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Law and Race

2021

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Integrating Doctrine And Diversity Speaker Series: When Law School Classroom Discussions Of Diversity Issues Go Wrong, Roger Williams University School Of Law, City University Of New York School Of Law Oct 2021

Integrating Doctrine And Diversity Speaker Series: When Law School Classroom Discussions Of Diversity Issues Go Wrong, Roger Williams University School Of Law, City University Of New York School Of Law

School of Law Conferences, Lectures & Events

No abstract provided.


Removing Police From Schools Using State Law Heightened Scrutiny, Christina Payne-Tsoupros Oct 2021

Removing Police From Schools Using State Law Heightened Scrutiny, Christina Payne-Tsoupros

Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy

This Article argues that school police, often called school resource officers, interfere with the state law right to education and proposes using the constitutional right to education under state law as a mechanism to remove police from schools.

Disparities in school discipline for Black and brown children are well-known. After discussing the legal structures of school policing, this Article uses the Disability Critical Race Theory (DisCrit) theoretical framework developed by Subini Annamma, David Connor, and Beth Ferri to explain why police are unacceptable in schools. Operating under the premise that school police are unacceptable, this Article then analyzes mechanisms to …


The Religion Of Race: The Supreme Court As Priests Of Racial Politics, Audra Savage Oct 2021

The Religion Of Race: The Supreme Court As Priests Of Racial Politics, Audra Savage

Utah Law Review

The tumultuous summer of 2020 opened the eyes of many Americans, leading to a general consensus on one issue—racism still exists. This Article offers a new descriptive account of America’s history that can contextualize the zeitgeist of racial politics. It argues that the Founding Fathers created a national civil religion based on racism when they compromised on the issue of slavery in the creation of the Constitution. This religion, called the Religion of Race, is built on a belief system where whiteness is sacred and Blackness is profane. The sacred text is the Constitution, and it is interpreted by the …


Introduction: Assuming A Critical Lens In Legal Studies: Reconciling Laws And Reality, Tanya Monique Washington Hicks, Courtney Anderson Sep 2021

Introduction: Assuming A Critical Lens In Legal Studies: Reconciling Laws And Reality, Tanya Monique Washington Hicks, Courtney Anderson

Georgia State University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Commercial Sex And Exploitation, Judge Barbara Mack, Dana Raigrodski Sep 2021

Commercial Sex And Exploitation, Judge Barbara Mack, Dana Raigrodski

Chapters in Books

Commercial sexual exploitation (CSE), including sex trafficking, mainly targets women, children, young adults (up to age 24), and individuals identifying as LGBTQ+, primarily in communities in poverty, Indigenous communities, and communities of color. Economic and social marginalization drives people into the commercial sex industry and exploitation, which in turn perpetuates that economic and social marginalization. The most targeted and marginalized populations have been doubly harmed by exploitation and by poor treatment within the legal system.

While data is limited, CSE is widespread in the sex industry in Washington State and nationally. State and national data show significant disparities based on …


Law School News: Rwu Law Introduces Required Course On Race And The Law 06/28/2021, Michael M. Bowden Jun 2021

Law School News: Rwu Law Introduces Required Course On Race And The Law 06/28/2021, Michael M. Bowden

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Maximizing #Metoo: Intersectionality & The Movement, Jamillah Bowman Williams Jun 2021

Maximizing #Metoo: Intersectionality & The Movement, Jamillah Bowman Williams

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Although women of color experience high rates of harassment and assault, the #MeToo movement has largely left them on the margins in terms of (1) the online conversation, (2) the traditional social movement activity occurring offline, and (3) the consequential legal activity. This Article analyzes how race shapes experiences of harassment and how seemingly positive legal strides continue to fail women of color thirty years beyond Kimberlé Crenshaw’s initial framing of intersectionality theory. I discuss the weaknesses of the reform efforts and argue for more tailored strategies that take into account the ineffectiveness of our current Title VII framework and, …


Law School News: Dean's Distinguished Service Award 2021: Ralph Tavares 05/28/2021, Michael M. Bowden May 2021

Law School News: Dean's Distinguished Service Award 2021: Ralph Tavares 05/28/2021, Michael M. Bowden

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Seeing Color: America's Judicial System, Elizabeth Poulin May 2021

Seeing Color: America's Judicial System, Elizabeth Poulin

Senior Honors Projects

In many eyes, it often seems as though being white in America is easy, or a privilege. Being white in America is considered a safety blanket, with an abundance of opportunities beneath it. Yet, how does a physical difference such as skin color manifest itself as privilege? Noticing color is not wrong, hateful, or oppressive. Even children notice color, and we define them as the ultimate innocence. But in fact, skin color is often a trigger. When the world has preconceived notions about people of color, an oppressive system designed to harm people who have never done anything to deserve …


Tax Benefits, Higher Education And Race: A Gift Tax Proposal For Direct Tuition Payments, Bridget J. Crawford, Wendy C. Gerzog Apr 2021

Tax Benefits, Higher Education And Race: A Gift Tax Proposal For Direct Tuition Payments, Bridget J. Crawford, Wendy C. Gerzog

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This Article combines three topics--taxes, higher education, and race--to evaluate the tax system's role in exacerbating racial inequalities. Part II frames the discussion with a brief overview of the economics of higher education: how much it costs, how much debt the average student incurs to afford it, and how that debt burden varies by race. Part III describes the major income and wealth transfer tax benefits for higher education, including I.R.C. § 2503(e)'s exclusion of direct tuition payments from gift tax. Part IV demonstrates how this gift tax exclusion disproportionately benefits white families already more likely to avail themselves …


To What Extent Is The Death Penalty A Tool Of Racial Terror In America, And How Can We Fix It?, Gabrielle Boileau Apr 2021

To What Extent Is The Death Penalty A Tool Of Racial Terror In America, And How Can We Fix It?, Gabrielle Boileau

Honors Projects

In this project, I seek to answer the question: To what extent is the death penalty a tool of racial terror in America, and how can we fix it? America has long been plagued by the legacy of slavery and white supremacy. In the reconstruction era, when slavery was no longer legal, angry white citizens would simply round up African-Americans and lynch them if they felt they had done something “wrong”. However, in the modern era, such blatant displays of racism are illegal, and the racist views of society are subverted into the court system. Black men are disproportionately arrested …


What Is Cultural Misappropriation And Why Does It Matter? 03-31-2021, Roger Williams University School Of Law Mar 2021

What Is Cultural Misappropriation And Why Does It Matter? 03-31-2021, Roger Williams University School Of Law

School of Law Conferences, Lectures & Events

No abstract provided.


Discretion And Disparity In Federal Detention, Stephanie Holmes Didwania Mar 2021

Discretion And Disparity In Federal Detention, Stephanie Holmes Didwania

Northwestern University Law Review

The uniquely American phenomenon of mass incarceration plagues the pretrial space. People awaiting trial make up roughly 20% of those held in criminal custody in the United States. Largely overlooked by bail-reform advocates, pretrial detention in the federal criminal system presents a puzzle. The federal system detains defendants at a much higher rate than the states—more than 60% of U.S. citizen-defendants were detained pending trial by federal courts last year. But federal defendants virtually never fail to appear in court, and they are rarely arrested for new crimes while on pretrial release. And unlike state court systems, cash bail is …


Fair Housing’S Third Act: American Tragedy Or Triumph?, Heather R. Abraham Mar 2021

Fair Housing’S Third Act: American Tragedy Or Triumph?, Heather R. Abraham

Journal Articles

Fifty-two years ago, Congress enacted a one-of-a-kind civil rights directive. It requires every federal agency—and state and local grantees by extension—to take affirmative steps to undo segregation. In 2020, this overlooked Fair Housing Act provision—the “affirmatively furthering fair housing” or “AFFH” mandate—has heightened relevance. Perhaps most visible is Donald Trump’s racially charged “protect the suburbs” campaign rhetoric. In an apparent appeal to suburban constituents, his administration repealed a race-conscious fair housing rule, replacing it with a no-questions-asked regulation that elevates “local control” above civil rights.

The maneuver is especially stark as protesters fill the streets, marching in opposition to systemic …


Law Library Blog (March 2021): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law Mar 2021

Law Library Blog (March 2021): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Law Library Newsletters/Blog

No abstract provided.


Do Mandatory Minimums Increase Racial Disparities In Federal Criminal Sentencing?, Caroline Gillette Feb 2021

Do Mandatory Minimums Increase Racial Disparities In Federal Criminal Sentencing?, Caroline Gillette

Undergraduate Economic Review

Black males received sentences about twenty percent longer than similarly situated white males from 2012 to 2016. Some of this inequality may be introduced by mandatory minimum sentences. Charges carrying a mandatory minimum sentence are brought against Black defendants at higher rates than white defendants. It has been argued that these sentences introduce bias in two ways: legislatively (the types of crimes that carry a mandatory minimum) and in the way these sentences are put into practice (increasing prosecutorial discretion). This brief explores whether mandatory minimum sentences increase racial inequality in criminal sentencing.


Hair Goes Nothing: Proposing The Uniform Enactment Of The Crown Act Across The United States, Alexandra Halbert Jan 2021

Hair Goes Nothing: Proposing The Uniform Enactment Of The Crown Act Across The United States, Alexandra Halbert

Journal of Race, Gender, and Ethnicity

No abstract provided.


An Analysis Of Domestic And Foreign Legal Mechanisms To Counter The Rise Of White Nationalism, John C. Jankosky Ii Jan 2021

An Analysis Of Domestic And Foreign Legal Mechanisms To Counter The Rise Of White Nationalism, John C. Jankosky Ii

American University National Security Law Brief

No abstract provided.


Foreword, Cindy Chau Jan 2021

Foreword, Cindy Chau

Journal of Race, Gender, and Ethnicity

No abstract provided.


Going Beyond Rule 8.4(G): A Shift To Active And Conscious Efforts To Dismantle Bias, Meredith R. Miller Jan 2021

Going Beyond Rule 8.4(G): A Shift To Active And Conscious Efforts To Dismantle Bias, Meredith R. Miller

Journal of Race, Gender, and Ethnicity

No abstract provided.


Correction Of Monumental Judicial Malpractice: The Case For Clearing Secessionist And Slaveholding Symbols Of "Justice" From The Courthouse, Michael J. Pastrick Esq. Jan 2021

Correction Of Monumental Judicial Malpractice: The Case For Clearing Secessionist And Slaveholding Symbols Of "Justice" From The Courthouse, Michael J. Pastrick Esq.

Mitchell Hamline Law Review

No abstract provided.


Entrenched Racial Hierarchy: Educational Inequality From The Cradle To The Lsat, Kevin Woodson Jan 2021

Entrenched Racial Hierarchy: Educational Inequality From The Cradle To The Lsat, Kevin Woodson

Mitchell Hamline Law Review

No abstract provided.


Redefining Healthcare To Address Racial Health Disparities & Inequities, Abdur Rahman Amin Jan 2021

Redefining Healthcare To Address Racial Health Disparities & Inequities, Abdur Rahman Amin

Mitchell Hamline Law Journal of Public Policy and Practice

No abstract provided.


Black Citizenship, Dehumanization, And The Fourteenth Amendment, Reginald Oh Jan 2021

Black Citizenship, Dehumanization, And The Fourteenth Amendment, Reginald Oh

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

The fight for full Black citizenship has been in large measure a fight against the systematic dehumanization of African Americans. Dehumanization is the process of treating people as less than human, as subhuman. Denying Blacks full and equal citizenship has gone hand in hand with denying their full humanity. To effectively promote equal citizenship for African Americans, therefore, requires an explicit commitment to ending their dehumanization.

In this Essay, Part I discusses the concept of dehumanization and its role in the infliction of harm on a dehumanized class of people. Part II discusses the concept of citizenship, and contend that …


Race And Property Law, K-Sue Park Jan 2021

Race And Property Law, K-Sue Park

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This chapter offers an outline for understanding the key role of race in producing property values in the history of the American property law system. It identifies major developments in the mutually formative relationship between race and property in America that made and remade property interests in America through the processes of 1) dispossessing nonwhites, 2) degrading their homelands, communities, and selves, and 3) limiting their efforts to enter public space and occupy or acquire property within the regime thereby established. First, it describes the use of law to create the two most important forms of property in the colonies …


Citizens, Suspects, And Enemies: Examining Police Militarization, Milton C. Regan Jan 2021

Citizens, Suspects, And Enemies: Examining Police Militarization, Milton C. Regan

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Concern about the increasing militarization of police has grown in recent years. Much of this concern focuses on the material aspects of militarization: the greater use of military equipment and tactics by police officers. While this development deserves attention, a subtler form of militarization operates on the cultural level. Here, police adopt an adversarial stance toward minority communities, whose members are regarded as presumptive objects of suspicion. The combination of material and cultural militarization in turn has a potential symbolic dimension. It can communicate that members of minority communities are threats to society, just as military enemies are threats to …


Beyond Sex-Plus: Acknowledging Black Women In Employment Law And Policy, Jamillah Bowman Williams Jan 2021

Beyond Sex-Plus: Acknowledging Black Women In Employment Law And Policy, Jamillah Bowman Williams

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

It has been more than 30 years since Kimberlé Crenshaw published her pathbreaking article critiquing the inadequacy of antidiscrimination law in addressing claims at the intersection of race and sex discrimination. This Article focuses on the challenges Black women continue to face when bringing intersectional claims, despite experiencing high rates of discrimination and harassment. The new status quo has not resolved the problems that she documented, and has introduced a set of second generation intersectionality issues. Most significantly, many courts now recognize that Black women experience discrimination differently than do white women or Black men. Yet, despite the professionally and …


A Taxonomy Of Police Technology’S Racial Inequity Problems, Laura M. Moy Jan 2021

A Taxonomy Of Police Technology’S Racial Inequity Problems, Laura M. Moy

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Over the past several years, increased awareness of racial inequity in policing, combined with increased scrutiny of police technologies, have sparked concerns that new technologies may aggravate inequity in policing. To help address these concerns, some advocates and scholars have proposed requiring police agencies to seek and obtain legislative approval before adopting a new technology, or requiring the completion of “algorithmic impact assessments” to evaluate new tools.

In order for policymakers, police agencies, or scholars to evaluate whether and how particular technologies may aggravate existing inequities, however, the problem must be more clearly defined. Some scholars have explored inequity in …


Toward Racially Equitable And Accountable Tech, Andrea Giampetro-Meyer, Janae James, Sydney Brooke Jan 2021

Toward Racially Equitable And Accountable Tech, Andrea Giampetro-Meyer, Janae James, Sydney Brooke

Marquette Law Review

This Article examines three distinct areas to consider how we might move

toward racially equitable and accountable tech. The three distinct areas are:

(1) fair housing, (2) surveillance, and (3) social media. Fair housing raises

questions about where today’s racially biased algorithms fit within the context

of historical, racist government housing policy. Surveillance raises questions

about how some tech tools render Black faces invisible, while others render

Black faces dangerously conspicuous. Social media highlights the clash

between civil rights and civil liberties, especially when racial justice conflicts

with freedom of speech. Our analysis leads us to consider the extent to …


The Constitutional Tort System, Noah Smith-Drelich Jan 2021

The Constitutional Tort System, Noah Smith-Drelich

Indiana Law Journal

Constitutional torts—private lawsuits for constitutional wrongdoing—are the primary means by which violations of the U.S. Constitution are vindicated and deterred. Through damage awards, and occasionally injunctive relief, victims of constitutional violations discourage future misconduct while obtaining redress. However, the collection of laws that governs these actions is a complete muddle, lacking any sort of coherent structure or unifying theory. The result is too much and too little constitutional litigation, generating calls for reform from across the political spectrum along with reverberations that reach from Standing Rock to Flint to Ferguson.

This Article constructs a framework of the constitutional tort system, …