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Legal Ethics and Professional Responsibility

St. Mary's Law Journal

U.S. Const. amend. XIV

Articles 1 - 13 of 13

Full-Text Articles in Law

Sandbagging Closed Texas Courtrooms With Senate Bill 15: The Texas Legislature's Attempt To Control Frivolous Silicosis Claims Without Restricting The Constitutional Rights Of Silicosis Sufferers., John G. George Jan 2006

Sandbagging Closed Texas Courtrooms With Senate Bill 15: The Texas Legislature's Attempt To Control Frivolous Silicosis Claims Without Restricting The Constitutional Rights Of Silicosis Sufferers., John G. George

St. Mary's Law Journal

In the 1980s, Texas became a focal point for silicosis litigation. Statutes enacted to limit the liability of employers were not broad enough to limit the liability of silica sand suppliers. The increased number of claims are restricting the ability to receive compensation for those who truly deserve it. While the number of deaths has dropped dramatically, the number of claims has increased. Recently enacted Senate Bill 15 (S.B. 15) is the Texas Legislature’s answer to problems created by the large amount of frivolous silica-related claims. The goal of S.B. 15 is to protect the rights of those with silica …


Immigration Reform: Seeking The Right Reasons., Lamar Smith, Edward R. Grant Jan 1997

Immigration Reform: Seeking The Right Reasons., Lamar Smith, Edward R. Grant

St. Mary's Law Journal

The legacy of immigration to the United States permeates the debate over current immigration policy. Because our self-definition as a nation is at stake in this debate, the issue of immigration arouses our deepest sentiments regarding the communities in which we live. We do not need to search far back in our history to find examples of imprudent law-making. Both the 1924 and 1925 immigration laws were motivated in large part by purposes which eventually undermined the principles on which they rested. These acts serve as prime examples of how employing erroneous reasons to enact even well-intentioned laws can be …


Title Iii Of The Violence Against Women Act: The Answer To Domestic Violence Or A Constitutional Time-Bomb Comment., Yvette J. Mabbun Jan 1997

Title Iii Of The Violence Against Women Act: The Answer To Domestic Violence Or A Constitutional Time-Bomb Comment., Yvette J. Mabbun

St. Mary's Law Journal

The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) was enacted in 1994 to combat the growing and widespread epidemic of domestic violence. Congressional committees assigned to study this epidemic found that violent attacks by men topped the list of dangers to an American woman’s health. In an attempt to raise society’s awareness of the problem of violence against women and to ameliorate the victimization of women, Congress enacted VAWA. Specifically, Title III of VAWA establishes a federal civil right for victims of violent, gender-motivated crimes. These provide victims with either injunctive or monetary compensation. Consequently, there have been questions about the constitutionality …


The Fourteenth Amendment And Title Ix: A Solution To Peer Sexual Harassment Comment., Connie C. Flores Jan 1997

The Fourteenth Amendment And Title Ix: A Solution To Peer Sexual Harassment Comment., Connie C. Flores

St. Mary's Law Journal

Despite the high occurrence of sexual harassment in schools, many school officials, who are aware of the abuse, do nothing to prevent it. Yet, some officials are beginning to recognize peer abuse is not acceptable due to the detrimental effects on students. As a result, many schools have implemented successful programs to prevent peer harassment. Furthermore, when schools have not responded adequately to the problem, student victims have turned to the courts, suing schools for failure to ensure an environment free from discrimination. Although victims have had little success in taking these cases to court, constitutional and statutory provisions exist …


Principles Of Governmental Immunity In Texas: The Texas Government Waives Sovereign Immunity When It Contracts - Or Does It Comment., Renna Rhodes Jan 1996

Principles Of Governmental Immunity In Texas: The Texas Government Waives Sovereign Immunity When It Contracts - Or Does It Comment., Renna Rhodes

St. Mary's Law Journal

When the government causes injury through negligence or by breaching a contract, the injured party must face the obstacle of governmental immunity. The doctrine of governmental immunity can act as a total bar to recovery, especially in Texas. Over the years, governmental immunity increasingly has faced attack from courts and commentators. Some states, including Texas, have revised the common-law doctrine, allowing the government to be sued in certain situations. In Texas, principles of governmental immunity are often misconstrued. Which principles of governmental immunity apply to a particular situation in Texas depends on whether the defendant is a state entity or …


Foreigners On Texas's Death Row And The Right Of Access To A Consul Symposium - Human Rights In The Americas., S. Adele Shank, John Quigley Jan 1995

Foreigners On Texas's Death Row And The Right Of Access To A Consul Symposium - Human Rights In The Americas., S. Adele Shank, John Quigley

St. Mary's Law Journal

Foreign nationals arrested in the United States confront the disadvantage of mounting a criminal defense in several ways. In most cases, they are unfamiliar with U.S. customs, police policies, and criminal proceedings. Although U.S. courts strive to prevent bias against accused based on alienage, discrimination does occur. To minimize the disadvantages experienced by accused foreigners, international law guarantees the right of consular access. Under internationally accepted norms applicable in the United States, an accused foreigner is entitled to contact his home-state consult office for assistance. Furthermore, mere involvement of a consul may encourage local government to follow procedural norms and …


The Natural Law Tradition On The Modern Supreme Court: Not Burke, But The Enlightenment Tradition Represented By Locke, Madison, And Marshall., R. Randall Kelso Jan 1995

The Natural Law Tradition On The Modern Supreme Court: Not Burke, But The Enlightenment Tradition Represented By Locke, Madison, And Marshall., R. Randall Kelso

St. Mary's Law Journal

A traditional common-law style of judicial decisionmaking exists which was present at this nation’s founding. This common law style is derived from natural law tradition. And this tradition stands as an alternative to the formalism of Justice Scalia or the Holmesian style of Chief Justice Rehnquist. This natural law style, with its focus on the religious and communitarian ethical tradition, was the dominant view of judicial interpretation for the framing and ratifying generation of the original Constitution and the Civil War Amendments. The decisionmaking style of Justices O’Connor, Kennedy, and Souter appears to have great affinity with this traditional common-law …


Enhanced Punishment Under The Texas Hate Crimes Act: Politics, Panacea, Or Pathway To Hell., David Todd Smith Jan 1994

Enhanced Punishment Under The Texas Hate Crimes Act: Politics, Panacea, Or Pathway To Hell., David Todd Smith

St. Mary's Law Journal

Nearly without exception, modern legislatures have responded to the reprehensible nature and detrimental social effects of hate crime by enacting laws specifically designed to punish the offender’s discriminatory animus. The term “hate crime” describes criminal conduct which is motivated by the offender’s bias or prejudice against another cognizable group. Although the reprehensible nature of a hate crime is often apparent from the facts of any given case, the repercussions of these offenses exceed the ignoble character of any one specific act. Texas has now joined the ranks of these jurisdictions by adopting legal provisions which authorize heightened penalties upon a …


Legislative Redistricting In 1991-1992: The Texas Bill Of Rights V. The Voting Rights Act., James C. Harrington, Judith Sanders-Castro Jan 1994

Legislative Redistricting In 1991-1992: The Texas Bill Of Rights V. The Voting Rights Act., James C. Harrington, Judith Sanders-Castro

St. Mary's Law Journal

Every decade, after the federal government has taken the census, Americans endure the process of redistricting Congress, state legislatures, county commissioner precincts, school boards, city councils, and a host of other elected bodies. Governed by the interplay of federal, state, and local law, the reapportionment process would seem to be a relatively easy task in theory. Yet, overriding forces unique to the political arena and the judiciary’s voice in redistricting questions undermine the implementation of such a simple system. Narrow interpretation of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 by the United State Supreme Court and lower federal courts further intensify …


The Political Philosophy Of Campaign Finance Reform As Articulated In The Dissents In Austin V. Michigan Chamber Of Commerce., John S. Shockley, David A. Schultz Jan 1992

The Political Philosophy Of Campaign Finance Reform As Articulated In The Dissents In Austin V. Michigan Chamber Of Commerce., John S. Shockley, David A. Schultz

St. Mary's Law Journal

The 1992 presidential candidacy of Jerry Brown, who called for campaign contribution limits, has reignited the issue of campaign finance reform. Indeed, the United States Supreme Court has recognized the importance of campaign finance reform as a judicial issue. The importance of this issue is marked by the Court’s continued willingness to address the regulation of campaign finance since the 1976 landmark case of Buckley v. Valeo. The case of Austin v. Michigan Chamber of Commerce emphasized the somewhat confused nature of the Supreme Court’s campaign finance reform decisions. The Supreme Court and state legislatures will likely continue to address …


Peremptory Jury Strike In Texas After Batson And Edmondson., Alan B. Rich Jan 1992

Peremptory Jury Strike In Texas After Batson And Edmondson., Alan B. Rich

St. Mary's Law Journal

In Batson v. Kentucky, the United States Supreme Court overruled that portion of Swain v. Alabama, which had imposed a “crippling burden of proof” upon a person who wished to vindicate his right of equal protection under the Fourteenth Amendment in the face of a racially motivated peremptory challenge. Under Batson, a defendant can raise an inference of discrimination and prove it using only evidence adduced at his own trial. Two fundamental questions needing resolution prior to involving the Batson procedures are: (A) who has standing to bring a Batson challenge; and (B) who must be challenged before the Batson …


The Evolution Of Government Liability Under Section 1983., Christopher J.M. Pettit Jan 1992

The Evolution Of Government Liability Under Section 1983., Christopher J.M. Pettit

St. Mary's Law Journal

The Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution provides in order to enforce the law, Congress shall have the power to pass enabling legislation. In the exercise of this power, Congress enacted the Civil Rights Act of 1871, to implement the prohibition of slavery as required by the Thirteenth Amendment. Although the Thirteenth Amendment abolished the institution of slavery, discriminatory actions by private citizens remained prevalent. During the period following reconstruction, congressional legislation shifted focus from prohibiting state action to prohibiting the actions of private individuals who violated the civil liberties of others. Through the passage of the Civil Rights …


Capital Punishment: A Critique Of The Political And Philosophical Thought Supporting The Justices' Positions., Samuel J.M. Donnelly Jan 1992

Capital Punishment: A Critique Of The Political And Philosophical Thought Supporting The Justices' Positions., Samuel J.M. Donnelly

St. Mary's Law Journal

Since Gregg v. Georgia, the Supreme Court has developed what could be described as a subparadigm for capital punishment. This subparadigm is now at a point of crisis for two enduring and mutually supporting reasons. The dissents by Justice Brennan and Justice Marshall represent the convergence of the better modern thought in regard to capital punishment. Even with the retirement of both Justices, the criticism found in their dissenting opinions presents a continuing challenge to the plurality’s position. Those using the plurality’s rhetoric are now split into two groups. Justices Blackmun and Stevens regularly vote against capital punishment, while focusing …