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Full-Text Articles in Law

When Does Legal Flexibility Work In Environmental Law, Eric Biber, Josh Eagle Nov 2105

When Does Legal Flexibility Work In Environmental Law, Eric Biber, Josh Eagle

Josh Eagle

Environmental law scholars, practitioners, and policymakers have wrestled for some time with the implications of climate change for environmental law. There is widespread, although not universal, agreement that climate change requires greater flexibility in environmental legal systems. Flexibility—reduced procedural requirements for administrative agency decision making and less rigid substantive standards—would allow the agencies that implement environmental law to adapt to a future world characterized by dynamic, uncertain changes in natural resource systems. According to its proponents, flexibility would make it easier for agencies to more frequently update their management or regulatory decisions to respond to changed conditions, and also to …


When Does Legal Flexibility Work In Environmental Law, Eric Biber, Josh Eagle Nov 2105

When Does Legal Flexibility Work In Environmental Law, Eric Biber, Josh Eagle

Eric Biber

Environmental law scholars, practitioners, and policymakers have wrestled for some time with the implications of climate change for environmental law. There is widespread, although not universal, agreement that climate change requires greater flexibility in environmental legal systems. Flexibility—reduced procedural requirements for administrative agency decision making and less rigid substantive standards—would allow the agencies that implement environmental law to adapt to a future world characterized by dynamic, uncertain changes in natural resource systems. According to its proponents, flexibility would make it easier for agencies to more frequently update their management or regulatory decisions to respond to changed conditions, and also to …


Protecting The Environment In Times Of Armed Conflict: The 2023 Elisabeth Haub Award For Environmental Law And Diplomacy Transcript, Nicholas Robinson May 2024

Protecting The Environment In Times Of Armed Conflict: The 2023 Elisabeth Haub Award For Environmental Law And Diplomacy Transcript, Nicholas Robinson

Pace Environmental Law Review

2023 Elisabeth Haub Award for Environmental Law and Diplomacy honoring Ambassador Marja Lehto of Finland and Former Ambassador Marie Jacobsson of Sweden for their pivotal roles advancing environmental law and policy to protect the environment in times of armed conflict.


When It Rains, It Pours: Weather Modification Law In The United States And A Proposal For Federal Control, Brendan Woodruff May 2024

When It Rains, It Pours: Weather Modification Law In The United States And A Proposal For Federal Control, Brendan Woodruff

Pace Environmental Law Review

Though weather modification has been used as a strategy to address issues such as drought throughout history, there continues to be a lack of federal regulation addressing weather modification. This Note surveys state regulations on weather modification and examines the current status of how the federal government addresses weather modification. Ultimately, this Note makes the case for why the Department of the Interior should take on the federal regulation of weather modification.


Protecting Public Land From Trespass: Why The Six-Year Statute Of Limitations In 28 U.S.C. § 2415(B) Is Appropriate For All Trespass Cases On Federal Land, Zach Fader May 2024

Protecting Public Land From Trespass: Why The Six-Year Statute Of Limitations In 28 U.S.C. § 2415(B) Is Appropriate For All Trespass Cases On Federal Land, Zach Fader

Pace Environmental Law Review

The United States has the authority to bring claims for trespass on federal land under the statutes of the state in which the trespass occurs. Many states have statutes that codify and often alter the elements of common law trespass while also providing for double or treble damages. Thus, in cases of trespass on federal lands, the government is incentivized to bring claims under state trespass statutes. Doing so adds an alternate theory of liability and maximizes the opportunity to recover adequate damages. 28 U.S.C. § 2415(b), in part, sets a six-year statute of limitations for when the United States …


Fighting Climate Gentrification In The Courts, Samantha Blend May 2024

Fighting Climate Gentrification In The Courts, Samantha Blend

Pace Environmental Law Review

Climate gentrification, a specific type of gentrification that occurs when the impacts of climate change displace lower-income communities, will likely increase in severity as climate change worsens. While policies such as inclusionary zoning may be the most efficient way to combat climate gentrification, litigation can fill gaps that may arise in such policies. This Note examines potential causes of action for climate gentrification litigation and their likelihood of success. Based on an examination of the different causes of action and their likelihood of success, this Note concludes that climate gentrification litigation can help legitimize the issue of climate gentrification and …


Lustre Oil Co., Llc V. Anadarko Minerals, Inc., Ayden D. Auer May 2024

Lustre Oil Co., Llc V. Anadarko Minerals, Inc., Ayden D. Auer

Public Land & Resources Law Review

The Montana Supreme Court held a limited liability company owned by the Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes was not protected against a quiet title action by sovereign immunity.


Breaking Ground: Understanding Indigenous Mining Disputes Through Negotiation Theory, Shaadie Ali May 2024

Breaking Ground: Understanding Indigenous Mining Disputes Through Negotiation Theory, Shaadie Ali

Minnesota Journal of Law, Science & Technology

No abstract provided.


Solar Energy Industries Association V. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Brandy Keesee May 2024

Solar Energy Industries Association V. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Brandy Keesee

Public Land & Resources Law Review

In Solar Energy Industries Association v. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (“Solar Energy”), the court grappled with a complex web of regulatory and environmental considerations. The overall dispute was the promulgation and implementation of Order 872, a directive issued by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (“FERC” or “Commission”), and its alignment with the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (“PURPA”) and the Administrative Procedure Act (“APA”). The dispute in Solar Energy is about FERC’s interpretation and application of PURPA in managing qualifying facilities (“QFs”). The crux of the contention was whether FERC’s 2020 rule revisions set forth in Order 872 …


Reno-Sparks Indian Colony V. Haaland, William N. Rose May 2024

Reno-Sparks Indian Colony V. Haaland, William N. Rose

Public Land & Resources Law Review

Reno-Sparks Indian Colony v. Haaland added clarity to the scope of a federal agency’s duty to consult with Tribes under the National Historic Preservation Act. The case was the culmination of unsuccessful litigation efforts by Tribes to stop a large mining project, and it demonstrated the high hurdle Tribes face when challenging whether a federal agency has engaged in reasonable and good faith consultation.


Beyond Patents: Incentive Strategies For Ocean Plastic Remediation Technologies, Jacob Stotser Apr 2024

Beyond Patents: Incentive Strategies For Ocean Plastic Remediation Technologies, Jacob Stotser

Duke Law & Technology Review

With a garbage truck’s worth of plastic being dumped in the ocean each minute, there is a dire need for effective technological solutions aimed at mitigating the marine plastic pollution problem. However, the reliance of the U.S. patent system on market demand to incentivize this type of innovation has proven insufficient in light of the peculiarities of “green” technologies. To remedy this, this article proposes a multi-faceted incentivization approach that looks beyond the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office to stimulate the development of remediation technologies through comprehensive regulatory interventions, the establishment of prize funds and other alternative incentive mechanisms, and …


The Secret Lives Of Environmental Rights, Sonya Ziaja Apr 2024

The Secret Lives Of Environmental Rights, Sonya Ziaja

Pace Environmental Law Review

Do constitutional environmental rights change hearts and minds? How could they? This Essay describes three possible hypotheses of the relationships among constitutional environmental rights, meaning, and behavior: The Separate Domains Approach, The Constitutive Approach, and The Mutually Constitutive Approach. The theories underlying these hypotheses, and explored in this Essay, may provide some insight into constitutional environmental rights and how they may evolve throughout generations.


State Constitutions In The Woods, Quinn Yeargain Apr 2024

State Constitutions In The Woods, Quinn Yeargain

Pace Environmental Law Review

Before the adoption of environmental rights provisions beginning in the 1970s, most state constitutions did not contain provisions that protected the natural environment from degradation. Instead, to the contrary, many constitutions—especially in western states—contained policies that have long entrenched carbon-intensive infrastructures and have favored extractive industries. But starting in the early 1900s, a handful of states began amending their constitutions to incorporate environmental policy provisions. These additions helped preserve forested lands by giving state governments the power to respond to uncontrolled forest fires and adopt policies to prevent deforestation. Other amendments established fish and game commissions as constitutional entities, safeguarding …


Some Lessons For Crafting A State Constitution-Based Right To A Clean Environment, Heidi Gorovitz Robertson Apr 2024

Some Lessons For Crafting A State Constitution-Based Right To A Clean Environment, Heidi Gorovitz Robertson

Pace Environmental Law Review

While New York most recently added an environmental rights amendment to its constitution, Pennsylvania and Montana have had these amendments in their constitutions since the seventies. Hawaii, Rhode Island, Illinois, and Massachusetts have enacted weaker iterations of rights to a clean environment. Other states, like Maine, have faced challenges that blocked an amendment’s passage. This Article provides an initial analysis of the state environmental rights amendments currently in place, examining their origins, language, placement in the constitutions, and the major judicial decisions impacting their interpretation. It concludes by comparing the existing environmental rights amendments to the proposed amendment that failed …


Indigenizing The Right To A Healthy Environment, Elisabeth Parker, Heather Tanana Apr 2024

Indigenizing The Right To A Healthy Environment, Elisabeth Parker, Heather Tanana

Pace Environmental Law Review

The most severe impacts resulting from environmental degradation are experienced by already-vulnerable populations, including Indigenous peoples. A growing number of countries are formally recognizing the basic human right to a healthy environment, which can help realize environmental and climate justice for these communities. On July 28, 2022, the United Nations General Assembly passed a landmark resolution formally recognizing the human right to a clean, healthy, and sustainable environment. The adoption of this resolution represents a pivotal moment in the understanding and implementation of a human rights-based approach to protecting the environment. However, it is important to recognize that historically, Indigenous …


Green Amendments, Land Use, And Transportation: What Could Go Wrong?, Michael Lewyn Apr 2024

Green Amendments, Land Use, And Transportation: What Could Go Wrong?, Michael Lewyn

Pace Environmental Law Review

As more states amend their constitutions to include a green amendment, the vague nature of these amendments leaves a concerning amount of interpretative power to courts. This article examines how some courts have interpreted green amendments and how these interpretations risk the misuse of green amendments. Additionally, this article examines how such misuse may be avoided.


The Value Of Constitutional Environmental Rights And Public Trusts, John C. Dernbach Apr 2024

The Value Of Constitutional Environmental Rights And Public Trusts, John C. Dernbach

Pace Environmental Law Review

As part of the modern environmental movement of the 1970s, five states (Hawaii, Illinois, Massachusetts, Montana, and Pennsylvania) adopted constitutional amendments recognizing a right to a quality environment, a public trust for public natural resources, or both. Half a century later, there is a renewed interest in constitutional environmental rights, inspired in no small part by the failure of existing laws to adequately address the climate crisis. A sixth state (New York) recognized a constitutional right to a quality environment in 2021, and more than a dozen states are considering such amendments. Still, the great majority of environmental protection at …


130 Years And Counting Into Forever — New York's Forever Wild Constitutional Amendment And Lessons For Modern Green Amendments, Timothy E. Cox Apr 2024

130 Years And Counting Into Forever — New York's Forever Wild Constitutional Amendment And Lessons For Modern Green Amendments, Timothy E. Cox

Pace Environmental Law Review

In the 135 years of New York’s Forever Wild Amendment’s existence, it has been challenged by a range of court cases and thereby interpreted by courts throughout New York. The results of these cases frequently have upheld the heart of Forever Wild: to protect New York’s Forest Preserve land. This Article provides a history of the Forever Wild Amendment, an analysis of the courts’ and New York Attorney General’s interpretations of the Amendment, and a discussion of how this information can guide the future of New York’s Green Amendment.


Administering Environmental Justice: How New York’S Environmental Rights Amendment Could Transform Business As Usual, Rebecca Bratspies Apr 2024

Administering Environmental Justice: How New York’S Environmental Rights Amendment Could Transform Business As Usual, Rebecca Bratspies

Pace Environmental Law Review

Since New York became the latest state to pass an environmental rights amendment, there has been a great deal of analysis regarding how the judi- ciary will interpret the Green Amendment; however, state and local officials need not wait for the courts to enforce the Green Amendment. This Article explores the authority state and local officials have to carry out the purpose of the Green Amendment. Additionally, it discusses what the passage of the Green Amendment means in practice and how, and why, state officials such as the Attorney General should implement the Green Amendment.


Introduction, Marisa Barber Apr 2024

Introduction, Marisa Barber

Pace Environmental Law Review

Introduction


What The Trust? Overcoming Barriers To Renewable Energy Development In Indian Country, Malcolm M. Gilbert, Aspen B. Ward Apr 2024

What The Trust? Overcoming Barriers To Renewable Energy Development In Indian Country, Malcolm M. Gilbert, Aspen B. Ward

Public Land & Resources Law Review

No abstract provided.


Avoiding The Pitfalls In Administrative Record Review Cases, Kim Wilson, Brian Brammer Apr 2024

Avoiding The Pitfalls In Administrative Record Review Cases, Kim Wilson, Brian Brammer

Public Land & Resources Law Review

No abstract provided.


Corner Crossing: Unlocking Public Lands Or Invading The Airspace Of Landowners?, Kevin Frazier Apr 2024

Corner Crossing: Unlocking Public Lands Or Invading The Airspace Of Landowners?, Kevin Frazier

Public Land & Resources Law Review

No abstract provided.


States Of Mind Or State Of Crime: Exploring The Prosecution Of Environmental Crimes In The Western United States, Joshua Ozymy, Melissa Ozymy Apr 2024

States Of Mind Or State Of Crime: Exploring The Prosecution Of Environmental Crimes In The Western United States, Joshua Ozymy, Melissa Ozymy

Public Land & Resources Law Review

No abstract provided.


Cutting The Mussel's Threads: A Legal Perspective On Invasive Species, Hallee C. Frandsen Apr 2024

Cutting The Mussel's Threads: A Legal Perspective On Invasive Species, Hallee C. Frandsen

Public Land & Resources Law Review

No abstract provided.


Leveraging Esg Principles To Help Secure Critical Mineral Supply Chains, Kaycee May Royer Apr 2024

Leveraging Esg Principles To Help Secure Critical Mineral Supply Chains, Kaycee May Royer

Public Land & Resources Law Review

No abstract provided.


Editors And Staff Members Apr 2024

Editors And Staff Members

Public Land & Resources Law Review

No abstract provided.


Defrosting Regulatory Chill, Guillermo J. Garcia Sanchez Apr 2024

Defrosting Regulatory Chill, Guillermo J. Garcia Sanchez

Faculty Scholarship

In Homer’s Odyssey, King Odysseus asked his men to tie him to the mast of his ship with the hope that he would not jump into the sea after listening to the Sirens. The Odyssey’s hero made a pact to bind himself in the future. He knew that the temptation would be impossible to resist without restraints. Similarly, the creators and advocates of international investment agreements believe that providing rights to foreign investors through international treaties will chill State policies that would harm the interests of investors in the future. The “rope” to tie the State is the threat of …


Pursuing The Exemption: The Makah's White Whale, Sarah Van Voorhis Mar 2024

Pursuing The Exemption: The Makah's White Whale, Sarah Van Voorhis

Washington Journal of Social & Environmental Justice

No abstract provided.


Recent Case Decisions Mar 2024

Recent Case Decisions

Oil and Gas, Natural Resources, and Energy Journal

No abstract provided.