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Military, War, and Peace

2007

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Articles 1 - 30 of 169

Full-Text Articles in Law

The Political Balance Of Power Over The Military: Rethinking The Relationship Between The Armed Forces, The President, And Congress, Geoffery S. Corn, Eric Talbot Jensen Dec 2007

The Political Balance Of Power Over The Military: Rethinking The Relationship Between The Armed Forces, The President, And Congress, Geoffery S. Corn, Eric Talbot Jensen

Faculty Scholarship

Recent events related to the planning and execution of the war in Iraq, most notably the perceived 2003 "firing" of then Army Chief of Staff Eric Shinseki, have raised concerns over the effect of Executive Branch dominance of the military and how that dominance impacts the ability of Congress to obtain timely and important information. Such actions, perceived to discourage members of the military from providing candid views to Congress when they differ with the Administration, even if implied instead of express, strike at the very core of the founder's intent to balance military power within the national government. The …


The Icj's Uganda Wall: A Barrier To The Principle Of Distinction And An Entry Point For Lawfare, Eric Talbot Jensen Dec 2007

The Icj's Uganda Wall: A Barrier To The Principle Of Distinction And An Entry Point For Lawfare, Eric Talbot Jensen

Faculty Scholarship

The intermixing of combatants with civilians while engaging in hostilities violates one of the most fundamental principles of the law of armed conflict: the principle of distinction. This bedrock principle of the law of war requires those involved in conflict to mark themselves so they can be distinguished from those who are not involved in combat. The most common method of compliance is for combatants to wear a uniform. By requiring distinction, both combatants and civilians know who is involved in the combat and who is not. Derogation from the principle of distinction is among the most serious issues facing …


Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Eric Talbot Jensen Dec 2007

Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Eric Talbot Jensen

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Shake & Bake: Dual-Use Chemicals, Contexts, And The Illegality Of American White Phosphorus Attacks In Iraq, Joseph D. Tessier Dec 2007

Shake & Bake: Dual-Use Chemicals, Contexts, And The Illegality Of American White Phosphorus Attacks In Iraq, Joseph D. Tessier

The University of New Hampshire Law Review

[Excerpt] “On November 29, 2005, in a Department of Defense press conference with Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld and Gen. Peter Pace, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Pace stated that white phosphorus “is a legitimate tool of the military,” and can be used for illumination, smoke, and incendiary purposes. Incredibly, the Department of Defense released an addendum to the press conference clarifying that white phosphorus was not used as an incendiary weapon. According to General Pace, “it was well within the law of war to use white phosphorus . . . for marking and screening.” This was …


Extending Hamdan V. Rumsfeld To Combatant Status Review Tribunals, Brian M. Christensen Dec 2007

Extending Hamdan V. Rumsfeld To Combatant Status Review Tribunals, Brian M. Christensen

BYU Law Review

No abstract provided.


Prologue To A Voluntarist War Convention, Robert D. Sloane Dec 2007

Prologue To A Voluntarist War Convention, Robert D. Sloane

Michigan Law Review

This Article attempts to identify and clarify what is genuinely new about the "new paradigm" of armed conflict after the attacks of September 11, 2001. Assuming that sound policy counsels treating certain aspects of the global struggle against modern transnational terrorist networks within the legal rubric of war, this Article stresses that the principal challenge such networks pose is that they require international humanitarian law, somewhat incongruously, to graft conventions-in both the formal and informal senses of that word-onto an unconventional form of organized violence. Furthermore, this process occurs in a context in which one diffuse "party" to the conflict …


Terrorism As An Intellectual Problem, Charles W. Collier Dec 2007

Terrorism As An Intellectual Problem, Charles W. Collier

UF Law Faculty Publications

The past few years have been instructive for observers of religious terrorism. Events have conspired to reveal ever more of its grim visage, inner logic, and awful potential. Religious terrorism has been exhaustively analyzed as a security problem, a military problem, an economic problem, a political problem, and more. But it is also an intellectual problem, one with particular implications for the study of law, culture, and history. This Essay examines the intellectual assumptions of religious terrorism, and it does so from three distinct perspectives: the theory of religion and American constitutional law (Part I); the common law (Part II); …


Legal Dilemmas In A Dangerous World: Law, Terrorism And National Security, Roger Williams University School Of Law Nov 2007

Legal Dilemmas In A Dangerous World: Law, Terrorism And National Security, Roger Williams University School Of Law

School of Law Conferences, Lectures & Events

No abstract provided.


Marten Zwanenburg On Un Peacekeeping In Lebanon, Somalia And Kosovo: Operational And Legal Issues In Practice By Ray Murphy. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. 392 Pp., Marten Zwanenburg Nov 2007

Marten Zwanenburg On Un Peacekeeping In Lebanon, Somalia And Kosovo: Operational And Legal Issues In Practice By Ray Murphy. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. 392 Pp., Marten Zwanenburg

Human Rights & Human Welfare

A review of:

UN Peacekeeping in Lebanon, Somalia and Kosovo: Operational and Legal Issues in Practice by Ray Murphy. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. 392 pp.


Us Policy On Small Arms Transfers: A Human Rights Perspective, Susan Waltz Oct 2007

Us Policy On Small Arms Transfers: A Human Rights Perspective, Susan Waltz

Human Rights & Human Welfare

From Somalia and Afghanistan to Bosnia, Haiti, Colombia, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Liberia and Congo, small arms and light weapons were a common feature of the human rights calamities of the 1990’s.

© Susan Waltz. All rights reserved.*

*A shorter version of this paper is published as “U.S. Small Arms Policy: Having It Both Ways,” in the Summer 2007 issue of World Policy Journal.

This paper may be freely circulated in electronic or hard copy provided it is not modified in any way, the rights of the author not infringed, and the paper is not quoted or cited without express permission …


The Application Of The Religious Freedom Restoration Act To Appearance Regulations That Presumptively Prohibit Observant Sikh Lawyers From Joining The U.S. Army Judge Advocate General Corps, Rajdeep Singh Jolly Oct 2007

The Application Of The Religious Freedom Restoration Act To Appearance Regulations That Presumptively Prohibit Observant Sikh Lawyers From Joining The U.S. Army Judge Advocate General Corps, Rajdeep Singh Jolly

W&M Law Student Publications

Observant Sikh lawyers are presumptively prohibited from joining the U.S. Army Judge Advocate General (JAG) Corps because they cannot satisfy the Army's appearance regulations. This essay argues that this presumptive prohibition violates the Religious Freedom Restoration Act (RFRA). Under RFRA, the federal government may substantially burden an individual's exercise of religion only if it demonstrates that its application of the burden furthers a compelling governmental interest by the least restrictive means.' The Army's appearance regulations are designed to promote two interests-uniformity and safety. In the course of furthering these interests, the Army's appearance regulations effectively preclude observant Sikhs from joining …


Eric K. Leonard On Atrocity, Punishment, And International Law By Mark A. Drumbl. New York, Cambridge University Press, 2007. 316 Pp., Eric K. Leonard Oct 2007

Eric K. Leonard On Atrocity, Punishment, And International Law By Mark A. Drumbl. New York, Cambridge University Press, 2007. 316 Pp., Eric K. Leonard

Human Rights & Human Welfare

A review of:

Atrocity, Punishment, and International Law by Mark A. Drumbl. New York, Cambridge University Press, 2007. 316 pp.


The Least We Can Do, Susan E. Waltz Oct 2007

The Least We Can Do, Susan E. Waltz

Human Rights & Human Welfare

In the early months of 2003, when the U.S. was only threatening war, humanitarian relief organizations expected thousands of refugees to flee from Iraq into neighboring countries of Jordan and Syria. They were surprised when it did not happen. Four years later, the anticipated wave has at last arrived—and in tsunami proportions.


Iraqi Resettlement: Why Congress Will Act, David A. Weinberg Oct 2007

Iraqi Resettlement: Why Congress Will Act, David A. Weinberg

Human Rights & Human Welfare

I would like to commend Human Rights & Human Welfare for their recent roundtable on the Iraqi refugee crisis. The Roundtable rightly draws attention to the United States government’s woefully inadequate efforts thus far to address a major humanitarian crisis of its own making.

However, I do not agree with Professor Daniel Whelan’s assessment of “why Congress won’t act” on Iraqi resettlement. Dr. Whelan argues that the new Congress appears reluctant to resettle a reasonable number of Iraqi refugees in danger because Democrats fear that doing so would precipitate Iraqi state failure by means of “brain drain.” Instead, I would …


Crafting Military Commissions Post-Hamdan: The Military Commissions Act Of 2006, Douglas A. Hass Oct 2007

Crafting Military Commissions Post-Hamdan: The Military Commissions Act Of 2006, Douglas A. Hass

Indiana Law Journal

In June 2006, the Supreme Court invalidated President Bush's military commission rules in Hamdan v. Rumsfeld. The Court held that the military commissions fell outside of the military court system established by Congress, and ruled the commissions unconstitutional as applied to both citizens and non-citizens. Congress responded with the Military Commissions Act of 2006 ("the Act"), new legislation to establish military commissions. The Act fails to balance properly the Court's fairness requirements with the extraordinary demands placed on the laws of war by terrorism.

This Note summarizes whether terrorist attacks implicate the laws of war, what protections are due parties …


The Iraq Debacle: The Rise And Fall Of Procurement-Aided Unilateralism As A Paradigm Of Foreign War, Charles Tiefer Oct 2007

The Iraq Debacle: The Rise And Fall Of Procurement-Aided Unilateralism As A Paradigm Of Foreign War, Charles Tiefer

All Faculty Scholarship

Four years of American mishandling of procurement of military support and reconstruction in Iraq insurgency has produced countless examples of waste and abuse. This can be attributed to three factors. First, the United State's diminished use of competitive contracting minimized scrutiny of the contractor's performance. Second, the Government's unilateralist approach to reconstruction overburdened the administration with the political and financial costs of "nation-building." Third, the United States' failure to account for Iraqi funds eliminated checks on misguided procurement and other spending. In this article, the author discusses the intersection of acquisition reform in the context of the United States' unilateral …


Fleeing From Violence Versus Fleeing From Poverty, Michael Goodhart Oct 2007

Fleeing From Violence Versus Fleeing From Poverty, Michael Goodhart

Human Rights & Human Welfare

Nour al Khal worked as a translator for New York Times reporter Steven Vincent, who was murdered by Shiite militants in Iraq. Vincent’s widow has been trying to help al Khal (who was kidnapped and shot by the same group who killed Vincent) win asylum in the United States. So far political and bureaucratic obstacles have proven insurmountable.


October Roundtable: Introduction Oct 2007

October Roundtable: Introduction

Human Rights & Human Welfare

An annotation of:

“No Refuge Here: Iraqis Flee, but Where?” by Joseph Huff-Hannon. Dissent. Summer 2007.


Would Iraqi Refugees Please Disappear, Richard A. Falk Oct 2007

Would Iraqi Refugees Please Disappear, Richard A. Falk

Human Rights & Human Welfare

I am grateful to Joseph Huff-Hannon for drawing our attention vividly and movingly to the plight of Iraqi refugees, its magnitude and cruelty. There are more than two million Iraqi refugees, with an estimated 50,000 per month added to the total. Many are languishing in terrible conditions in such neighboring countries as Syria and Jordan. These states, neither of which are notable as places of refuge, lack the capabilities for humane treatment even if their governments were altruistically inclined. Many Iraqis cannot even find such refuge, and remain hapless nomads in search of a sanctuary country. The U.S. refusal to …


Will Refuge Continue To Be Elusive, Katherine Gockel Oct 2007

Will Refuge Continue To Be Elusive, Katherine Gockel

Human Rights & Human Welfare

According to U.N. estimates, if current trends continue, the number of Iraqi asylum seekers by year-end could reach between 40,000 to 50,000. The influx of Iraqis into states such as Syria and Jordan also threatens to be a destabilizing force in those countries. Therefore, it is unreasonable to expect these states to individually cope with migration flows of this magnitude.


Iraqi Resettlement: Why Congress Won't Act, Daniel J. Whelan Oct 2007

Iraqi Resettlement: Why Congress Won't Act, Daniel J. Whelan

Human Rights & Human Welfare

After making an excellent case for the plight of Iraqi asylum seekers who have served as valuable allies to the United States in Iraq, Joseph Huff-Hannon’s article suggests that Congress should play a stronger role in developing a resettlement policy to allow Iraqis, who have been on “our side,” to come to the U.S. Given the current political climate on Iraq—and with Congressional Democrats desperate to score some kind of victory in its battle with the Bush White House—what exactly is holding them back?


International Law And Constitutional Interpretation: The Commander In Chief Clause Reconsidered, Ingrid Brunk Wuerth Oct 2007

International Law And Constitutional Interpretation: The Commander In Chief Clause Reconsidered, Ingrid Brunk Wuerth

Michigan Law Review

The Commander in Chief Clause is a difficult, underexplored area of constitutional interpretation. It is also a context in which international law is often mentioned, but not fully defended, as a possible method of interpreting the Constitution. This Article analyzes why the Commander in Chief Clause is difficult and argues that international law helps resolve some of the problems that the Clause presents. Because of weaknesses in originalist analysis, changes over time, and lack of judicial competence in military matters, the Court and commentators have relied on second-order interpretive norms like congressional authorization and executive branch practice in interpreting the …


Endless Emergency: The Case Of Egypt, Sadiq Reza Oct 2007

Endless Emergency: The Case Of Egypt, Sadiq Reza

Faculty Scholarship

The Arab Republic of Egypt has been in a declared state of emergency continuously since 1981 and for all but three of the past fifty years. Emergency powers, military courts, and other exceptional powers are governed by longstanding statutes in Egypt and authorized by the constitution, and their use is a prominent feature of everyday rule there today. This essay presents Egypt as a case study in what is essentially permanent governance by emergency rule and other exceptional measures. It summarizes the history and framework of emergency rule in Egypt, discusses the apparent purposes and consequences of that rule, mentions …


Bribes V. Bombs: A Study In Coasean Warfare, Gideon Parchomovsky, Peter Siegelman Sep 2007

Bribes V. Bombs: A Study In Coasean Warfare, Gideon Parchomovsky, Peter Siegelman

All Faculty Scholarship

The use of bribes to co-opt an enemy’s forces can be a more effective way to wage war than the conventional use of force: Relative to bombs, bribes can save lives and resources, and preserve civic institutions. This essay evaluates the efficacy and normative desirability of selectively substituting bribes for bombs as a means of warfare. We show how inter-country disparities in wealth, differences in military strength, the organization of the bribing and recipient forces, uncertainty about the outcome of the conflict, and communications technology can contribute to the efficacy of bribes. We discuss methods for enforcing bargains struck between …


Wars Against Civilians Are Unjust Wars, Richard A. Falk Sep 2007

Wars Against Civilians Are Unjust Wars, Richard A. Falk

Human Rights & Human Welfare

For those of us old enough to recall the anti-war testimony of Vietnam vets during the early 1970s, reading the chilling report by Hedges and Al-Arian on the attitudes of Iraq war vets is shocking, and yet not surprising. It is shocking because of the eyewitness confirmation of cruelty and lethal brutality on a regular basis in the interactions between the coalition army of occupation and Iraqi civilian society. Sadly, it is not shocking because of the nature of the violent resistance to occupation being encountered by American forces in Iraq, giving rise to a Vietnam-style mentality of counterinsurgency in …


Facing Up To The Truth, Susan E. Waltz Sep 2007

Facing Up To The Truth, Susan E. Waltz

Human Rights & Human Welfare

American GIs who liberated Dachau from the Nazis in April 1945 exist in our collective memory as iconic representations of the American soldier-hero: competent and capable, disciplined, principled and fundamentally good. From their collective example, we expect American soldiers to reveal, report, and excoriate war crimes. This makes it difficult to acknowledge that Americans may also commit war crimes—and on a regular basis.


Saddam Hussein And The Ist On Trial: The Case For The Icc, Heidi M. Spalholz Sep 2007

Saddam Hussein And The Ist On Trial: The Case For The Icc, Heidi M. Spalholz

Buffalo Human Rights Law Review

No abstract provided.


September Roundtable: Introduction Sep 2007

September Roundtable: Introduction

Human Rights & Human Welfare

An annotation of:

“The Other War: Iraq Vets Bear Witness” by Chris Hedges and Laila Al-Arian. The Nation, July 30, 2007.


Occupational Hazard, Michael Goodhart Sep 2007

Occupational Hazard, Michael Goodhart

Human Rights & Human Welfare

“The Other War” describes how the patrols, supply convoys, checkpoints, raids, and arrests, which make up the daily routines of U.S. soldiers in Iraq, sometimes involve degrading and abusive treatment of Iraqi civilians. Through interviews with some of those soldiers, the article portrays the everyday tragedy of the Iraq war and demonstrates how the very policies used to “secure” the country are creating greater insecurity and sparking Iraqi resentment of the occupation. The authors’ main point is that such abuses are inevitable under what they call “misguided and brutal colonial wars and occupations” like Iraq, “the French occupation of Algeria… …


Bad Apples Or Bad Policies?, Daniel J. Whelan Sep 2007

Bad Apples Or Bad Policies?, Daniel J. Whelan

Human Rights & Human Welfare

In a scene from the Woody Allen film Hannah and Her Sisters, the haughty and cantankerous character Frederick (Max von Sydow) is telling his girlfriend (Barbara Hershey) how he spent the evening flipping through channels on television. Ever the arrogant social critic, Frederick remarks,

You missed a very dull TV show on Auschwitz. More gruesome film clips. And more puzzled intellectuals declaring their mystification over the systematic murder of millions. The reason they can never answer the question: “How could it possibly happen?” is that it’s the wrong question. Given what people are, the question is: “Why doesn't it happen …