to be treated as holders of a security interest in the transferred asset who have left behind an interest in the sellers' hands that would cause the asset to be subject to claims and interference by the sellers' grasping trustee? By adopting contrasting-arguably conflicting-statements in two subsections of a single section, the drafters of 1999 Article 9 have thrust this issue in the faces of courts and …


Death And Resurrection Of Secured Credit, James J. White Jan 2004

Death And Resurrection Of Secured Credit, James J. White

Articles

The Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978 (the Code) posed palpable threats to secured creditors. It was drafted by a commission that was at least as concerned with the rights of debtors as with the rights of creditors. It was modified and adopted by a Congress that might have been the most liberal since World War II and signed into law by President Carter at the apogee of the left's power, two years before the Reagan election that marked the rise of the right and the beginning of the left's decline. The power of the left was exerted most forcefully on …


Reorganizations And Stochastic Collateral Value, Royce De R. Barondes Apr 2002

Reorganizations And Stochastic Collateral Value, Royce De R. Barondes

Faculty Publications

Bebchuk and Fried propose using a series of auctions to implement a market-based methodology for valuing secured claims in a reorganization. This Article demonstrates their procedure can result in a secured creditor receiving more than its ex ante bargain, and that the probability distribution of possible collateral values can be relevant to fulfilling the ex ante bargain. This Article further develops and examines a refinement of the Bebchuk and Fried procedure that provides an approximate solution to the overcompensation of secured creditors. This refinement reconceptualizes collateral as comprising two components: (i) a call option on that property, exercisable at the …


Commercial Law Collides With Cyberspace: The Trouble With Perfection – Insecurity Interests In The New Corporate Asset, Xuan-Thao Nguyen Jan 2002

Commercial Law Collides With Cyberspace: The Trouble With Perfection – Insecurity Interests In The New Corporate Asset, Xuan-Thao Nguyen

Articles

The recent downturn in the economy, particularly in the e-commerce sector, reveals many e-companies heading toward bankruptcy with cyberassets, such as domain names, as their most valuable corporate assets. Lending institutions and other creditors that have extended loans to such e-companies obviously want to get their hands on these bankrupt estates. Which creditor will have priority in the new cybercollateral of domain names? The answer to creditor priority questions may depend on whether domain names are intangible property for purposes of secured transactions. If so, should security interests in domain names be perfected under the Uniform Commercial Code or under …


The Slippery Slope To Bankruptcy - Should Some Claimants Get A 'Carve-Out' From Secured Credit? No: It's A Populist Craving For A Petit Bourgeois Valhalla, James J. White Jan 1998

The Slippery Slope To Bankruptcy - Should Some Claimants Get A 'Carve-Out' From Secured Credit? No: It's A Populist Craving For A Petit Bourgeois Valhalla, James J. White

Articles

In 1996, Professor Elizabeth Warren made a proposal to the American Law Institute and the Drafting Committee for Article 9 for a “20 percent set aside” for unsecured claimants. As I understand it, her proposal would amend Section 9-301 of Article 9 (the section that now implicitly subordinates a lien creditor to a prior perfected secured creditor).


Brief Incursion Into Bankruptcy And The Enforcement Of Creditor's Rights In Brazil, Antonio Mendes Jan 1995

Brief Incursion Into Bankruptcy And The Enforcement Of Creditor's Rights In Brazil, Antonio Mendes

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

This article is an overview of bankruptcy law and concerns in Brazil, as well as a exploration of what rights creditors have in bankruptcy.


Reforming Article 9 Priorities In Light Of Old Ignorance And New Filing Rules (Symposium: 'Managing The Paper Trail': Evaluating And Reforming The Article 9 Filing System), James J. White Jan 1995

Reforming Article 9 Priorities In Light Of Old Ignorance And New Filing Rules (Symposium: 'Managing The Paper Trail': Evaluating And Reforming The Article 9 Filing System), James J. White

Articles

The other papers in this Symposium demonstrate that we have the technical capacity to build a filing system that will exceed the expectations of Grant Gilmore in every dimension.1 With more thought about what is put into the system and more clever software to get it out, the most sophisticated system possible under current technology will store and produce enough information about a debtor to give the ACLU a fright. All of the issues on improving the filing system are important, but I do not concern myself with any of them directly. I am here discuss a different question. In …


Article 5: Highlights Of The Proposed Revision, James J. White Jan 1994

Article 5: Highlights Of The Proposed Revision, James J. White

Other Publications

I. The Current Status of Article 5: Drafting, Approval and Promulgation--The Most Significant Changes or Clarifications -- II. The Most Contentious Issues in the Revision of Article 5 -- III. More Subtle Questions About Revised Article 5


Work And Play In Revising Article 9 (Symposium On The Revision Of Article 9 Of The Uniform Commercial Code), James J. White Jan 1994

Work And Play In Revising Article 9 (Symposium On The Revision Of Article 9 Of The Uniform Commercial Code), James J. White

Articles

For Professors Harris and Mooney the time has come to distinguish between work and play. Debating whether security is efficient is play. Revising Article 9 is work. Even Professor Schwartz does not argue for the abolition of Article 9; he merely reiterates the "puzzle" of secured credit and argues in his playful fashion that security might not be efficient.' Were it not for the fact that this debate might give us some insights about certain priority rules (such as those having to do with purchase money), it would be pure intellectual masturbation, a game with no purpose other than to …


Preference Conundrums, James J. White, Daniel Israel Jan 1993

Preference Conundrums, James J. White, Daniel Israel

Articles

Every law teacher and many law students and practitioners understand the intellectual sport to be found in Section 547 on preference law. Because the preference rules are so intricate, rigorously logical-but really not logical-they command more than their fair attention, not only in law school but also in continuing legal education and even in the courts. Our purpose in this article is not to answer any of the difficult questions or to give a global explanation of preference law. Rather it is to confront a few of the conundrums in Section 547 and to follow the paths of those conundrums …


Revising Article 9 To Reduce Wasteful Litigation, James J. White Jan 1993

Revising Article 9 To Reduce Wasteful Litigation, James J. White

Articles

For reasons that are unclear to me, the committees reviewing the articles of the Uniform Commercial Code and drafting revisions are congenitally conservative. Perhaps these committees take their charge too seriously, namely, to revise, not to revolutionize. Perhaps their intimate knowledge of the subject matter exaggerates the importance of each section and consequently magnifies the apparent size of every change. In any case, my own experience with two such committees tells me that the members quickly become focused on revisions and amendments that any outsider would describe as modest. To the extent that the revision of any of the articles …


Efficiency Justifications For Personal Property Security, James J. White Jan 1984

Efficiency Justifications For Personal Property Security, James J. White

Articles

In February of 1983 Pan American World Airways issued 100 million dollars of convertible secured notes. As security for these notes it put up three Boeing 747 SP aircraft, two 747-100 aircraft, and one McDonnell Douglas DC10-30. The appraised value of these aircraft was 157 million dollars. To the extent possible under the law, Pan American made these aircraft subject to the claims of the owners of the new notes. On default, the note holders would have the first claim on these aircraft, would have the right to repossess them outside of bankruptcy, and would have the right to the …


Standards For Insecurity Acceleration Under Section 1-208 Of The Uniform Commercial Code: A Proposal For Reform, Darlene M. Nowak Apr 1980

Standards For Insecurity Acceleration Under Section 1-208 Of The Uniform Commercial Code: A Proposal For Reform, Darlene M. Nowak

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This article examines in Part I how insecurity clauses function under the common law and the U.C.C .. Part II discusses the areas of controversy under section 1-208, the definition of good faith, the need for notice to the debtor, and the debtor's burden of proof. The article will evaluate the need for substantive reform in each area of controversy. A two-tier test of the creditor's insecurity is proposed wherein although the creditor has no responsibility to check the truth of his information, he may accelerate only if the information is true and is such as to make a reasonable …


The Abolition Of Self-Help Repossession: The Poor Pay Even More, James J. White Jan 1973

The Abolition Of Self-Help Repossession: The Poor Pay Even More, James J. White

Articles

In this paper I propose to identify possible ways in which a court could uphold the constitutionality of section 9-503 without an explicit rejection of Fuentes v. Shevin. It is my thesis that Fuentes v. Shevin is probably an undesirable outcome, and that the application of the same doctrine to self-help repossession is certainly undesirable and would constitute due process gone berserk. My arguments will not be novel; each has been suggested by the courts that have considered this matter, or by the briefs of the lawyers who have argued these cases. I cannot even claim to have collected the …


The Partially Secured Creditor Under Chapter Xiii Of The Bankruptcy Act, Wayne C. Dabb Jr. May 1970

The Partially Secured Creditor Under Chapter Xiii Of The Bankruptcy Act, Wayne C. Dabb Jr.

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Under current bankruptcy law, a partially secured creditor can force a struggling debtor into straight bankruptcy despite the debtor's voluntary attempt to rescue himself from insolvency under a Chapter XIII wage earner plan. Since the partially secured creditor has a security interest in the debtor's personal property, though it may be one of only negligible value, he is generally treated under Chapter XIII as a wholly secured creditor. If the partially secured creditor is affected by the wage earner plan, his assent to it is required before the court can confirm the plan. He may therefore, by his single dissent, …


Choice Of Law In Secured Personal Property Transactions: The Impact Of Article 9 Of The Uniform Commercial Code, Russell J. Weintraub Mar 1970

Choice Of Law In Secured Personal Property Transactions: The Impact Of Article 9 Of The Uniform Commercial Code, Russell J. Weintraub

Michigan Law Review

It is likely that, in view of the adoption in forty-nine states of the Uniform Commercial Code (Code), particularly of article 9 dealing with secured transactions, the incidence of interstate conflict-of- laws problems concerning commercial transactions in personal property will be greatly reduced. The reason for this anticipated reduction is that the Code creates uniformity in the applicable law governing the rights and duties both between the secured creditor and the debtor and between the secured creditor and third parties who challenge the secured creditor's right to enjoy his security interest.


Representing The Low Income Consumer In Repossessions, Resales And Deficiency Judgment Cases, James J. White Jan 1970

Representing The Low Income Consumer In Repossessions, Resales And Deficiency Judgment Cases, James J. White

Articles

The goal of this article is to lend a helping hand to the debtor's lawyer in his job of defending deficiency judgment suits brought following the repossession and resale of a debtor's encumbered personal property. Although some of the following discussion is relevant to the defense of any creditor's suit, and some applies to representation of the debtor prior to repossession or resale, the focal point of the discussion is the low-income consumer who has lost his automobile, television or some other "hard good" and has become a defendant in a suit brought by his secured creditor for a deficiency …


Interest On Claims In Receivership Proceedings, Ralph E. Clark Nov 1920

Interest On Claims In Receivership Proceedings, Ralph E. Clark

Michigan Law Review

Outside the cases of receivership, the Supreme Court of the United States has said: "We reach the conclusion that whatever may have been the English and early American rule, the tendency in Virginia as elsewhere in this country, is to allow interest on contracts to pay money from the date that the debt becomes due."'


Foreign Voluntary Assignments For The Benefit Of Creditors, Edson R. Sunderland Jan 1903

Foreign Voluntary Assignments For The Benefit Of Creditors, Edson R. Sunderland

Articles

AlI laws concerning property rights are based upon the broad - doctrine that every person who owns property may dispose of the same as he sees fit. The right of disposal of property is inseparably united to the right of property itself, and indeed is an essential element of the concept of property. It might even serve as a definition of property, viewing property as that which one may dispose of,-a definition too general, it is true, for practical purposes, but undoubtedly a correct and valuable metaphysical theorem