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Full-Text Articles in Law

Does Convenience Come With A Price? The Impact Of Remote Testimony On Expert Credibility And Decision-Making, Ashley Jones Aug 2023

Does Convenience Come With A Price? The Impact Of Remote Testimony On Expert Credibility And Decision-Making, Ashley Jones

Dissertations

Legal cases involving expert testimony, especially by forensic mental health professionals, is increasingly relying on remote testimony to reduce associated costs and increase availability of such services. There is some evidence to show that expert testimony delivered via videoconference (VC) is comparable to expert testimony delivered in person; however, the most compelling evidence for this claim is unpublished. Other evidence across disciplines showed relative comparability between VC and in-person modalities across various types of outcomes. Based on both unpublished and published findings, this study tested the hypothesis that minimal differences in measures of expert credibility, efficacy, and weight assigned to ...


The Impact Of Juvenile Offender Race On Public Perception Of Crime Seriousness, Megan Whitaker Jul 2022

The Impact Of Juvenile Offender Race On Public Perception Of Crime Seriousness, Megan Whitaker

Dissertations

Public perception of crime is an important focus of research, especially when considering juvenile offenders. However, there is very limited research in this area. This study looked at how the public perceives crime seriousness and how race of the juvenile offender impacts the overall seriousness rating. An online survey that included 15 crime scenarios was completed by 176 participants. It was hypothesized that a crime would be rated as more severe when the juvenile offender is African American as compared to a Caucasian juvenile offender. Results found that participants overall rated the seriousness of offenses as significantly higher for Caucasian ...


The Coercion Of The Trial Penalty, Kristen C. Akin May 2022

The Coercion Of The Trial Penalty, Kristen C. Akin

Student Theses

Prosecutors, defendants, and defense attorneys must make decisions as to whether to accept a plea offer or proceed to trial every day. Approximately 95% of state and federal convictions result from guilty pleas (Redlich et al., 2017; Thaxton, 2013; Gazal-Ayal & Tor, 2012; Redlich & Shteynberg, 2016; Edkins, 2011; Weatherly & Kehn, 2013; Helm et al., 2018; Gregory et al., 1978). Some estimate this number to be as high as 97% to 99% (Redlich & Bonventre, 2015; Helm et al., 2018). It is also estimated that every two seconds a defendant pleads guilty (Redlich & Bonventre, 2015). In 1980, 19% of federal criminal cases went to trial, but by 2010 this number was at less than 3% (Redlich & Shteynberg, 2016). In theory, plea deals are enticing as they put into place safeguards for defendants rather than the uncertainty that comes with going to trial. Therefore, plea bargains give defendants the opportunity to choose between the certainty of a specific amount of time in jail, probation, or a lesser charge rather than take their case to trial with unknown outcomes. On the other hand, by accepting a plea deal, defendants waive their right to silence, the prosecution proving their guilt, and the opportunity to confront their accusers, among other rights (Redlich & Bonventre, 2015; Redlich et al., 2017; Joselow, 2019). Nevertheless, a defendant who chooses to go to trial has been shown ...


A Systemic Approach To Understanding Burnout Through The Lens Of The United States’ Professional Art Therapy (And Mental Health) Community: A Literature Review, Mary Welch May 2022

A Systemic Approach To Understanding Burnout Through The Lens Of The United States’ Professional Art Therapy (And Mental Health) Community: A Literature Review, Mary Welch

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Burnout among mental health counseling and art therapy professionals has long been an issue (Meyerson 1998; Prins et al., 2015; Yang & Hayes, 2020; Zeira 2021). While previous research into the causes and reduction of burnout have focused primarily on individual burnout, both in terms of psychology and workplace habits (Rollins et al. 2021), very few studies have been done examining the systemic, institutional, and cultural contributions to burnout in these professions. This paper aims to explore the connection between community standards and the current systems that intersect professional art therapy practice in the United States and the areas in which workplace policies ...


Reported Experiences With Plea Bargaining: A Theoretical Analysis Of The Legal Standard, Krystia Reed, Allison Franz, Vincent Calderon, Alisha Meschkow, Valerie F. Reyna May 2022

Reported Experiences With Plea Bargaining: A Theoretical Analysis Of The Legal Standard, Krystia Reed, Allison Franz, Vincent Calderon, Alisha Meschkow, Valerie F. Reyna

West Virginia Law Review

Although the majority of criminal cases in the United States are settled with plea bargains, very little empirical evidence exists to explain how defendants make life-altering plea bargain decisions. This Article first discusses the psychologicalfactors involved in plea bargaining decisions. Next, this Article empirically examines the factors involved in plea decisions of real-life defendants within the legal and psychological contexts. Finally, this Article highlights the psychological issues that need to be further examined in pleabargaining literature.


Diagnostic Featural Detection Or Filler Siphoning: A Red Box Study, Brynn Schuetter May 2022

Diagnostic Featural Detection Or Filler Siphoning: A Red Box Study, Brynn Schuetter

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The current study is a replication and extension of previous research by Colloff and Wixted (2020). In their study, they created a novel identification procedure called the simultaneous showup. They found support for the diagnostic feature detection theory over the filler siphoning theory. The current study was interested in seeing if covert filler siphoning was still occurring in their novel procedure by asking participants how photos of fillers influenced their identification decision. Participants of the study viewed two crime videos and completed an identification task. If they were assigned to the simultaneous showup task, they were asked if and how ...


Combating Recidivism, Shaylin Daley May 2022

Combating Recidivism, Shaylin Daley

Senior Honors Projects

SHAYLIN DALEY (Psychology) Combating Recidivism Sponsor: Lisa Holley (Political Science) Many people believe that criminals cannot be helped. It is evident that at least some of society shuns people who break laws and have negative views about the amount of money spent on detaining inmates. Thousands of individuals are released from United States prisons a day. Many of these individuals have no plan in place for their return home and are sent into the streets with nothing except for a jail ID. Most of these people will end up returning to prison. A good sum of these people face problems ...


Inter-Agency Collaborations Among Mental Health And Law Enforcement Professionals In San Bernardino County During Covid-19: A Qualitative Study, Sonya Mcisaac May 2022

Inter-Agency Collaborations Among Mental Health And Law Enforcement Professionals In San Bernardino County During Covid-19: A Qualitative Study, Sonya Mcisaac

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

As first responders, law enforcement officers and mental health professionals are constantly sought after regarding the delivery of critical services to people in need. However, the COVID-19 pandemic brought almost everything to a halt. It is therefore important to understand how social services were delivered during the crisis. It has been assumed in the literature that interprofessional collaboration is an important service delivery framework. However, because COVID-19 is a relatively recent public health phenomenon, relevant studies on interprofessional collaboration between law enforcement officers and mental health professionals are scant, if not non-existent. This qualitative study addresses this gap by exploring ...


Enter The Battleverse: China's Metaverse War, Josh Baughman May 2022

Enter The Battleverse: China's Metaverse War, Josh Baughman

Military Cyber Affairs

No abstract provided.


Same-Gender Pathways To Parenthood, Sydney T. Inger Apr 2022

Same-Gender Pathways To Parenthood, Sydney T. Inger

James Madison Undergraduate Research Journal (JMURJ)

LGBTQ+ individuals and couples who want children negotiate systemic inequalities in the United States of America. This literature review surveys America’s confusing legal map and the gaps in its enduring scholarly theories. The paper then examines the challenges that LGBTQ+ individuals and couples confront in working through the common pathways—same-gender adoption and fostering, in vitro fertilization, and surrogacy—to become parents. Dispersing information on the pathways will be a positive step towards breaking down the inequities for those in the LGBTQ+ community who want to start a family.


The Mother Of Exiles Is Abandoning Her Children: The Systemic Failure To Protect Unaccompanied Minors Arriving At Our Borders, Rosa M. Peterson Apr 2022

The Mother Of Exiles Is Abandoning Her Children: The Systemic Failure To Protect Unaccompanied Minors Arriving At Our Borders, Rosa M. Peterson

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

Unaccompanied minors arrive at the United States border every day. Many brought by the hope of finding a life lived without fear, a luxury many United States citizens take for granted. Their truths become the barriers and shackles which keep them in detention centers and unaccompanied minor facilities throughout the United States; children find their very words wielded as weapons against them in immigration court. Words often spoken to therapists in perceived confidence, during counseling sessions. This practice is a systemic failure to protect unaccompanied minors arriving at our borders who are seeking protection and help. The United States was ...


Reformation Within The Nation: Adapting The Nordic Rehabilitation And Reintegration Model To Positively Recondition The United States Criminal Justice System, Jessica Cornell Apr 2022

Reformation Within The Nation: Adapting The Nordic Rehabilitation And Reintegration Model To Positively Recondition The United States Criminal Justice System, Jessica Cornell

Helm's School of Government Conference

An analytical and statistical based comparison of criminal sentencing, incarceration, rehabilitation and reintegration in the United States of America to those of the five countries which follows those of the Nordic Criminal Justice System.


Vedantic Basis And Praxis Of The Integral Advaita Of Sri Aurobindo, Debashish Banerji Mar 2022

Vedantic Basis And Praxis Of The Integral Advaita Of Sri Aurobindo, Debashish Banerji

Monsoon: South Asian Studies Association Journal

The integral nondualism of Sri Aurobindo can be traced to the great pronouncements (mahāvākya) of the Upanishads and later commentaries. This study examines teachings on the Supermind (vijñāna) and the other four kinds of consciousness that define human reality: Matter (annaṃ), Life (prāṇaḥ), Mind (manaḥ), and Bliss (ānanda). Through Yoga and Tantra, one learns and embodies the pathway to the divine.


Digital And Spatial Humanities Mapping: Eurasia-Pacific Early Trade And Belief Linkages, Igor Sitnikov, David Blundell Mar 2022

Digital And Spatial Humanities Mapping: Eurasia-Pacific Early Trade And Belief Linkages, Igor Sitnikov, David Blundell

Monsoon: South Asian Studies Association Journal

The Eurasia-Pacific is a dynamic region of rapid economic growth, cultural awareness, natural resource exploration, and military buildup. The concept of the region is relatively new, featuring contested vast areas of geo-resource space of numerous cultures and languages. The current findings in anthropology and archaeology and even its more specific subfields such as folklore are important contribution to the understanding of periodic environmental changes and technical innovations were the main forces of transformations in social structures that have determined the mechanisms and levels of cross-cultural trade activity across the region. We have traced early trade and belief linkages across Eurasia-Pacific ...


Tusha Hiti: The Origin And Significance Of The Name, Deepak Shimkhada Mar 2022

Tusha Hiti: The Origin And Significance Of The Name, Deepak Shimkhada

Monsoon: South Asian Studies Association Journal

In this article, the author examines the royal bath called Tushā Hiti located in Sūndari Chowk (Beautiful Courtyard) of Pātan Durbar Square, using six different methods of investigation. The question: What is in a name? started the ball of investigation rolling and along the way were added more supporting blocks such as history, iconography, function and purpose, notion of purity and impurity, and finally the hiti in popular culture to get a complete picture of the subject in question.


Ganges In Indian Sculpture And Literature: Mythology And Personification, Nalini Rao Mar 2022

Ganges In Indian Sculpture And Literature: Mythology And Personification, Nalini Rao

Monsoon: South Asian Studies Association Journal

The river Ganges is a symbol of wealth, purity and eternity, and its sacred waters have inspired sages, philosophers, and artists in India who have immortalized its divine imagery. However, it has rarely been understood from a historical point of view, as to how it became so sacred and to view it from a multi-dimensional and interdisciplinary perspective with an accumulation of layers of historical thought and practices, provides a rationale for the living practices around the river. The paper explores the evolution of the concept of sacredness and eternity of River Ganges through art- historical and archaeological evidence. It ...


Diversity, Equity, And Inclusion: Perspectives From Contemporary India And 6th Century Jain Yoga, Christopher Key Chapple Mar 2022

Diversity, Equity, And Inclusion: Perspectives From Contemporary India And 6th Century Jain Yoga, Christopher Key Chapple

Monsoon: South Asian Studies Association Journal

Times New Roman


Why Aim Law Toward Human Survival, John William Draper Feb 2022

Why Aim Law Toward Human Survival, John William Draper

Librarian Scholarship at Penn Law

Our legal system is contributing to humanity’s demise by failing to take account of our species’ situation. For example, in some cases law works against life and supports interests such as liberty or profit maximization.

If we do not act, science tells us that humanity bears a significant (and growing) risk of catastrophic failure. The significant risk inherent in the status quo is unacceptable and requires a response. We must act. It is getting hotter. When we decide to act, we need to make the right choice.

There is no better choice. You and all your relatives have rights ...


Modern Law Enforcement Training Based On Four Classic Psychological Experiments, Mkay Bonner, Mark S. Johnson Jan 2022

Modern Law Enforcement Training Based On Four Classic Psychological Experiments, Mkay Bonner, Mark S. Johnson

Multidisciplinary Psychology: A Journal of Collaboration

Psychology as a discipline is alive and well. Psychology is so much more than just therapy or research with rats. Psychological science is applied to real life in a myriad of ways every day. One excellent example is the use of four classic psychological experiments as a foundation for the Active Bystandership for Law Enforcement (ABLE) training curriculum. This contemporary police training program seeks to reduce harm and improve the national law enforcement culture. The four classic psychological science experiments that are used in this evidence-informed curriculum include Diffusion of Responsibility from Darley and Latane’, the Seminary Experiment from Darley ...


Encounters Between The Elderly And Law Enforcement Jan 2022

Encounters Between The Elderly And Law Enforcement

Multidisciplinary Psychology: A Journal of Collaboration

The elderly population is growing dramatically throughout the world. Out of this growth comes an increase in the number of encounters between the aged and law enforcement. These encounters occur because of a variety of factors including mental illnesses and addictions. Furthermore, older adults may be victims as evidenced in different forms of abuse such as physical, emotional, or financial abuse. Sadly, some documentation exists that older adults are committing more crimes. Multiple reasons have been postulated for these crimes including poverty, jealousy, and boredom. All of these different situations with the aged have created an increase in the number ...


Crisis Deescalation: A Brief Review And Variations On A Model, Mkay Bonner, Mark S. Johnson Jan 2022

Crisis Deescalation: A Brief Review And Variations On A Model, Mkay Bonner, Mark S. Johnson

Multidisciplinary Psychology: A Journal of Collaboration

The demand for changes in police responses to crises are loud and compelling. One such recommended change is from a Warrior mindset to a Guardian mindset. The emphasis in the Guardian philosophy is on law enforcement officers (LEOs) as protectors instead of fighters. This mindset emphasizes deescalation instead of the use of force whenever possible. Several deescalation courses existed but more have been created recently. This recent increase has been due, in part, to profiteers wanting to benefit from the change in philosophy and training. A brief history starting with the legend in deescalation, Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) Training, is ...


Racial Discrimination In Life Insurance, William G. Gale, Kyle D. Logue, Nora Cahill, Rachel Gu, Swati Joshi Jan 2022

Racial Discrimination In Life Insurance, William G. Gale, Kyle D. Logue, Nora Cahill, Rachel Gu, Swati Joshi

Law & Economics Working Papers

We examine the historical and statistical relationship between race and life insurance. Life insurance can play a central role in households’ financial security. Race has played an important and changing role in the provision of life insurance in the U.S. from slave insurance before the Civil War, to “Scientific Racism” continuing into the 20th century, to policies that do not explicitly mention race in recent decades. In empirical work using new data, we confirm earlier work showing that Black individuals have higher life insurance coverage rates than white individuals, controlling for observable characteristics. We find no difference in the ...


Remodelling Criminal Insanity: Exploring Philosophical, Legal, And Medical Premises Of The Medical Model Used In Norwegian Law, Linda Gröning, Unn K. Haukvik, Stephen J. Morse, Susanna Radovic Jan 2022

Remodelling Criminal Insanity: Exploring Philosophical, Legal, And Medical Premises Of The Medical Model Used In Norwegian Law, Linda Gröning, Unn K. Haukvik, Stephen J. Morse, Susanna Radovic

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This paper clarifies the conceptual space of discussion of legal insanity by considering the virtues of the ‘medical model’ model that has been used in Norway for almost a century. The medical model identifies insanity exclusively with mental disorder, and especially with psychosis, without any requirement that the disorder causally influenced the commission of the crime. We explore the medical model from a transdisciplinary perspective and show how it can be utilised to systematise and reconsider the central philosophical, legal and medical premises involved in the insanity debate. A key concern is how recent transdiagnostic and dimensional approaches to psychosis ...


Melissa Jankowski: Aspiring Forensic Psychologist Evaluates Inmates, Patients At N.C. Prison Complex, Division Of Marketing And Communications, Marcus Wolf Jan 2022

Melissa Jankowski: Aspiring Forensic Psychologist Evaluates Inmates, Patients At N.C. Prison Complex, Division Of Marketing And Communications, Marcus Wolf

General University of Maine Publications

To become a forensic psychologist, Melissa Jankowski decided to participate in a competitive internship at a prison complex famous for housing several high-profile inmates—the Federal Correctional Complex in Butner, North Carolina.


Technical Behaviours Of Child Sexual Exploitation Material Offenders, Chad Steel, Emily Newman, Suzanne O'Rourke, Ethel Quayle Jan 2022

Technical Behaviours Of Child Sexual Exploitation Material Offenders, Chad Steel, Emily Newman, Suzanne O'Rourke, Ethel Quayle

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

An exploration of the technological behaviours of previously convicted child sexual exploitation material (CSEM) offenders provides a foundation for future applied research into deterrence, investigation, and treatment efforts. This study evaluates the technology choices and transitions of individuals previously convicted of CSEM offenses. Based on their inclusion in two sex offender registries, anonymous survey results (n=78) were collected from English-speaking adults within the United States. CSEM offenders chose technologies based on both utility and perceived risk; peer-to-peer and web-browsers were the most common gateway technologies and showed substantial sustained usage; a substantial minority of users never stored CSEM and ...


Towards A Psychological Science Of Abolition Democracy: Insights For Improving Theory And Research On Race And Public Safety, Cynthia J. Najdowski, Phillip Atiba Goff Jan 2022

Towards A Psychological Science Of Abolition Democracy: Insights For Improving Theory And Research On Race And Public Safety, Cynthia J. Najdowski, Phillip Atiba Goff

Psychology Faculty Scholarship

We call for psychologists to expand their thinking on fair and just public safety by engaging with the “Abolition Democracy” framework that Du Bois (1935) articulated as the need to dissolve slavery while simultaneously taking affirmative steps to rid its toxic consequences from the body politic. Because the legacies of slavery continue to produce disparities in public safety in the U.S, both harming Black people and the institutions that could keep them safe, psychologists must take seriously questions of history and structure in addition to immediate situations. In the present article, we consider the state of knowledge regarding psychological ...


The Psychology Of Separation: Border Walls, Soft Power, And International Neighborliness, Diana C. Mutz, Beth A. Simmons Jan 2022

The Psychology Of Separation: Border Walls, Soft Power, And International Neighborliness, Diana C. Mutz, Beth A. Simmons

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This study assesses the impact of international border walls on evaluations of countries and on beliefs about bilateral relationships between states. Using a short video, we experimentally manipulate whether a border wall image appears in a broader description of the history and culture of a little-known country. In a third condition, we also indicate which bordering country built the wall. Demographically representative samples from the United States, Ireland, and Turkey responded similarly to these experimental treatments. Compared to a control group, border walls lowered evaluations of the bordering countries. They also signified hostile international relationships to third-party observers. Furthermore, the ...


Lessons From Psychology For Law Practice Management, Peter G. Glenn Jan 2022

Lessons From Psychology For Law Practice Management, Peter G. Glenn

Dickinson Law Review

No abstract provided.


Money And Betrayal: Perceptions Of Alimony Fairness In Relation To Infidelity, Jessica Wery, Michael Kothakota Jan 2022

Money And Betrayal: Perceptions Of Alimony Fairness In Relation To Infidelity, Jessica Wery, Michael Kothakota

Journal of Financial Therapy

Alimony is a contentious topic often argued over during a divorce. Individuals getting divorced seek fairness in an alimony settlement, but due to how laws are written this can seem arbitrary. Public policy suggests laws should reflect the suggestions of the people it affects. Thus, public perception of alimony fairness is an important component in the discussion of what is fair for spouses. In addition, infidelity in marriage might change how the public views what is fair. This study collected data from 1,285 individual United States participants. Participants were randomly assigned a vignette condition related to a hypothetical alimony ...


The Social Psychology Of Inclusion: How Diversity Framing Shapes Outcomes For Racial-Ethnic Minorities, Jamillah Bowman Williams Jan 2022

The Social Psychology Of Inclusion: How Diversity Framing Shapes Outcomes For Racial-Ethnic Minorities, Jamillah Bowman Williams

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Research on the efficacy of organizational diversity efforts has yielded mixed results. It remains unclear when positive or negative outcomes should be expected, and why. This article fills a gap in the sociological literature by examining critical social psychological mechanisms. In Experiment 1, I found that common diversity messaging led to increased bias towards racial minorities. In Experiment 2, I examined how alternative framing may influence these outcomes. Findings revealed that the common “business case” emphasizing profit and performance gains made decision-makers less likely to select a Black job candidate than emphasizing civil rights law. I then examined social psychological ...