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Science and Technology Law

1996

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Articles 1 - 30 of 67

Full-Text Articles in Law

Revitalizing Environmental Federalism, Daniel C. Esty Dec 1996

Revitalizing Environmental Federalism, Daniel C. Esty

Michigan Law Review

Politicians from Speaker Newt Gingrich to President Bill Clinton, cheered on by academics such as Richard Revesz, are eagerly seeking to return authority over environmental regulation to the states. In the European Union, localist opponents of environmental decisionmaking in Brussels rally under the banner of "subsidiarity." And in debates over international trade liberalization, demands abound for the protection of "national sovereignty" in environmental regulation. All of these efforts presume that a decentralized approach to environmental policy will yield better results than more centralized programs. This presumption is misguided. While the character of some environmental concerns warrants a preference for local …


Privileged Use: Has Judge Boudin Suggested A Viable Means Of Copyright Protection For The Nonliteral Aspects Of Computer Software In Lotus Development Corp.V. Borland International , David M. Maiorana Oct 1996

Privileged Use: Has Judge Boudin Suggested A Viable Means Of Copyright Protection For The Nonliteral Aspects Of Computer Software In Lotus Development Corp.V. Borland International , David M. Maiorana

American University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Crimes In The Internet And How They Influence The Law, Rimal Kawtar Slaoui-Hamda Sep 1996

Crimes In The Internet And How They Influence The Law, Rimal Kawtar Slaoui-Hamda

Graduate Student Dissertations, Theses, Capstones, and Portfolios

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Intellectual Property Issues In Genomics, Rebecca S. Eisenberg Aug 1996

Intellectual Property Issues In Genomics, Rebecca S. Eisenberg

Articles

Controversy over intellectual property rights in the results of large-scale cDNA sequencing raises intriguing questions about the roles of the public and private sectors in genomics research, and about who stands to benefit (and who stands to lose) from the private appropriation of genomic information. While the US Patent and Trademark Office has rejected patent applications on cDNA fragments of unknown function from the National Institutes of Health, private firms have pursued three distinct strategies for exploiting unpatented cDNA sequence information: exclusive licensing, non-exclusive licensing and dedication to the public domain.


Lmo's: Treasure Chest Or Pandora's Box, Michael S. Baram Jul 1996

Lmo's: Treasure Chest Or Pandora's Box, Michael S. Baram

Faculty Scholarship

Biotechnology is beginning to trans- A form agriculture across the globe. After thousands of years of traditional plant and animal breeding, and centuries of mechanization and chemical application, genetic research has opened a Pandora's box of living modified organisms (LMOs) designed to improve the productivity and efficiency of commercial agriculture. A multitude of transgenic crops and animals is now being introduced into commerce by biotechnology companies, and b nations are puzzling out how to appropriate the benefits and manage the risks.

American biotechnology companies and agencies are the leading proponents of using LMOs. They claim that two decades of costly …


The Quest For Enabling Metaphors For Law And Lawyering In The Information Agae, Pamela Samuelson May 1996

The Quest For Enabling Metaphors For Law And Lawyering In The Information Agae, Pamela Samuelson

Michigan Law Review

A Review of James Boyle, Shamans, Software, and Spleens: Law and the Construction of the Information Society and M. Ethan Katsh, Law in a Digital World


Framing The Issues For Cameras In The Courtrooms: Redefining Judicial Dignity And Decorum, A Wayne Mackay Apr 1996

Framing The Issues For Cameras In The Courtrooms: Redefining Judicial Dignity And Decorum, A Wayne Mackay

Dalhousie Law Journal

This article examines the role of s. 2(b) of the Charter of Rights in determining the role of cameras in Canadian courtrooms. The discussions reveal that arguments in opposition to cameras are largely unfounded and in contradiction to the freedom of expression guarantee. The denial of the right is in reality based on judges' and lawyers' fear of loss of control of the courtroom environment. Cameras should only be banned from courtrooms as part of a total publication ban, and then only after a careful s. 1 analysis


Dishonoring The Honorarium Ban: Exemption For Federal Scientists , Lissa Malloy Nardini Feb 1996

Dishonoring The Honorarium Ban: Exemption For Federal Scientists , Lissa Malloy Nardini

American University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Global Technological Integration, Intellectual Property Rights, And Competition Law: Some Introductory Comments, David J. Gerber Jan 1996

Global Technological Integration, Intellectual Property Rights, And Competition Law: Some Introductory Comments, David J. Gerber

All Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Book Review, Lakshman D. Guruswamy Jan 1996

Book Review, Lakshman D. Guruswamy

Publications

No abstract provided.


Rising Temperatures: Rising Tides, Prof. Elizabeth Burleson Jan 1996

Rising Temperatures: Rising Tides, Prof. Elizabeth Burleson

Prof. Elizabeth Burleson

Transboundary environmental problems do not distinguish between political boundaries. Global warming is expected to cause thermal expansion of water and melt glaciers. Both are predicted to lead to a rise in sea level. We must enlarge our paradigms to encompass a global reality and reliance upon global participation.


Foreword: Reflections On Computer Technology And The Law, 15 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 1 (1996), George B. Trubow Jan 1996

Foreword: Reflections On Computer Technology And The Law, 15 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 1 (1996), George B. Trubow

UIC John Marshall Journal of Information Technology & Privacy Law

No abstract provided.


A Functional Approach To Information Upon The Convergence Of Communication And Information Processing, 15 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 3 (1996), Roy N. Freed Jan 1996

A Functional Approach To Information Upon The Convergence Of Communication And Information Processing, 15 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 3 (1996), Roy N. Freed

UIC John Marshall Journal of Information Technology & Privacy Law

The ways that a computer and the human brain process information are immensely similar. The legal issues that arise from similar information processors must be addressed. In addition to purporting the similarities between the computer as the information processor and the human mind as the information processor, attorneys need to stay current with developments in computer technology. New insights in the computer industry can shatter the current legal infrastructure used to solve today's computer law issues. Attorneys must constantly reexamine the rules that pertain to information as well. The practicing attorney should be aware that these new legal developments need …


The Invention And Future Of The Computer, 15 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 21 (1996), Lee Loevinger Jan 1996

The Invention And Future Of The Computer, 15 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 21 (1996), Lee Loevinger

UIC John Marshall Journal of Information Technology & Privacy Law

To fully understand the future of the computer and the computer's role in society, one must understand where the computer originated. The history of the computer is traced from the beginning of binary numeration to the life of John V. Atanasoff, the inventor of the computer. Several developments in technology are responsible for the transformation of computers into the high tech efficient and affordable technology. In review, four generations of computers exist. Atanasoff's first model and the derivatives from his work are the first generation computers. The development of the transistor by Bell Laboratories in the late 1940's led to …


Allocating The Risk Of Loss For Bank Card Fraud On The Internet, 15 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 39 (1996), Randy Gainer Jan 1996

Allocating The Risk Of Loss For Bank Card Fraud On The Internet, 15 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 39 (1996), Randy Gainer

UIC John Marshall Journal of Information Technology & Privacy Law

The Internet presents many opportunities for the user to purchase merchandise using a credit card or bank card. However, until planned security measures for the Internet are proven to be effective, a question is raised: Who will pay for the loss if a criminal diverts the bank card data used by a consumer over the Internet? Two federal statutes generally prevent banks and credit card associations from charging consumers for losses incurred by fraudulent use of bank cards. The 1970 amendment to the Federal Consumer Protection Act (FCPA) and the Electronic Funds Transfer Act of 1978 (EFTA) contain provisions that …


Copying To Compete: The Tension Between Copyright Protection & Antitrust Policy In Recent Non-Literal Computer Program Copyright Infringement Cases, 15 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 171 (1996), Mark L. Gordon Jan 1996

Copying To Compete: The Tension Between Copyright Protection & Antitrust Policy In Recent Non-Literal Computer Program Copyright Infringement Cases, 15 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 171 (1996), Mark L. Gordon

UIC John Marshall Journal of Information Technology & Privacy Law

A conflict exists between copyright law and antitrust policy. The conflict arises because pursuant to the Copyright Act, a copyright owner basically has a monopoly on the work's circulation throughout the market. Copyright protection benefits the owner and the public. Antitrust laws have the same goals. However, the antitrust laws balance these goals with competition in the market. Furthermore, computer programs complicate matters because the programs create a different problem than with other types of works. The Copyright Act states that "expression" is copyrightable and "ideas" are not. Computer programs, however, combine expression and ideas. Three types of copying are …


1996 Computers And Telecommunications Law Update New Developments: Asia-Pacific, 15 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 99 (1996), Fred Chilton, Simon Cant, Emma Moloney Jan 1996

1996 Computers And Telecommunications Law Update New Developments: Asia-Pacific, 15 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 99 (1996), Fred Chilton, Simon Cant, Emma Moloney

UIC John Marshall Journal of Information Technology & Privacy Law

Global telecommunications are developing in the Asian and Pacific countries. These foreign companies in the telecommunications markets also encounter jurisdictional problems. First, telecommunication developments and the impact of competition on Asian and Pacific countries are examined. A change occurs as the market becomes global. Since governments are privatizing telecommunication monopolies, the governments are becoming regulators of telecommunications rather than providers. Liberalization is the process of opening telecommunication markets to competition. Also, developments in both the Asian countries of Singapore, Japan, Malaysia, India, Indonesia, Philippines, and Taiwan, and the Pacific countries of New Zealand and Australia are explored. As liberalization occurs, …


It's 1996: Do You Know Where Your Cyberkids Are? Captive Audiences And Content Regulation On The Internet, 15 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 51 (1996), Dawn L. Johnson Jan 1996

It's 1996: Do You Know Where Your Cyberkids Are? Captive Audiences And Content Regulation On The Internet, 15 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 51 (1996), Dawn L. Johnson

UIC John Marshall Journal of Information Technology & Privacy Law

The age of the Internet has allowed users of all ages to access an infinite number of subjects. However, some of those Internet sites may consist of subjects that may not be suitable for children under eighteen based on the content of those sites. The content may include sexually explicit and violent text and images. In 1996, the Communications Decency Act (hereinafter CDA) was created to help protect children from "obscene" or "indecent" subject matter by imposing criminal liability for violations. However, the American Civil Liberties Union has obtained a preliminary injunction against enforcing the CDA because of the potentially …


The Protection Of Information Technology In A Culturally Diverse Marketplace, 15 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. Law 129 (1996), Doris E. Long Jan 1996

The Protection Of Information Technology In A Culturally Diverse Marketplace, 15 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. Law 129 (1996), Doris E. Long

UIC John Marshall Journal of Information Technology & Privacy Law

As we approach the year 2001, one of the critical issues facing the international community is the level and scope of protection to be afforded technology and technology based products. Technology and property laws share a unique relationship. Intellectual property laws serve as a potential source for technology protection. Technology if subject to protection is generally protectable under a country's patent or copyright for compact disc recordings. In addition to the forms of intellectual property, many nations also provide protection for the "rights neighboring" to traditional intellectual property rights. The absence of a uniform definition for traditional forms of intellectual …


Electronic Contracting: Legal Issues, 14 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 211 (1996), Raymond T. Nimmer Jan 1996

Electronic Contracting: Legal Issues, 14 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 211 (1996), Raymond T. Nimmer

UIC John Marshall Journal of Information Technology & Privacy Law

In discussing the legal electronic contracting issues, the author gives an in-depth analysis of current UCC provisions in the context of electronic contracting. The author further gives recommendations to the UCC amendments so that the UCC would be adequate to meet the technological challenges of the future. The analysis first addresses the subject matter of electronic contracting before turning to the methods of initiating or responding to electronic messages. Then, there is the electronic data interchange which allows parties to exchange data for direct processing by parties information systems. The technology may have made exchange of data more efficient, but …


Foreword: Commercial Transactions On The Global Information Infrastructure, 14 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 209 (1996), Brian G. Gilpin Jan 1996

Foreword: Commercial Transactions On The Global Information Infrastructure, 14 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 209 (1996), Brian G. Gilpin

UIC John Marshall Journal of Information Technology & Privacy Law

No abstract provided.


The High Price Of A Cashless Society: Exchanging Privacy Rights For Digital Cash, 14 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 303 (1996), Catherine M. Downey Jan 1996

The High Price Of A Cashless Society: Exchanging Privacy Rights For Digital Cash, 14 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 303 (1996), Catherine M. Downey

UIC John Marshall Journal of Information Technology & Privacy Law

The Internet has lured both shoppers and business people to its online economy. When a user wants to purchase an item from a merchant, he simply sends the bank a special electronic message, encoded with a unique digital signature requesting the money. The bank debits the user’s account and sends “e-cash” to the users computer via the Internet. After receiving the e-cash, the user’s computer transmits it to the merchant’s computer, which verifies the authenticity of the “e-cash” with the bank and credits it to the merchant’s account. This move to a cashless society stretches the parameters of current legislation …


Patent Reexamination And The Pto: Compton's Patent Invalidated At The Commissioner's Request, 14 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 379 (1996), Terri Suzette Hughes Jan 1996

Patent Reexamination And The Pto: Compton's Patent Invalidated At The Commissioner's Request, 14 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 379 (1996), Terri Suzette Hughes

UIC John Marshall Journal of Information Technology & Privacy Law

In 1985, two executives at Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. introduced the idea of a multimedia search system that interfaxed textual and graphical entry paths in a single database. At that time, Encyclopedia Britannica was not interested in publishing its own volumes of encyclopedias in an electronic format. Instead, they decided to make Compton’s Encyclopedia the basis of the proposed multimedia encyclopedia. On August 31, 1993, the PTO issued U.S. patent 5,241,671 for a multimedia search system to fourteen inventors who had previously assigned all their patent rights of the claimed invention to Encyclopedia Britannica. Questions arose about the validity of the …


Don't Shoot The Messenger: Protecting Speech On Editorially Controlled Bulletin Board Services By Applying Sullivan Malice, 14 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 347 (1996), Iris Ferosie Jan 1996

Don't Shoot The Messenger: Protecting Speech On Editorially Controlled Bulletin Board Services By Applying Sullivan Malice, 14 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 347 (1996), Iris Ferosie

UIC John Marshall Journal of Information Technology & Privacy Law

Courts must determine the standard of liability for Internet Service Providers (ISPs) that proactively edit their Bulletin Board Systems (BBSs) for defamatory content. ISPs are computer services that provide data processing and communication services to customers - individual computer users who subscribe to the ISP's service. BBSs are computer programs that act like a traditional bulletin board. They are centrally located on the ISP's computers, and people who subscribe to the ISP can access that bulletin board to publish (or "post") messages on the board, and read and respond to other people's messages. Some ISPs allow people to post messages …


Commerce On The Net: Surfing Through Cyberspace Without Getting Wet, 14 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 247 (1996), Diana J. P. Mckenzie Jan 1996

Commerce On The Net: Surfing Through Cyberspace Without Getting Wet, 14 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 247 (1996), Diana J. P. Mckenzie

UIC John Marshall Journal of Information Technology & Privacy Law

It's business as usual: parties transacting business with paper, pens, phone calls, faxes, etc. With the convenience of computers in the market places, however, the business landscape is no longer the same: no more paper or less face-to-face contacts. Cyberspace provides an environment that obliterate physical time and space, but it also brings along risk fertile to create liabilities. In this article, the author attempts to address areas such as advertising; selling of money or goods; direct distributing of digitized products; contracting; intellectual property rights; common law torts and right to privacy on the Internet. At the end, the author …


Computer Legislation: Israel's New Codified Approach, 14 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 461 (1996), Miguel Deutch Jan 1996

Computer Legislation: Israel's New Codified Approach, 14 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 461 (1996), Miguel Deutch

UIC John Marshall Journal of Information Technology & Privacy Law

This article presents a description and evaluation of the 1995 Israeli Computer Law including the structure and scope, the protection of computers and programs, computer crimes, computer-assisted crimes, torts, evidence rules regarding the admissibility of computer print-outs and business records, and search and seizure laws.


The Constitutionality Of Congressional Efforts To Ban Computer-Generated Child Pornography: A First Amendment Assessment Of S. 1237, 14 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 483 (1996), Ronald W. Adelman Jan 1996

The Constitutionality Of Congressional Efforts To Ban Computer-Generated Child Pornography: A First Amendment Assessment Of S. 1237, 14 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 483 (1996), Ronald W. Adelman

UIC John Marshall Journal of Information Technology & Privacy Law

This article addressed the constitutionality of the Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1995 (Hatch Bill) in regard to computer-generated child pornography. The Bill outlaws a visual depiction that is or appears to be of a minor engaging in sexually explicit conduct. The author claims the comments of David B. Johnson and John C. Scheller regarding the constitutionality of the Bill are analytically flawed because they focus on dicta from New York v. Ferber and Osborne v. Ohio. The author then engages in his own assessment of the Bill using a First Amendment approach and suggests what findings Congress should make …


Cryptography And The First Amendment: The Right To Be Unheard, 14 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 325 (1996), Phillip E. Reiman Jan 1996

Cryptography And The First Amendment: The Right To Be Unheard, 14 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 325 (1996), Phillip E. Reiman

UIC John Marshall Journal of Information Technology & Privacy Law

The author proposes that current technology has made cryptography an important element in maintaining a society's right to free speech. Cryptography is the process of using secret codes to protect information. This protection increases society's privacy because cryptographers can limit the amount of information that is seen by others. The world is becoming a place where there is virtually no privacy. Everyone is open to surveillance through the Internet, use of a credit card or being filmed on a security camera. Cryptography is a means in which a person can protect his privacy. Through this protection, the author states that …


Commercial Transactions On The Global Information Infrastructure: A European Perspective, 14 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 269 (1996), Christopher Millard, Robert Carolina Jan 1996

Commercial Transactions On The Global Information Infrastructure: A European Perspective, 14 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 269 (1996), Christopher Millard, Robert Carolina

UIC John Marshall Journal of Information Technology & Privacy Law

In an attempt to facilitate a single European marketplace, EU directives tried to amend its laws and regulations to accommodate the ever-advancing technology of the Internet. In tackling the issues, the authors discuss different layers of the Internet as laying the foundation for further analysis. Digital data networks are virtual networks; they are composed of a series of unrelated networks with each potentially owned and operated by different person. While the physical layers of such networks are important, the focus of this article is on the data layer: the layer that packages the data in a very efficient manner. This …


State And Local Taxing Authorities Taking More Than Their Fair Share Of The Electronic Information Age, 14 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 493 (1996), David C. Blum Jan 1996

State And Local Taxing Authorities Taking More Than Their Fair Share Of The Electronic Information Age, 14 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 493 (1996), David C. Blum

UIC John Marshall Journal of Information Technology & Privacy Law

This comment discusses the trend of state and local departments of revenue taxing users and providers of computer and information services even though the tax is not included in the jurisdiction’s legislation. While services are normally exempt from tax unless specifically enumerated, the Departments of Revenue recharacterize the service of providing electronically transmitted information into a purchase or lease of tangible personal property so the transaction can be taxed. This comment argues that users and providers of electronic information services should not be liable for a sales or use tax in a jurisdiction that lacks clear and specific statutory authority …