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Full-Text Articles in Law

Bitproperty And Commercial Credit, Christopher K. Odinet Dec 2016

Bitproperty And Commercial Credit, Christopher K. Odinet

Christopher K. Odinet

In the past several years the growth of virtual property in today’s economy has been explosive. The everyday use of virtual assets ranging from Twitter and Facebook to YouTube and virtual world accounts is nearly absolute. Indeed, by one account Americans check social media over 17 times per day. Further, a growing number of savvy virtual entrepreneurs are reporting incomes in the six and seven figure range, derived solely from their online businesses. Nevertheless, although the commercial world has come to embrace these newfound markets, commercial law has done a poor job of keeping up. Scholars have argued that laws …


The Hierarchy Of Priority, Paul Wangerin Apr 2016

The Hierarchy Of Priority, Paul Wangerin

Paul Wangerin

The analysis in this article suggests that there is a hierarchy of priorities in Article 9 of the UCC and that this hierarchy is relatively simple to describe. The analysis here describes this hierarchy by engaging in a two-part analysis. Part I suggests that the rules for priorities in Article 9 come out of the interaction of a number of variables, variables that are well-known to everybody who is familiar with Article 9. Part II suggests that the variables described in Part I allow us to put all of the important rules about priorities into a simple chart that shows …


The Hierarchy Of Priority, Paul Wangerin Apr 2016

The Hierarchy Of Priority, Paul Wangerin

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

The analysis in this article suggests that there is a hierarchy of priorities in Article 9 of the UCC and that this hierarchy is relatively simple to describe. The analysis here describes this hierarchy by engaging in a two-part analysis. Part I suggests that the rules for priorities in Article 9 come out of the interaction of a number of variables, variables that are well-known to everybody who is familiar with Article 9. Part II suggests that the variables described in Part I allow us to put all of the important rules about priorities into a simple chart that shows …


Bringing Continuity To Cryptocurrency: Commercial Law As A Guide To The Asset Categorization Of Bitcoin, Evan Hewitt Mar 2016

Bringing Continuity To Cryptocurrency: Commercial Law As A Guide To The Asset Categorization Of Bitcoin, Evan Hewitt

Seattle University Law Review

This Note will undertake to analyze bitcoin under the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) and the Internal Revenue Code (IRC)—two important sources of commercial law—to see whether any existing asset categories adequately protect bitcoin’s commercial viability. This Note will demonstrate that although commercial law dictates that bitcoin should—nay must—be regulated as a currency in order to sustain its existence, the very definition of currency seems to preclude that from happening. Therefore, this Note will recommend that we experiment with a new type of asset that receives currency-like treatment, specifically designed for cryptocurrencies, under which bitcoin can be categorized in order to …


A Sea Change In Creditor Priorities, Kristen Van De Biezenbos Apr 2015

A Sea Change In Creditor Priorities, Kristen Van De Biezenbos

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Article argues that the operation of maritime law undermines a primary justification for creditor priorities under U.S. law. Under current law, when a debtor becomes insolvent, its secured creditors will be paid the full amount of their debt to the extent of their security interest, even if that leaves nothing to pay unsecured creditors. This is controversial with respect to involuntary unsecured creditors, particularly those with tort claims against the debtor. Defenders of this scheme of priorities have argued that allowing greater priority to involuntary creditors would hinder the availability or increase the cost of credit. However, involuntary creditors …


The Value Of Public-Notice Filing Under Uniform Commercial Code Article 9: A Comparison With The German Legal System Of Securities In Personal Property, Jens Hausmann Dr. Oct 2014

The Value Of Public-Notice Filing Under Uniform Commercial Code Article 9: A Comparison With The German Legal System Of Securities In Personal Property, Jens Hausmann Dr.

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Some Economic Insights Into Application Of Payments Doctrine: Walker-Thomas Revisited, James W. Bowers Jan 2014

Some Economic Insights Into Application Of Payments Doctrine: Walker-Thomas Revisited, James W. Bowers

Chicago-Kent Law Review

Contractual relations frequently involve multiple transactions, which might give rise either to a single aggregate debt, or else to multiple differing obligations. This conflict creates the application of payments problem. Unsurprisingly, the common law developed long-standing rules for the application of partial payments to multiple, but remedially distinguishable debts. The subject is made timely again by the recent enactments of the 1999 revision of Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code. Article 9 instructs courts how to solve the application of payments problem when some partial payments might satisfy “purchase money” security interests. The enactments repealed the common law application …


The Abcs Of The Ucc: Article 9, Secured Transactions, Russell Hakes Sep 2013

The Abcs Of The Ucc: Article 9, Secured Transactions, Russell Hakes

Russell A. Hakes

No abstract provided.


Rebalancing Public And Private In The Law Of Mortgage Transfer, John P. Hunt Feb 2013

Rebalancing Public And Private In The Law Of Mortgage Transfer, John P. Hunt

John P Hunt

The law governing the United States’ $13 trillion mortgage market is broken. Courts and legislatures around the country continue to struggle with the fallout from the effort to build a 21st century global market in mortgages on a fragmented, arguably archaic legal foundation. These authorities’ struggles stem in large part from the lack of clarity about the legal requirements for mortgage transfer, the key process for contemporary mortgage finance.

We demonstrate two respects in which American mortgage transfer law is unclear and offer suggestions for fixing it. Revisions to the Uniform Commercial Code adopted around the turn of the century …


Testing The Reach Of Ucc Article 9: The Question Of Tax Credit Collateral In Secured Transactions, Christopher K. Odinet Oct 2012

Testing The Reach Of Ucc Article 9: The Question Of Tax Credit Collateral In Secured Transactions, Christopher K. Odinet

Faculty Scholarship

This Article addresses the open question related to the use of tax credits as a source of secured capital. It first lays a foundation by analyzing the theoretical underpinnings of the UCC’s category for general intangibles and shows how classification as a general intangible can and should comport with the legal substance of tax credits as a form of secured financing. The work also investigates the theory and nature that forms the basis of tax credits and their economic value. Next, the Article provides an overview of the relatively meager case law on tax credit financing and explains how courts …


A Fundamental Flaw With Uncitral's Approach To Cross-Border Secured Transactions: The Failure To Address Creditor Due Diligence Issues, John J. Chung Jan 2012

A Fundamental Flaw With Uncitral's Approach To Cross-Border Secured Transactions: The Failure To Address Creditor Due Diligence Issues, John J. Chung

Law Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Testing The Reach Of Ucc Article 9: The Question Of Tax Credit Collateral In Secured Transactions, Christopher K. Odinet Dec 2011

Testing The Reach Of Ucc Article 9: The Question Of Tax Credit Collateral In Secured Transactions, Christopher K. Odinet

Christopher K. Odinet

This Article addresses the open question related to the use of tax credits as a source of secured capital. It first lays a foundation by analyzing the theoretical underpinnings of the UCC’s category for general intangibles and shows how classification as a general intangible can and should comport with the legal substance of tax credits as a form of secured financing. The work also investigates the theory and nature that forms the basis of tax credits and their economic value. Next, the Article provides an overview of the relatively meager case law on tax credit financing and explains how courts …


Sales Of Personal Property As Secured Transactions Under Article 9 Of The Uniform Commercial Code, D. Fenton Adams Oct 2008

Sales Of Personal Property As Secured Transactions Under Article 9 Of The Uniform Commercial Code, D. Fenton Adams

University of Arkansas at Little Rock Law Review

The principal focus of Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) has always dealt with transactions intended by the parties to create security interests in personal property. In 1998, the sponsors of the UCC approved a sweeping revision of Article 9; however, the main focus of the Article was not changed. § 9-109(a)(1) of revised Article 9 provides: "[e]xcept as otherwise provided in subsection (c) and (d), this Article applies to (1) a transaction, regardless of its form, that creates a security interest in personal property or fixtures by contract," and § 1-201(37) of the Code, although modified to …


Collateralizing Intellectual Property, Xuan-Thao Nguyen Jan 2007

Collateralizing Intellectual Property, Xuan-Thao Nguyen

Articles

This Article identifies and critiques the collateralization of intellectual property, revealing the complexity of intersecting secured transaction law, namely Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code, and doctrinal intellectual property laws such as patent law, copyright law, and trademark law. The inquiry challenges the silence surrounding the pervasive use of intellectual property as collateral in secured financing and suggests changes to the existing framework on secured financing law.

The Article proceeds as follows: Part II discusses the normative intellectual property rights for patents, copyrights, and trademarks and how such rights are utilized as corporate assets. Part III describes different forms …


Risks And Realities Of Mezzanine Loans, Andrew R. Berman Jan 2007

Risks And Realities Of Mezzanine Loans, Andrew R. Berman

Articles & Chapters

The last decade has witnessed an astounding increase in new real estate financing techniques, including mezzanine loans. These new financings are not directly secured by real estate and do not even directly involve land. In the real estate industry, mezzanine financing typically refers to a loan secured principally by the borrower's equity in other entities. Both economically and legally, the value of the mezzanine borrower's collateral derives solely from its indirect ownership of the underlying property.

This article provides a detailed description of the legal structure of mezzanine loans. In addition, this article evaluates the hazards, legal risks and uncertainties …


What Makes Asset Securitization "Inefficient"?, Kenji Yamazaki May 2005

What Makes Asset Securitization "Inefficient"?, Kenji Yamazaki

ExpressO

Despite the damage caused by the recent Enron scandal , the asset securitization market has been vibrant and has become a popular financing alternative . A number of academics emphasize its merits and suggest that it is a more favorable way of financing, and Congress’s proposal to make sales of asset in securitization immune from characterization as secured transactions under the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 2001 (the “Reform Act”) almost materialized when the Enron scandal hit the scene. Conversely, there have been accusations that securitization is not a legitimate way of financing because, for example, it fosters fraudulent transactions.

Why …


Chuck And Steve's Peccadillo (Symposium: Threats To Secured Lending And Asset Securitization), James J. White Jan 2004

Chuck And Steve's Peccadillo (Symposium: Threats To Secured Lending And Asset Securitization), James J. White

Articles

Are investors in securitized receivables to be treated as the owners of an asset whose sale has taken it beyond the reach of the trustee in bankruptcy of their sellers? O are they to be treated as holders of a security interest in the transferred asset who have left behind an interest in the sellers' hands that would cause the asset to be subject to claims and interference by the sellers' grasping trustee? By adopting contrasting-arguably conflicting-statements in two subsections of a single section, the drafters of 1999 Article 9 have thrust this issue in the faces of courts and …


Are Security Deposits "Security Interests"? The Proper Scope Of Article 9 And Statutory Interpretation In Consumer Class Actions, R. Wilson Freyermuth Jan 2003

Are Security Deposits "Security Interests"? The Proper Scope Of Article 9 And Statutory Interpretation In Consumer Class Actions, R. Wilson Freyermuth

Faculty Publications

Assume that Jane Doe leases an automobile from a General Motors dealer, pursuant to a lease contract under which Jane makes a cash security deposit. Under the lease, the lessor agrees to “refund” the deposit at the conclusion of the lease term in the event that Jane fully performs her obligations under the lease. Is this transaction governed by Article 9--i.e., has the lessor taken a “security interest” in Jane's cash deposit to secure Jane's obligations under the lease agreement?


Commercial Law Collides With Cyberspace: The Trouble With Perfection – Insecurity Interests In The New Corporate Asset, Xuan-Thao Nguyen Jan 2002

Commercial Law Collides With Cyberspace: The Trouble With Perfection – Insecurity Interests In The New Corporate Asset, Xuan-Thao Nguyen

Articles

The recent downturn in the economy, particularly in the e-commerce sector, reveals many e-companies heading toward bankruptcy with cyberassets, such as domain names, as their most valuable corporate assets. Lending institutions and other creditors that have extended loans to such e-companies obviously want to get their hands on these bankrupt estates. Which creditor will have priority in the new cybercollateral of domain names? The answer to creditor priority questions may depend on whether domain names are intangible property for purposes of secured transactions. If so, should security interests in domain names be perfected under the Uniform Commercial Code or under …


A Tale Of Two Creditors Under The Desultory Lien Creditor And Future Advances Provisions Of Revised Article 9, Natalie Cox Mar 2001

A Tale Of Two Creditors Under The Desultory Lien Creditor And Future Advances Provisions Of Revised Article 9, Natalie Cox

Nevada Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Immovable Object Versus The Irresistable Force: Rethinking The Relationship Between Secured Credit And Bankruptcy Policy, Lawrence Ponoroff, F. Stephen Knippenberg Jun 1997

The Immovable Object Versus The Irresistable Force: Rethinking The Relationship Between Secured Credit And Bankruptcy Policy, Lawrence Ponoroff, F. Stephen Knippenberg

Michigan Law Review

The last leaf in O. Henry's classic short story was hanging by a delicate thread, but it never fell. It never fell, of course, because it wasn't real; Old Behrman had painted it (and caught pneumonia for his trouble) in order to give Johnsy the will to live. The Supreme Court's decision in Dewsnup v. Timm is also hanging by a thread, following a barrage of scholarly criticism and more than four years of limiting case law and legislative incursions on the case's core conceptual rationale. But the holding in Dewsnup, unlike the last leaf, is very real. It has …


Reforming Article 9 Priorities In Light Of Old Ignorance And New Filing Rules (Symposium: 'Managing The Paper Trail': Evaluating And Reforming The Article 9 Filing System), James J. White Jan 1995

Reforming Article 9 Priorities In Light Of Old Ignorance And New Filing Rules (Symposium: 'Managing The Paper Trail': Evaluating And Reforming The Article 9 Filing System), James J. White

Articles

The other papers in this Symposium demonstrate that we have the technical capacity to build a filing system that will exceed the expectations of Grant Gilmore in every dimension.1 With more thought about what is put into the system and more clever software to get it out, the most sophisticated system possible under current technology will store and produce enough information about a debtor to give the ACLU a fright. All of the issues on improving the filing system are important, but I do not concern myself with any of them directly. I am here discuss a different question. In …


They Came From "Beyond The Pale": Security Interests In Tort Claims, Harold R. Weinberg Jan 1995

They Came From "Beyond The Pale": Security Interests In Tort Claims, Harold R. Weinberg

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

"[B]eyond the pale" is how the drafters of Article Nine of the Uniform Commercial Code regarded tort claims. They considered tort claims to be noncommercial assets inappropriate for inclusion as collateral within the scope of a commercial financing statute. Tort claims may not be out-of-bounds much longer. The Article Nine Study Committee of the Permanent Editorial Board for the Uniform Commercial Code recommends expansion of the Article's scope to encompass security interests in claims arising out of tort. This recommendation is significant. Tort causes of action comprise an ever-expanding universe of civil wrongs for which courts afford redress. The owners …


A Quest For Justice In The Conversion Of Security Interests, Russell A. Hakes Jan 1994

A Quest For Justice In The Conversion Of Security Interests, Russell A. Hakes

Kentucky Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Work And Play In Revising Article 9 (Symposium On The Revision Of Article 9 Of The Uniform Commercial Code), James J. White Jan 1994

Work And Play In Revising Article 9 (Symposium On The Revision Of Article 9 Of The Uniform Commercial Code), James J. White

Articles

For Professors Harris and Mooney the time has come to distinguish between work and play. Debating whether security is efficient is play. Revising Article 9 is work. Even Professor Schwartz does not argue for the abolition of Article 9; he merely reiterates the "puzzle" of secured credit and argues in his playful fashion that security might not be efficient.' Were it not for the fact that this debate might give us some insights about certain priority rules (such as those having to do with purchase money), it would be pure intellectual masturbation, a game with no purpose other than to …


Legislative Process And Commercial Law: Lessons From The Copyright Act Of 1976 And The Uniform Commercial Code, Harold R. Weinberg, William J. Woodward Jr. Feb 1993

Legislative Process And Commercial Law: Lessons From The Copyright Act Of 1976 And The Uniform Commercial Code, Harold R. Weinberg, William J. Woodward Jr.

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Overlap and conflict are inevitable in any legal system in which a federal government and state governments both have authority to enact laws. In our federal system, the Constitution's Supremacy Clause identifies federal law as preeminent in case of conflict. When conflict develops and litigation is required to determine whether state or federal law controls the issue at hand, our system analyzes the problem using the term preemption as a basis for analysis.

This Article explores the federal legislative process that precedes judicial preemption decisions. By studying the legislative process for its sensitivity to preemption issues, possible ways to modify …


Preference Conundrums, James J. White, Daniel Israel Jan 1993

Preference Conundrums, James J. White, Daniel Israel

Articles

Every law teacher and many law students and practitioners understand the intellectual sport to be found in Section 547 on preference law. Because the preference rules are so intricate, rigorously logical-but really not logical-they command more than their fair attention, not only in law school but also in continuing legal education and even in the courts. Our purpose in this article is not to answer any of the difficult questions or to give a global explanation of preference law. Rather it is to confront a few of the conundrums in Section 547 and to follow the paths of those conundrums …


Revising Article 9 To Reduce Wasteful Litigation, James J. White Jan 1993

Revising Article 9 To Reduce Wasteful Litigation, James J. White

Articles

For reasons that are unclear to me, the committees reviewing the articles of the Uniform Commercial Code and drafting revisions are congenitally conservative. Perhaps these committees take their charge too seriously, namely, to revise, not to revolutionize. Perhaps their intimate knowledge of the subject matter exaggerates the importance of each section and consequently magnifies the apparent size of every change. In any case, my own experience with two such committees tells me that the members quickly become focused on revisions and amendments that any outsider would describe as modest. To the extent that the revision of any of the articles …


Clear Title For Farm Products: Congress And The Arkansas Legislature Attempt To Solve A Troublesome Problem, D. Fenton Adams Oct 1987

Clear Title For Farm Products: Congress And The Arkansas Legislature Attempt To Solve A Troublesome Problem, D. Fenton Adams

University of Arkansas at Little Rock Law Review

No abstract provided.


Efficiency Justifications For Personal Property Security, James J. White Jan 1984

Efficiency Justifications For Personal Property Security, James J. White

Articles

In February of 1983 Pan American World Airways issued 100 million dollars of convertible secured notes. As security for these notes it put up three Boeing 747 SP aircraft, two 747-100 aircraft, and one McDonnell Douglas DC10-30. The appraised value of these aircraft was 157 million dollars. To the extent possible under the law, Pan American made these aircraft subject to the claims of the owners of the new notes. On default, the note holders would have the first claim on these aircraft, would have the right to repossess them outside of bankruptcy, and would have the right to the …