# Law Commons™

Science and Technology Law

2022

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Articles 1 - 8 of 8

## Full-Text Articles in Law

An End-To-End Pipeline From Law Text To Logical Formulas, Aarne Ranta, Inari Listenmaa, Jerrold Soh, Meng Weng (Huang Mingrong) Wong Dec 2022

#### An End-To-End Pipeline From Law Text To Logical Formulas, Aarne Ranta, Inari Listenmaa, Jerrold Soh, Meng Weng (Huang Mingrong) Wong

##### Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

We propose a pipeline for converting natural English law texts into logical formulas via a series of structural representations. Text texts are first parsed using a formal grammar derived from light-weight annotations. An intermediate representation called assembly logic is then used for logical interpretation and supports translations to different back-end logics and visualisations. The approach, while rule-based and explainable, is also robust: it can deliver useful results from day one, but allows subsequent refinements and variations.

User Guided Abductive Proof Generation For Answer Set Programming Queries, Avishkar Mahajan, Martin Strecker, Meng Weng (Huang Mingrong) Wong Sep 2022

#### User Guided Abductive Proof Generation For Answer Set Programming Queries, Avishkar Mahajan, Martin Strecker, Meng Weng (Huang Mingrong) Wong

##### Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

We present a method for generating possible proofs of a query with respect to a given Answer Set Programming (ASP) rule set using an abductive process where the space of abducibles is automatically constructed just from the input rules alone. Given a (possibly empty) set of user provided facts, our method infers any additional facts that may be needed for the entailment of a query and then outputs these extra facts, without the user needing to explicitly specify the space of all abducibles. We also present a method to generate a set of directed edges corresponding to the justification graph …

Blockchain Land Transfers: Technology, Promises, And Perils, Vincent Ooi, Kian Peng Soh, Jerrold Soh Jul 2022

#### Blockchain Land Transfers: Technology, Promises, And Perils, Vincent Ooi, Kian Peng Soh, Jerrold Soh

##### Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

The blockchain’s apparent immutability has attracted significant interest on whether it may be relied on for registering and transferring land. Proponents of blockchain-based land systems point toward data security, automated transacting, and improved accessibility as key benefits; critics raise concerns over structural vulnerabilities, such as majority attacks, and inconsistencies with existing legal frameworks. The literature, however, tends to conceptualise blockchain as one monolithic data structure invariably built on the same mechanisms powering Bitcoin. This paper seeks to situate the debate on a closer understanding of the range of blockchain implementations possible. To this end, we provide a detailed technological survey …

#### Gauging The Acceptance Of Contact Tracing Technology: An Empirical Study Of Singapore Residents’ Concerns With Sharing Their Information And Willingness To Trust, Ee-Ing Ong, Wee Ling Loo

##### Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, governments began implementing various forms of contact tracing technology. Singapore’s implementation of its contact tracing technology, TraceTogether, however, was met with significant concern by its population, with regard to privacy and data security. This concern did not fit with the general perception that Singaporeans have a high level of trust in its government. We explore this disconnect, using responses to our survey (conducted pre-COVID-19) in which we asked participants about their level of concern with the government and business collecting certain categories of personal data. The results show that respondents had less concern with …

Apr 2022

#### A Framework For Understanding The Taxation Of Digital Tokens, Vincent Ooi

##### Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

As a relatively new area, the taxation of digital tokens can give rise to several dangerous misconceptions. This article lays out five propositions to counter these misconceptions: 1) digital tokens are not a single monolithic asset class attracting uniform tax treatment; 2) the common trichotomous division of digital tokens into payment, utility and security tokens is derived from securities regulation and should not be blindly adopted into tax law; 3) the three classes are not mutually exclusive and hybrid tokens may exist; 4) the fact that an asset is a digital token rarely changes its tax treatment by itself, which …

#### Crossing The Rubicon: Evaluating The Use Of Artificial Intelligence In The Law And Singapore Courts, Ming En Tor

##### Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

In recent years, Artificial Intelligence (“AI”) has challenged many fundamental assumptions of how organisations and industries should operate. The Courts, traditionally seen as a hallowed ground graced by the best of lawyers, still remains as unchartered territory for AI’s infiltration. Yet, there is growing evidence which suggest AI may soon cross this frontier to replace important court functions.

This paper critically assesses the use of AI in law and the courts. Part II will first examine the arguments for and against the adoption of AI in the legal profession. Thereafter, Part III will critically examine whether AI should …

Taxation Of Automation And Artificial Intelligence As A Tool Of Labour Policy, Vincent Ooi, Glendon Goh Feb 2022

#### Taxation Of Automation And Artificial Intelligence As A Tool Of Labour Policy, Vincent Ooi, Glendon Goh

##### Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Rapid developments in automation technology pose a risk of mass displacement of human labour, resulting in the need to support and retrain displaced workers (a negative externality). We propose an “automation tax” that would slow the adoption of automation technology in appropriate circumstances, giving workers and social support systems time to adapt. This could be easily implemented through changes to the existing schedular system of depreciation/ capital allowances, reducing the uncertainty of its application and implementation costs. Such a system would be flexible enough to keep up with rapid technological developments. Two main dimensions may be adjusted to produce intended …

Jan 2022

#### Contracts Formed By Software: An Approach From The Law Of Mistake, Vincent Ooi

##### Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

A ‘Contracting Problem’ arises when software is used to autonomously enter into contracts without human input. Questions arise as to how and whether there can be an expression of an objective intention to be legally bound. This article considers three leading solutions to the Contracting Problem. The ‘Mere Tools Theory’, which views software as ‘mere tools’ of communication, is too harsh as it binds users to any software malfunction. The Agency Approach, which treats software as Electronic Agents, capable of contracting on behalf of their users, is untenable as it ascribes unrealistic characteristics to software. The article submits that the …