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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Quincecare Duty In Flux: The Implications For Banks And Digital Asset Platforms, Jason. Teo, Aaron Yoong Jul 2023

The Quincecare Duty In Flux: The Implications For Banks And Digital Asset Platforms, Jason. Teo, Aaron Yoong

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

With the increased sophistication of online payment methods, it is unsurprising that incidents of fraud have become commonplace, with fraudsters often employing innovative means against unsuspecting victims. Users, regulators and industry players in the banking sector are, in many aspects, struggling to keep pace with the continually evolving legal landscape of the fraud space. Similar challenges also begin to arise in the digital asset space for the various platforms engaged (whether for trading or staking). In recent years, a significant question has resurfaced concerning the liability of entities such as banks and digital asset platforms for the losses suffered by …


Regulating Artificial Intelligence In International Investment Law, Mark Mclaughlin Apr 2023

Regulating Artificial Intelligence In International Investment Law, Mark Mclaughlin

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

The interaction between artificial intelligence (AI) and international investment treaties is an uncharted territory of international law. Concerns over the national security, safety, and privacy implications of AI are spurring regulators into action around the world. States have imposed restrictions on data transfer, utilised automated decision-making, mandated algorithmic transparency, and limited market access. This article explores the interaction between AI regulation and standards of investment protection. It is argued that the current framework provides an unpredictable legal environment in which to adjudicate the contested norms and ethics of AI. Treaties should be recalibrated to reinforce their anti-protectionist origins, embed human-centric …


Legal Dispositionism And Artificially-Intelligent Attributions, Jerrold Soh Feb 2023

Legal Dispositionism And Artificially-Intelligent Attributions, Jerrold Soh

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

It is conventionally argued that because an artificially-intelligent (AI) system acts autonomously, its makers cannot easily be held liable should the system's actions harm. Since the system cannot be liable on its own account either, existing laws expose victims to accountability gaps and need to be reformed. Recent legal instruments have nonetheless established obligations against AI developers and providers. Drawing on attribution theory, this paper examines how these seemingly opposing positions are shaped by the ways in which AI systems are conceptualised. Specifically, folk dispositionism underpins conventional legal discourse on AI liability, personality, publications, and inventions and leads us towards …


An End-To-End Pipeline From Law Text To Logical Formulas, Aarne Ranta, Inari Listenmaa, Jerrold Soh, Meng Weng (Huang Mingrong) Wong Dec 2022

An End-To-End Pipeline From Law Text To Logical Formulas, Aarne Ranta, Inari Listenmaa, Jerrold Soh, Meng Weng (Huang Mingrong) Wong

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

We propose a pipeline for converting natural English law texts into logical formulas via a series of structural representations. Text texts are first parsed using a formal grammar derived from light-weight annotations. An intermediate representation called assembly logic is then used for logical interpretation and supports translations to different back-end logics and visualisations. The approach, while rule-based and explainable, is also robust: it can deliver useful results from day one, but allows subsequent refinements and variations.


User Guided Abductive Proof Generation For Answer Set Programming Queries, Avishkar Mahajan, Martin Strecker, Meng Weng (Huang Mingrong) Wong Sep 2022

User Guided Abductive Proof Generation For Answer Set Programming Queries, Avishkar Mahajan, Martin Strecker, Meng Weng (Huang Mingrong) Wong

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

We present a method for generating possible proofs of a query with respect to a given Answer Set Programming (ASP) rule set using an abductive process where the space of abducibles is automatically constructed just from the input rules alone. Given a (possibly empty) set of user provided facts, our method infers any additional facts that may be needed for the entailment of a query and then outputs these extra facts, without the user needing to explicitly specify the space of all abducibles. We also present a method to generate a set of directed edges corresponding to the justification graph …


Blockchain Land Transfers: Technology, Promises, And Perils, Vincent Ooi, Kian Peng Soh, Jerrold Soh Jul 2022

Blockchain Land Transfers: Technology, Promises, And Perils, Vincent Ooi, Kian Peng Soh, Jerrold Soh

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

The blockchain’s apparent immutability has attracted significant interest on whether it may be relied on for registering and transferring land. Proponents of blockchain-based land systems point toward data security, automated transacting, and improved accessibility as key benefits; critics raise concerns over structural vulnerabilities, such as majority attacks, and inconsistencies with existing legal frameworks. The literature, however, tends to conceptualise blockchain as one monolithic data structure invariably built on the same mechanisms powering Bitcoin. This paper seeks to situate the debate on a closer understanding of the range of blockchain implementations possible. To this end, we provide a detailed technological survey …


Gauging The Acceptance Of Contact Tracing Technology: An Empirical Study Of Singapore Residents’ Concerns With Sharing Their Information And Willingness To Trust, Ee-Ing Ong, Wee Ling Loo Jun 2022

Gauging The Acceptance Of Contact Tracing Technology: An Empirical Study Of Singapore Residents’ Concerns With Sharing Their Information And Willingness To Trust, Ee-Ing Ong, Wee Ling Loo

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, governments began implementing various forms of contact tracing technology. Singapore’s implementation of its contact tracing technology, TraceTogether, however, was met with significant concern by its population, with regard to privacy and data security. This concern did not fit with the general perception that Singaporeans have a high level of trust in its government. We explore this disconnect, using responses to our survey (conducted pre-COVID-19) in which we asked participants about their level of concern with the government and business collecting certain categories of personal data. The results show that respondents had less concern with …


Crossing The Rubicon: Evaluating The Use Of Artificial Intelligence In The Law And Singapore Courts, Ming En Tor Apr 2022

Crossing The Rubicon: Evaluating The Use Of Artificial Intelligence In The Law And Singapore Courts, Ming En Tor

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

In recent years, Artificial Intelligence (“AI”) has challenged many fundamental assumptions of how organisations and industries should operate. The Courts, traditionally seen as a hallowed ground graced by the best of lawyers, still remains as unchartered territory for AI’s infiltration. Yet, there is growing evidence which suggest AI may soon cross this frontier to replace important court functions.

This paper critically assesses the use of AI in law and the courts. Part II will first examine the arguments for and against the adoption of AI in the legal profession. Thereafter, Part III will critically examine whether AI should …


A Framework For Understanding The Taxation Of Digital Tokens, Vincent Ooi Apr 2022

A Framework For Understanding The Taxation Of Digital Tokens, Vincent Ooi

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

As a relatively new area, the taxation of digital tokens can give rise to several dangerous misconceptions. This article lays out five propositions to counter these misconceptions: 1) digital tokens are not a single monolithic asset class attracting uniform tax treatment; 2) the common trichotomous division of digital tokens into payment, utility and security tokens is derived from securities regulation and should not be blindly adopted into tax law; 3) the three classes are not mutually exclusive and hybrid tokens may exist; 4) the fact that an asset is a digital token rarely changes its tax treatment by itself, which …


Taxation Of Automation And Artificial Intelligence As A Tool Of Labour Policy, Vincent Ooi, Glendon Goh Feb 2022

Taxation Of Automation And Artificial Intelligence As A Tool Of Labour Policy, Vincent Ooi, Glendon Goh

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Rapid developments in automation technology pose a risk of mass displacement of human labour, resulting in the need to support and retrain displaced workers (a negative externality). We propose an “automation tax” that would slow the adoption of automation technology in appropriate circumstances, giving workers and social support systems time to adapt. This could be easily implemented through changes to the existing schedular system of depreciation/ capital allowances, reducing the uncertainty of its application and implementation costs. Such a system would be flexible enough to keep up with rapid technological developments. Two main dimensions may be adjusted to produce intended …


Contracts Formed By Software: An Approach From The Law Of Mistake, Vincent Ooi Jan 2022

Contracts Formed By Software: An Approach From The Law Of Mistake, Vincent Ooi

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

A ‘Contracting Problem’ arises when software is used to autonomously enter into contracts without human input. Questions arise as to how and whether there can be an expression of an objective intention to be legally bound. This article considers three leading solutions to the Contracting Problem. The ‘Mere Tools Theory’, which views software as ‘mere tools’ of communication, is too harsh as it binds users to any software malfunction. The Agency Approach, which treats software as Electronic Agents, capable of contracting on behalf of their users, is untenable as it ascribes unrealistic characteristics to software. The article submits that the …


Towards A Calibrated Trust-Based Approach To The Use Of Facial Recognition Technology, Gary Kok Yew Chan Nov 2021

Towards A Calibrated Trust-Based Approach To The Use Of Facial Recognition Technology, Gary Kok Yew Chan

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

The use of facial recognition technology has given rise to much debate relating to issues concerning privacy infringements, bias and inaccuracies of data and outputs, possibilities of covert use, the lack of data security and the problem of function creep. Certain states and jurisdictions have called for bans and moratoria on the use of facial recognition technology. This paper argues that a blanket ban on facial recognition technology would be overly precautionary without fully considering the wide range of uses and benefits of the innovation. To promote its acceptance, trust in facial recognition technology should be developed in a calibrated …


The Diffusion Of The Sandbox Approach To Disruptive Innovation And Its Limitations, Chang-Hsien Tsai, Ching-Fu Lin, Han-Wei Liu Oct 2021

The Diffusion Of The Sandbox Approach To Disruptive Innovation And Its Limitations, Chang-Hsien Tsai, Ching-Fu Lin, Han-Wei Liu

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Faced with the challenges posed by disruptive technologies and innovations, many countries have adopted different regulatory approaches, institutional structures, and norms to maximize benefits and mitigate risks. Among such regulatory endeavors, the regulatory sandbox, first adopted by the United Kingdom in its financial sector, stands out as a prominent mechanism to strike a balance between promoting technological innovations and ensuring market order. Given the promises of the regulatory sandbox, there has been a gradual embrace of this approach by governments across continents, arguably indicating a global norm diffusion. There is also a trans-governmental endeavor to facilitate cooperation among regulators and …


The Promises And Perils Of Robo-Advisers: Challenges And Regulatory Approaches, Aurelio Gurrea-Martinez, Wai Yee Wan Sep 2021

The Promises And Perils Of Robo-Advisers: Challenges And Regulatory Approaches, Aurelio Gurrea-Martinez, Wai Yee Wan

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Artificial intelligence is changing the operation and business model of many intermediaries in financial markets. Investing through online automated platforms, known as robo-advisers, is becoming very popular worldwide. In fact, some studies estimate that robo-advisers will be managing USD 4.6 trillion by 2022. This chapter analyses the promises and perils of robo-advice, as well as the challenges and regulatory responses adopted in various countries and regions around the world, including the United States, the United Kingdom, the European Union, Australia, Hong Kong, Mainland China, and Singapore. It will conclude by showing that, despite the existence of various legal and challenges …


Trust In And Ethical Design Of Carebots: The Case For Ethics Of Care, Gary Kok Yew Chan Jul 2021

Trust In And Ethical Design Of Carebots: The Case For Ethics Of Care, Gary Kok Yew Chan

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

The paper has two main objectives: to examine the challenges arising from the use of carebots as well as to discuss how the design of carebots can deal with these challenges. First, it notes that the use of carebots to take care of the physical and mental health of the elderly, children and the disabled as well as to serve as assistive tools and social companions encounter a few main challenges. They relate to the extent of the care robots’ ability to care for humans, potential deception by robot morphology and communications, (over)reliance on or attachment to robots, and the …


Digital Readiness Index For Arbitration Institutions: Challenges And Implications For Dispute Resolution Under The Belt And Road Initiative, Allison Goh Apr 2021

Digital Readiness Index For Arbitration Institutions: Challenges And Implications For Dispute Resolution Under The Belt And Road Initiative, Allison Goh

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Post-COVID-19, a paradigm shift has occurred in the adoption of technology in arbitration. Leading arbitral institutions have adapted quickly, highlighting the foresight of institutions who have existing technological infrastructure in place. This article proposes a ‘Digital Readiness Index’, which aims to evaluate arbitral institutions on their level of digital readiness based on five evaluative indicators. Cross referenced against Institute for Management Development (IMD’s) 2019 World Digital Competitiveness Rankings, the findings reveal synergies between an economy’s digital competitiveness and the adoption of technology in dispute resolution. To further the development of dispute resolution processes under the Belt and Road Initiative, strategic …


Tax Law And The Digital Economy In Singapore, Vincent Ooi Jan 2021

Tax Law And The Digital Economy In Singapore, Vincent Ooi

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

This chapter is divided into three main parts: 1) international tax law, 2) domestic tax law, and 3) tax and regulation. The first part deals with the international tax system and the way it has been affected by technology. This part will focus on income tax. Existing rules of nexus, characterisation of income and treatment of data are increasingly being challenged, leading to changes in the OECD Model Convention and the implementation of the Base Erosion and Profits Shifting (“BEPS”) project. These in turn have had a considerable impact on Singapore tax law, as Singapore is an active participant in …


Towards A Control-Centric Account Of Tort Liability For Automated Vehicles, Jerrold Tsin Howe Soh Jan 2021

Towards A Control-Centric Account Of Tort Liability For Automated Vehicles, Jerrold Tsin Howe Soh

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Existing motor vehicle accident laws are generally described as ‘driver-centric’, since regulatory, liability, and insurance obligations revolve around drivers. This is sometimes taken to imply that they cannot apply to automated vehicles. This article seeks to re-centre the liability discussion around the tortious doctrine of control. It argues centrally that properly understanding legal control as influence over metaphysical risks, rather than physical objects, clarifies that automated vehicles are both legally controllable in theory, despite having no human drivers, and legally controlled in practice, despite their reliance on machine learning. Examining today’s automated driving technology and businesses, this article demonstrates how …


International Moots And The Demands Of Modern Legal Practice: Relooking The Role Of Firms, Siyuan Chen Dec 2020

International Moots And The Demands Of Modern Legal Practice: Relooking The Role Of Firms, Siyuan Chen

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

The demands of modern legal practice are such that the young law graduate is expected to be as practice-prepared as possible right off the bat: able to analyse, research, draft, write, advise, and even advocate on complex issues that do not always present clear demarcations in doctrines, jurisdictions, and cultures – and this is without mentioning other important soft skills required to thrive in practice. International moot competitions used to be the main means to bridge the school-versus-practice and theory-versus-application divides, but that landscape has transformed radically in the past decade. Considering too the competitiveness of the legal market today …


The State Of Legal Innovation In Asia-Pacific 2020, Jerrold Soh, Kok Thong Lee Oct 2020

The State Of Legal Innovation In Asia-Pacific 2020, Jerrold Soh, Kok Thong Lee

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

This year's report is the second in two years and contains a number of substantial improvements. Most significantly, it has expanded to cover Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, New Zealand, and the Philippines, providing a fascinating look at legal technology and innovation in these important yet perhaps overlooked APAC jurisdictions.


Rethinking Mistake In The Age Of Algorithms, Vincent Ooi, Kian Peng Soh Sep 2020

Rethinking Mistake In The Age Of Algorithms, Vincent Ooi, Kian Peng Soh

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

In our previous note: Cryptocurrencies and Code before the Courts ((2019) 30(3) King’s Law Journal 331 - 337), we discussed the Singapore International Commercial Court (High Court)’s decision in B2C2 Ltd v Quoine Pte Ltd. The case subsequently went on appeal, and the Singapore International Commercial Court (Court of Appeal), by a majority, affirmed the decision of the lower court in Quoine v B2C2 (“Quoine”). The case of Quoine represents the first time an apex court in the Commonwealth has ruled on the applicability of contractual principles to situations involving automated trading software. In our recent case note: Rethinking Mistake …


Coronavirus: Pandemics, Artificial Intelligence And Personal Data: How To Manage Pandemics Using Ai And What That Means For Personal Data Protection, Warren B. Chik Sep 2020

Coronavirus: Pandemics, Artificial Intelligence And Personal Data: How To Manage Pandemics Using Ai And What That Means For Personal Data Protection, Warren B. Chik

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

This chapter discusses the hearing of essential and urgent court matters in the Singapore courts during the COVID-19 pandemic. On 27 march 2020, the Singapore judiciary notified courst users that remote hearings were to be implemented for certain types of hearings by means of video and telephone conferencing facilities. Court users were also provided with indicative lists of matters which might be considered essential and urgent.


Reflections On The Use Of Facial Recognition Technology During Covid-19, Gary Kok Yew Chan Sep 2020

Reflections On The Use Of Facial Recognition Technology During Covid-19, Gary Kok Yew Chan

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

During the COVID-10 pandemic, infected persons have been quarantined in segregated facilities. Individuals who have been in contact with the infected persons may be subject to self-isolation measures or stay-home notices. Technological tools such as proximity and contact tracing apps are used to identify those who have been in close contact with infected persons. The contact tracing QR code used in Singapore's SafeEntry requires the submission of personal information (including names and identification numbers) prior to entry into certain public places such as malls, factories and restaurants. Robots, in addition to designated human officers, have been delpoyed to maintain social …


Attribution Of Civil Liability For Accidents Involving Automated Cars, Siyuan Chen, Jie Hao Sampson Lim, Beverly Kai Li Lim Sep 2020

Attribution Of Civil Liability For Accidents Involving Automated Cars, Siyuan Chen, Jie Hao Sampson Lim, Beverly Kai Li Lim

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

With the much-anticipated revolution in autonomous (or “self-driving”) cars fast becoming reality, the Singapore Academy of Law’s Law Reform Committee (‘LRC’) has considered how liability should be attributed in the event of accidents involving such cars, and the issues that may arise in seeking to apply existing liability frameworks.


Ethics, Rule Of Law And Pandemic Responses, Mark Findlay Sep 2020

Ethics, Rule Of Law And Pandemic Responses, Mark Findlay

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

In their report ‘The Rule of Law in Times of Health Crises’404 Julinda Beqiraj, Jean-Pierre Gauci and Nyasha Weinberg identified certain conditions under which rule of law adherence can contribute to an effective pandemic response.


Coronavirus: Pandemics, Artificial Intelligence And Personal Data: How To Manage Pandemics Using Ai And What That Means For Personal Data Protection, Warren B. Chik Sep 2020

Coronavirus: Pandemics, Artificial Intelligence And Personal Data: How To Manage Pandemics Using Ai And What That Means For Personal Data Protection, Warren B. Chik

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

This chapter discusses the hearing of essential and urgent court matters in the Singapore courts during the COVID-19 pandemic. On 27 march 2020, the Singapore judiciary notified courst users that remote hearings were to be implemented for certain types of hearings by means of video and telephone conferencing facilities. Court users were also provided with indicative lists of matters which might be considered essential and urgent.


An Ecosystem Approach To Ethical Ai And Data Use: Experimental Reflections, Mark Findlay, Josephine Seah Sep 2020

An Ecosystem Approach To Ethical Ai And Data Use: Experimental Reflections, Mark Findlay, Josephine Seah

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

While we have witnessed a rapid growth of ethics documents meant to guide artificial intelligence (AI) development, the promotion of AI ethics has nonetheless proceeded with little input from AI practitioners themselves. Given the proliferation of AI for Social Good initiatives, this is an emerging gap that needs to be addressed in order to develop more meaningful ethical approaches to AI use and development. This paper offers a methodology-a 'shared fairness' approach-aimed at identifying AI practitioners' needs when it comes to confronting and resolving ethical challenges and to find a third space where their operational language can be married with …


Rethinking Mistake In The Age Of Algorithms: Quoine Pte Ltd V B2c2 Ltd, Vincent Ooi, Kian Peng Soh Sep 2020

Rethinking Mistake In The Age Of Algorithms: Quoine Pte Ltd V B2c2 Ltd, Vincent Ooi, Kian Peng Soh

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Good traders remove emotion from the decision-making process. Automated trading algorithms have enabled this, allowing one to trade round the clock, and without the constant need to monitor one’s investments. But software has gremlins. Given the vast amounts of money involved in such trades, it was only a matter of time before disputes involving automated trading software came before the courts. The decision in Quoine v B2C2 (“Quoine”) represents the first time an apex court in the Commonwealth has ruled on the applicability of contractual principles to situations involving automated trading software.


Artificial Intelligence And Global Trade Governance: A Pluralist Agenda, Han-Wei Liu, Ching-Fu Lin May 2020

Artificial Intelligence And Global Trade Governance: A Pluralist Agenda, Han-Wei Liu, Ching-Fu Lin

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

This Article is the first of its kind to map out imminent challenges facing the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the emergence of artificial intelligence. It does so by examining critically AI’s normative implications for four issue areas—robot lawyers, automated driving systems, computer-generated works, and automated decision-making processes. By unpacking the diverse governance approaches taken in addressing these issues, this Article highlights the underlying economic, societal, cultural, and political interests in different jurisdictions and identifies the growing normative relevance of global legal pluralism. In light of the changing fabric of international law, this Article seeks to reconceptualize AI and global …


Ethics, Ai, Mass Data And Pandemic Challenges: Responsible Data Use And Infrastructure Application For Surveillance And Pre-Emptive Tracing Post-Crisis, Mark Findlay, Jia Yuan Loke, Nydia Remolina Leon, Yum Yin, Benjamin (Tan Renyan) Tham May 2020

Ethics, Ai, Mass Data And Pandemic Challenges: Responsible Data Use And Infrastructure Application For Surveillance And Pre-Emptive Tracing Post-Crisis, Mark Findlay, Jia Yuan Loke, Nydia Remolina Leon, Yum Yin, Benjamin (Tan Renyan) Tham

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

As the COVID-19 health pandemic rages governments and private companies across the globe are utilising AI-assisted surveillance, reporting, mapping and tracing technologies with the intention of slowing the spread of the virus. These technologies have the capacity to amass personal data and share for community control and citizen safety motivations that empower state agencies and inveigle citizen co-operation which could only be imagined outside such times of real and present danger. While not cavilling with the short-term necessity for these technologies and the data they control, process and share in the health regulation mission, this paper argues that this infrastructure …