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The National Security Consequences Of The Major Questions Doctrine, Timothy Meyer, Ganesh Sitaraman Oct 2023

The National Security Consequences Of The Major Questions Doctrine, Timothy Meyer, Ganesh Sitaraman

Michigan Law Review

The rise of the major questions doctrine—the rule that says that in order to delegate to the executive branch the power to resolve a “question of ‘deep economic and political significance’ that is central to [a] statutory scheme,” Congress must do so expressly—threatens to unmake the modern executive’s authority over foreign affairs, especially in matters of national security and interstate conflict. In the twenty-first century, global conflicts increasingly involve economic warfare, rather than (or in addition to) the force of arms.

In the United States, the executive power to levy economic sanctions and engage in other forms of economic warfare …


Separate And Unequal: The Law Of "Domestic" And "International" Terrorism, Shirin Sinnar Jan 2019

Separate And Unequal: The Law Of "Domestic" And "International" Terrorism, Shirin Sinnar

Michigan Law Review

U.S. law differentiates between two categories of terrorism. “International terrorism” covers threats with a putative international nexus, even when they stem from U.S. citizens or residents acting only within the United States. “Domestic terrorism” applies to political violence thought to be purely domestic in its origin and intended impact. The law permits broader surveillance, wider criminal charges, and more punitive treatment for crimes labeled international terrorism. Law enforcement agencies frequently consider U.S. Muslims “international” threats even when they have scant foreign ties. As a result, they police and punish them more intensely than white nationalists and other “domestic” threats. This …


Extraterritorial Criminal Jurisdiction, Michael Farbiarz Feb 2016

Extraterritorial Criminal Jurisdiction, Michael Farbiarz

Michigan Law Review

Over and over again during the past few decades, the federal government has launched ambitious international prosecutions in the service of U.S. national security goals. These extraterritorial prosecutions of terrorists, arms traffickers, and drug lords have forced courts to grapple with a question that has long been latent in the law: What outer boundaries does the Constitution place on criminal jurisdiction? Answering this question, the federal courts have crafted a new due process jurisprudence. This Article argues that this jurisprudence is fundamentally wrong. By implicitly constitutionalizing concerns for international comity, the new due process jurisprudence usurps the popular branches’ traditional …


The Sweeping Domestic War Powers Of Congress, Saikrishna Bangalore Prakash Jun 2015

The Sweeping Domestic War Powers Of Congress, Saikrishna Bangalore Prakash

Michigan Law Review

With the Habeas Clause standing as a curious exception, the Constitution seems mysteriously mute regarding federal authority during invasions and rebellions. In truth, the Constitution speaks volumes about these domestic wars. The inability to perceive the contours of the domestic wartime Constitution stems, in part, from unfamiliarity with the multifarious emergency legislation enacted during the Revolutionary War. During that war, state and national legislatures authorized the seizure of property, military trial of civilians, and temporary dictatorships. Ratified against the backdrop of these fairly recent wartime measures, the Constitution, via the Necessary and Proper Clause and other provisions, rather clearly augmented …


The Legality Of Deliberate Miranda Violations: How Two-Step National Security Interrogations Undermine Miranda And Destabilize Fifth Amendment Protections, Lee Ross Crain Dec 2013

The Legality Of Deliberate Miranda Violations: How Two-Step National Security Interrogations Undermine Miranda And Destabilize Fifth Amendment Protections, Lee Ross Crain

Michigan Law Review

As part of the global “War on Terror,” federal agents intentionally delay issuing Miranda warnings to terrorism suspects during custodial interrogations. They delay the warnings presuming that unwarned suspects will more freely offer vital national security intelligence. After a suspect offers the information he has, agents administer Miranda warnings and attempt to elicit confessions that prosecutors can use at the suspect’s trial. No court has ruled on the constitutionality of this two-step national security interrogation process to determine whether admitting the second, warned confession is allowed under Miranda v. Arizona and its progeny. A fragmented Supreme Court examined two-step interrogations …


Beyond The Battlefield, Beyond Al Qaeda: The Destabilizing Legal Architecture Of Counterterrorism, Robert M. Chesney Nov 2013

Beyond The Battlefield, Beyond Al Qaeda: The Destabilizing Legal Architecture Of Counterterrorism, Robert M. Chesney

Michigan Law Review

By the end of the first post-9/11 decade, the legal architecture associated with the U.S. government’s use of military detention and lethal force in the counterterrorism setting had come to seem relatively stable, supported by a remarkable degree of cross-branch and cross-party consensus (manifested by legislation, judicial decisions, and consistency of policy across two very different presidential administrations). That stability is certain to collapse during the second post-9/11 decade, however, thanks to the rapid erosion of two factors that have played a critical role in generating the recent appearance of consensus: the existence of an undisputed armed conflict in Afghanistan, …


The Fight To Frame Privacy, Woodrow Hartzog Apr 2013

The Fight To Frame Privacy, Woodrow Hartzog

Michigan Law Review

In his important new book, Nothing to Hide: The False Tradeoff Between Privacy and Security, Daniel Solove argues that if we continue to view privacy and security as diametrically opposed to each other, privacy will always lose. Solove argues that the predetermined abandonment of privacy in security-related disputes means that the structure of the privacy-security debate is inherently flawed. Solove understands that privacy is far too vital to our freedom and democracy to accept its inevitable demise. The central thesis of this Review is that Solove's polemic is a strong and desperately needed collection of frames that counterbalances the "nothing …


Cyberattacks And The Covert Action Statute: Toward A Domestic Legal Framework For Offensive Cyberoperations, Aaron P. Brecher Dec 2012

Cyberattacks And The Covert Action Statute: Toward A Domestic Legal Framework For Offensive Cyberoperations, Aaron P. Brecher

Michigan Law Review

Cyberattacks are capable of penetrating and disabling vital national infrastructure, causing catastrophic economic harms, and approximating the effects of war, all from remote locations and without the use of conventional weapons. They can be nearly impossible to attribute definitively to their sources and require relatively few resources to launch. The United States is vulnerable to cyberattacks but also uniquely capable of carrying out cyberattacks of its own. To do so effectively, the United States requires a legal regime that is well suited to cyberattacks' unique attributes and that preserves executive discretion while inducing the executive branch to coordinate with Congress. …


Detention Debates, Deborah N. Pearlstein Jan 2012

Detention Debates, Deborah N. Pearlstein

Michigan Law Review

Since the United States began detaining people in efforts it has characterized, with greater and lesser accuracy, as part of global counterterrorism operations, U.S. detention programs have spawned more than 200 different lawsuits producing 6 Supreme Court decisions, 4 major pieces of legislation, at least 7 executive orders across 2 presidential administrations, more than 100 books, 231 law review articles (counting only those with the word "Guantanamo" in the title), dozens of reports by nongovernmental organizations, and countless news and analysis articles from media outlets in and out of the mainstream. For those in the academic and policy communities who …


Aldous Huxley's Brave New World - Still A Chilling Vision After All These Years, Bob Barr Apr 2010

Aldous Huxley's Brave New World - Still A Chilling Vision After All These Years, Bob Barr

Michigan Law Review

In Part I of this Review, I provide an overview of Brave New World and place it in its proper historical context. In Part II, I explore the parallels between Huxley's World State and post-9/11 America. In Part III, I argue that Brave New World provides prescient warning signs about the dangers of excessive government interference in the economy-warning signs that are of particular importance in the face of the recent economic crisis.


Do We Need A New Fourth Amendment?, Orin S. Kerr Apr 2009

Do We Need A New Fourth Amendment?, Orin S. Kerr

Michigan Law Review

Slobogin's book offers a new conceptualization of the Fourth Amendment rooted in what he calls the proportionality principle: An investigative technique should be permitted under the Constitution only if the strength of the government's justification for the technique is roughly proportionate to the level of intrusion it causes . Slobogin roots this principle in Terry v. Ohio and its pragmatic balancing of law-enforcement and privacy interests. To determine how much justification the Fourth Amendment requires, Slobogin argues, courts should assess the intrusiveness of the investigatory technique and then set a proportionate threshold of proof that the government must show. The …


Peace Through Law? The Failure Of A Noble Experiment, Robert J. Delahunty, John C. Yoo Apr 2008

Peace Through Law? The Failure Of A Noble Experiment, Robert J. Delahunty, John C. Yoo

Michigan Law Review

Ever since its publication in 1929, Erich Maria Remarque's All Quiet on the Western Front has been regarded as a landmark of antiwar literature. Appearing a decade after the end of the First World War, the novel became a literary sensation almost overnight. Within a year of publication, it had been translated into twenty languages, including Chinese, and by April 1930, sales for twelve of the twenty editions stood at 2.5 million. Remarque was reputed to have the largest readership in the world. Hollywood took note, and an equally successful film appeared in 1930. The success of the novel was …


Weakening The Bill Of Rights: A Victory For Terrorism, Stephen Reinhardt Apr 2008

Weakening The Bill Of Rights: A Victory For Terrorism, Stephen Reinhardt

Michigan Law Review

What is most remarkable about Richard Posner's latest book-and he has written many-is that he argues that we should repose full confidence in the executive branch to handle the most sensitive constitutional issues of our time without once mentioning the flagrant breaches of law and critical falsehoods with which President Bush and his administration have deluged the public since 9/11. This only seven years after he composed a lengthy tome regarding President Clinton's impeachment in which he appropriately, if harshly, condemned the president for his unethical and illegal conduct, principally his deliberate lies and purposeful lack of candor with the …


"Quotidian" Judges Vs. Al-Qaeda, Mark S. Davies Apr 2007

"Quotidian" Judges Vs. Al-Qaeda, Mark S. Davies

Michigan Law Review

In Terror in the Balance: Security, Liberty, and the Courts, University of Chicago law professors Eric A. Posner and Adrian Vermeule invite those of us worried about the American response to al-Qaeda to consider the proper role of judges. Judges, of course, are not being dispatched to the hills of Pakistan nor are they securing our borders or buildings. But as the executive seeks to implement a range of new policies in the name of protecting us from al-Qaeda, the judicial treatment of these policies shapes the American response. Posner and Vermeule suggest a kind of Hippocratic view of …


Burkean Minimalism, Cass R. Sunstein Nov 2006

Burkean Minimalism, Cass R. Sunstein

Michigan Law Review

Burkean minimalism has long played an important role in constitutional law. Like other judicial minimalists, Burkeans believe in rulings that are at once narrow and theoretically unambitious; what Burkeans add is an insistence on respect for traditional practices and an intense distrust of those who would renovate social practices by reference to moral or political reasoning of their own. An understanding of the uses and limits of Burkean minimalism helps to illuminate a number of current debates, including those involving substantive due process, the Establishment Clause, and the power of the president to protect national security. Burkean minimalists oppose, and …


The Limits Of Courage And Principle, Jedediah Purdy Jan 2006

The Limits Of Courage And Principle, Jedediah Purdy

Michigan Law Review

Michael Ignatieff, the director of the Carr Center for Human Rights at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government, is not a lawyer. His work, however, treats issues of core concern to lawyers: nation-building, human rights, the ethics of warfare, and now, in his latest book, the proper relationship between liberty and security. The Lesser Evil is, in part, a book a legal scholar might have written: a normative framework for lawmaking in the face of the terror threat. It is also something more unusual: an exercise in an older type of jurisprudence. Ignatieff discusses law in the light of moral psychology …


Beyond The "War" On Terrorism: Towards The New Intelligence Network, Ronald D. Lee, Paul M. Schwartz Jan 2005

Beyond The "War" On Terrorism: Towards The New Intelligence Network, Ronald D. Lee, Paul M. Schwartz

Michigan Law Review

In Terrorism, Freedom, and Security, Philip B. Heymann undertakes a wide-ranging study of how the United States can - and in his view should - respond to the threat of international terrorism. A former Deputy Attorney General of the United States Department of Justice ("DOJ") and current James Barr Ames Professor of Law at Harvard Law School, Heymann draws on his governmental experience and jurisprudential background in developing a series of nuanced approaches to preventing terrorism. Heymann makes clear his own policy and legal preferences. First, as his choice of subtitle suggests, he firmly rejects the widely used metaphor …


Checks And Balances In Wartime: American British And Israeli Experiences, Stephen J. Schulhofer Jan 2004

Checks And Balances In Wartime: American British And Israeli Experiences, Stephen J. Schulhofer

Michigan Law Review

Three years after an attack that traumatized the nation and prompted massive military and law-enforcement counter-measures, we continue to wrestle with the central dilemma of the rule of law. Which is more to be feared - the danger of unchecked executive and military power, or the danger of terrorist attacks that only an unconstrained executive could prevent? Posed in varying configurations, the question has already generated extensive litigation since September 11, 2001, and a dozen major appellate rulings. Last Term's Supreme Court trilogy - Rasul v. Bush, Hamdi v. Rumsfeld and Rumsfeld v. Padilla - clarified several important points …


Judging The Next Emergency: Judicial Review And Individual Rights In Times Of Crisis, David Cole Aug 2003

Judging The Next Emergency: Judicial Review And Individual Rights In Times Of Crisis, David Cole

Michigan Law Review

As virtually every law student who studies Marbury v. Madison learns, Chief Justice John Marshall's tactical genius was to establish judicial review in a case where the result could not be challenged. As a technical matter, Marbury lost, and the executive branch won. As furious as President Jefferson reportedly was with the decision, there was nothing he could do about it, for there was no mandate to defy. The Court's decision offered no remedy for Marbury himself, whose rights were directly at issue, and whose rights the Court found had indeed been violated. But over time, it became clear that …


Civil Liberties And The Terrorism Prevention Paradigm: The Guilt By Association Critique, Robert M. Chesney May 2003

Civil Liberties And The Terrorism Prevention Paradigm: The Guilt By Association Critique, Robert M. Chesney

Michigan Law Review

Faysal Galab is a twenty-seven-year-old American citizen of Yemeni descent who was born and raised in Buffalo, New York. He is married, has three children, and used to run a gas station in the Buffalo suburb of Lackawanna. Perhaps you have heard of him; he will be spending some or all of the next ten years in federal prison because in spring of 2001 he and six other Lackawanna residents traveled to Afghanistan and trained with Al Qaeda.


Executive Detention In Time Of War, Richard A. Posner May 1994

Executive Detention In Time Of War, Richard A. Posner

Michigan Law Review

A Review of In the Highest Degree Odious: Detention Without Trial in Wartime Britain by A.W. Brian Simpson


Right V. Might: International Law And The Use Of Force, Craig T. Smith May 1990

Right V. Might: International Law And The Use Of Force, Craig T. Smith

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Right v. Might: International Law and the Use of Force Edited by The Council on Foreign Relations


The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: Legislating A Judicial Role In National Security Surveillance, Michigan Law Review Jun 1980

The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: Legislating A Judicial Role In National Security Surveillance, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

This Note evaluates the constitutionality of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act. Section I summarizes the legal history of national security surveillance from 1940 until the passage of the FISA, and briefly discusses the three major circuit court rulings on warrantless foreign intelligence surveillance. Section II describes the provisions of the Act. Section III examines the Act's constitutionality, first considering the scope of congressional authority to regulate the conduct of foreign affairs, then considering whether the political question doctrine prevents judicial scrutiny of executive decisions to conduct foreign intelligence surveillance. The Note concludes that the FISA is an appropriate and constitutional …


Terrorism And The Democratic State, Alona E. Evans Mar 1979

Terrorism And The Democratic State, Alona E. Evans

Michigan Law Review

A Review of A Time of Terror: How Democratic Societies Respond to Revolutionary Violence by J. Bowyer Bell


The Schneiderman Case: An Inside View Of The Roosevelt Court, Jeffrey F. Liss Jan 1976

The Schneiderman Case: An Inside View Of The Roosevelt Court, Jeffrey F. Liss

Michigan Law Review

Only rarely in the study of Supreme Court history do events, personalities, records, and historical sources converge to afford an intimate view of that institution. Schneiderman v. United States, in its own right an important decision in the field of denaturalization law, provides such an opportunity. The manuscript collections of the major adversaries on the Court are well-preserved, and a surviving major figure from among the parties to ·the litigation has provided personal insight into the intricacies of the case.


Extraterritorial Jurisdiction And Jurisdiction Following Forcible Abduction: A New Israeli Precedent In International Law, Michigan Law Review Apr 1974

Extraterritorial Jurisdiction And Jurisdiction Following Forcible Abduction: A New Israeli Precedent In International Law, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

An Israeli military court recently convicted Faik Bulut, a twenty three-year-old Turkish citizen, of the offense of belonging to Al-Fatah in Lebanon and Syria and sentenced him to seven years in prison. Bulut was captured in February 1972 during an Israeli raid 100 miles into Lebanon. Ten fedayeen, who were captured in Lebanon later in 1972, were scheduled to follow Bulut into court to be tried for the same offense. These are the first cases to be tried under a 1972 amendment to the Israeli Penal Law (Offenses Committed Abroad), which states in part: "The courts in Israel are competent …


Bedi: Freedom Of Expression And Security: A Comparative Study Of The Function Of The Supreme Courts Of The United States And India, Chester J. Antieau Dec 1967

Bedi: Freedom Of Expression And Security: A Comparative Study Of The Function Of The Supreme Courts Of The United States And India, Chester J. Antieau

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Freedom of Expression and Security: A Comparative Study of the Function of the Supreme Courts of the United States and India by A.S. Bedi


Sections 184 And 185 Of The Invention Secrecy Act--An Ambiguous And Unnecessary Obstruction To Foreign Patenting, Michigan Law Review Jan 1966

Sections 184 And 185 Of The Invention Secrecy Act--An Ambiguous And Unnecessary Obstruction To Foreign Patenting, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

Several recent decisions have revealed an ambiguity in sections 184 and 185 of the Invention Secrecy Act. Section 184 allows the filing of a patent application in a foreign country only upon receipt of a license from the Patent Commissioner or after the expiration of a six-month period which begins when the application is submitted to the United States Patent Office for examination. If this section is violated inadvertently by unlicensed foreign filing within six months of the filing in the United States Patent Office, the Patent Commissioner is empowered to issue a license that retroactively validates the prior foreign …


Jacobson: Diplomats, Scientists, And Politicians: The United States And The Nuclear Test Ban Negotiations, Bernard G. Bechhoefer Jan 1966

Jacobson: Diplomats, Scientists, And Politicians: The United States And The Nuclear Test Ban Negotiations, Bernard G. Bechhoefer

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Diplomats, Scientists, and Politicians: The United States and the Nuclear Test Ban Negotiations by Harold Karan Jacobson and Eric Stein.


Crimes Against Humanity And The Principle Of Nonextradition Of Political Offenders, Manuel R. Garcia-Mora Apr 1964

Crimes Against Humanity And The Principle Of Nonextradition Of Political Offenders, Manuel R. Garcia-Mora

Michigan Law Review

It is thus the purpose of this article to discuss the nature of crimes against humanity in an effort to determine whether they can be classified as political offenses. It is hoped that from the uncertainty and confusion which appear to underlie the practice of the State, some useful legal principles may be extracted.