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Law and Psychology

2015

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Articles 1 - 30 of 133

Full-Text Articles in Law

48. Valence, Implicated Actor, And Children's Acquiescence To False Suggestions, Kyndra C. Cleveland, Jodi A. Quas, Thomas D. Lyon Dec 2015

48. Valence, Implicated Actor, And Children's Acquiescence To False Suggestions, Kyndra C. Cleveland, Jodi A. Quas, Thomas D. Lyon

Thomas D. Lyon

Although adverse effects of suggestive interviewing on children's accuracy are well documented, it remains unclear as to whether these effects vary depending on the valence of and the actor implicated in suggestions. In this study, 124 3-8-year-olds participated in a classroom activity and were later questioned about positive and negative false details. The interviewer provided positive reinforcement when children acquiesced to suggestions and negative feedback when they did not. Following reinforcement or feedback, young children were comparably suggestible for positive and negative details. With age, resistance to suggestions about negative details merged first, followed by resistance to suggestions about positive …


Training In Law And Psychology: Models From The Villanova Conference, Donald Bersoff, Jane Goodman-Delahunty, J. Grisso, Valerie Hans, Norman Poythress, Ronald Roesch Dec 2015

Training In Law And Psychology: Models From The Villanova Conference, Donald Bersoff, Jane Goodman-Delahunty, J. Grisso, Valerie Hans, Norman Poythress, Ronald Roesch

Norman Poythress

Although the domain of law and psychology is a burgeoning and popular field of study, there has never been a concerted effort to evaluate current training models or to develop newer, more effective ones. Forty-eight invited participants attended a national conference held at Villanova Law School to remedy this deficiency. Working groups addressed issues of education and training for the undergraduate level; for doctoral level programs in law and social science; for forensic clinical training; for joint-degree (JD/PhD-PsyD) programs; for those in practica, internships, and postdoctoral programs; and for continuing education. This article delineates levels and models of training in …


Criminal Law And Common Sense: An Essay On The Perils And Promise Of Neuroscience, Stephen J. Morse Dec 2015

Criminal Law And Common Sense: An Essay On The Perils And Promise Of Neuroscience, Stephen J. Morse

All Faculty Scholarship

This article is based on the author’s Barrock Lecture in Criminal Law presented at the Marquette University Law School. The central thesis is that the folk psychology that underpins criminal responsibility is correct and that our commonsense understanding of agency and responsibility and the legitimacy of criminal justice generally are not imperiled by contemporary discoveries in the various sciences, including neuroscience and genetics. These sciences will not revolutionize criminal law, at least not anytime soon, and at most they may make modest contributions to legal doctrine, practice, and policy. Until there are conceptual or scientific breakthroughs, this is my story …


The Novel New Jersey Eyewitness Instruction Induces Skepticism But Not Sensitivity, Athan Papailiou, David Yokum, Christopher Robertson Dec 2015

The Novel New Jersey Eyewitness Instruction Induces Skepticism But Not Sensitivity, Athan Papailiou, David Yokum, Christopher Robertson

Faculty Scholarship

In recent decades, social scientists have shown that the reliability of eyewitness identifications is much worse than laypersons tend to believe. Although courts have only recently begun to react to this evidence, the New Jersey judiciary has reformed its jury instructions to notify jurors about the frailties of human memory, the potential for lineup administrators to nudge witnesses towards suspects that they police have already identified, and the advantages of alternative lineup procedures, including blinding of the administrator. This experiment tested the efficacy of New Jersey’s jury instruction. In a 2×2 between-subjects design, mock jurors (N = 335) watched a …


Sexual Minority Stigma And System Justification Theory: How Changing The Status Quo Impacts Marriage And Housing Equality, Jordan A. Blenner Nov 2015

Sexual Minority Stigma And System Justification Theory: How Changing The Status Quo Impacts Marriage And Housing Equality, Jordan A. Blenner

Department of Psychology: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Sexual minorities (i.e. lesbians and gay men) experience systemic discrimination throughout the United States. Prior to the Supreme Court ruling in Obergefell v. Hodges (2015), in many states, same-sex couples could not marry and sexual minorities were not protected from sexual orientation housing discrimination (Human Rights Campaign, 2015). The current, two-experiment study applied Jost and Banaji’s (1994) System Justification Theory to marriage and housing discrimination. When sexual minorities question dissimilar treatment, thereby threatening the status quo, members of the heterosexual majority rationalize sexual minority discrimination to maintain their dominant status (Alexander, 2001; Brescoll, Uhlmann, & Newman, 2013; Citizens for Equal …


We Don’T Always Mean What We Say: Attitudes Toward Statutory Exclusion Of Juvenile Offenders From Juvenile Court Jurisdiction, Tina Zotolli, Tarika Daftary Kapur, Patricia A. Zapf Nov 2015

We Don’T Always Mean What We Say: Attitudes Toward Statutory Exclusion Of Juvenile Offenders From Juvenile Court Jurisdiction, Tina Zotolli, Tarika Daftary Kapur, Patricia A. Zapf

Department of Justice Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

In the United States, juvenile offenders are often excluded from the jurisdiction of the juvenile court on the basis of age and crime type alone. Data from national surveys and data from psycholegal research on support for adult sanction of juvenile offenders are often at odds. The ways in which questions are asked and the level of detail provided to respondents and research participants may influence expressed opinions. Respondents may also be more likely to agree with harsh sanctions when they have fewer offender- and case-specific details to consider. Here, we test the hypothesis that attitudes supporting statutory exclusion laws …


Defining The "Defined"—Problem Gambling, Pathological Gambling, And Gambling Disorder: Impact On Policy And Legislation, Sarah A. Hinchliffe Nov 2015

Defining The "Defined"—Problem Gambling, Pathological Gambling, And Gambling Disorder: Impact On Policy And Legislation, Sarah A. Hinchliffe

Barry Law Review

No abstract provided.


46. Wrongful Acquittals Of Sexual Abuse., Thomas D. Lyon, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Kelly Mcwilliams Nov 2015

46. Wrongful Acquittals Of Sexual Abuse., Thomas D. Lyon, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Kelly Mcwilliams

Thomas D. Lyon

Ross Cheit’s book The Witch-Hunt Narrative highlights the difficulties of prosecuting child sexual abuse. Drawing examples from a single case, Alex A., we examine the ways in which false acquittals of sexual abuse are likely to occur. First, prosecutors tend to question children in ways that undermine their productivity and credibility. Second, prosecutors have difficulty in explaining to juries the dynamics of sexual abuse and disclosure, making children’s acquiescence to abuse and their failure to disclose when abuse first occurs incredible. Third, attorneys undermine children’s credibility by pushing them to provide difficult to estimate temporal and numerical information. A postscript …


The Productivity Of Wh- Prompts In Child Forensic Interviews, Elizabeth C, Ahern, Samantha J. Andrews, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Thomas D. Lyon Nov 2015

The Productivity Of Wh- Prompts In Child Forensic Interviews, Elizabeth C, Ahern, Samantha J. Andrews, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Thomas D. Lyon

Thomas D. Lyon

Child witnesses are often asked wh- prompts (what, how, why, who, when, where) in forensic interviews. However, little research has examined the ways in which children respond to different wh- prompts and no previous research has investigated productivity differences among wh- prompts in investigative interviews. This study examined the use and productivity of wh- prompts in 95 transcripts of 4- to 13-year-olds alleging sexual abuse in child investigative interviews. What-how questions about actions elicited the most productive responses during both the rapport building and substantive phases. Future research and practitioner training should consider distinguishing among different wh- prompts.


45. The Productivity Of Wh- Prompts In Child Forensic Interviews., Elizabeth C, Ahern, Samantha J. Andrews, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Thomas D. Lyon Nov 2015

45. The Productivity Of Wh- Prompts In Child Forensic Interviews., Elizabeth C, Ahern, Samantha J. Andrews, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Thomas D. Lyon

Thomas D. Lyon

Child witnesses are often asked wh- prompts (what, how, why, who, when, where) in forensic interviews. However, little research has examined the ways in which children respond to different wh- prompts and no previous research has investigated productivity differences among wh- prompts in investigative interviews. This study examined the use and productivity of wh- prompts in 95 transcripts of 4- to 13-year-olds alleging sexual abuse in child investigative interviews. What-how questions about actions elicited the most productive responses during both the rapport building and substantive phases. Future research and practitioner training should consider distinguishing among different wh- prompts.


Between A Bed And A Hard Place: How Washington Can Keep Psychiatric Patients In Treatment And Off The Streets, Spencer Babbitt Nov 2015

Between A Bed And A Hard Place: How Washington Can Keep Psychiatric Patients In Treatment And Off The Streets, Spencer Babbitt

Seattle University Law Review

On February 27, 2013, ten psychiatric patients were being involuntarily detained in hospital emergency departments located in Pierce County under Washington State’s Involuntary Treatment Act (ITA). Despite the name of the law that authorized their detainment, these individuals were not receiving any psychiatric treatment during their confinement. Nor were they there as the result of a criminal conviction. The only thing these ten detainees were guilty of was being mentally ill. Under what is now considered to have been a misinterpretation of the ITA, counties across Washington had for years been confining mentally ill patients in hospitals not certified to …


Ordering Proof: Beyond Adversarial And Inquisitorial Trial Structures, Emily Spottswood Oct 2015

Ordering Proof: Beyond Adversarial And Inquisitorial Trial Structures, Emily Spottswood

Scholarly Publications

In typical trials, judges and juries will find it easier to remember the proof that occurs early in the process over than what comes later. Moreover, once a fact-finder starts to form a working hypothesis to explain the facts of the case, they will be biased towards interpreting new facts in a way that confirms that theory. These two psychological mechanisms will often combine to create a strong “primacy effect,” in which the party who goes first gains a subtle, but significant, advantage over the opposing party. In this article, I propose a new method of ordering proof, designed to …


Improving Lawyers’ Judgment: Is Mediation Training De-Biasing?, Douglas N. Frenkel, James H. Stark Oct 2015

Improving Lawyers’ Judgment: Is Mediation Training De-Biasing?, Douglas N. Frenkel, James H. Stark

All Faculty Scholarship

When people are placed in a partisan role or otherwise have an objective they seek to accomplish, they are prone to pervasive cognitive and motivational biases. These judgmental distortions can affect what people believe and wish to find out, the predictions they make, the strategic decisions they employ, and what they think is fair. A classic example is confirmation bias, which can cause its victims to seek and interpret information in ways that are consistent with their pre-existing views or the goals they aim to achieve. Studies consistently show that experts as well as laypeople are prone to such biases, …


Agonizing Identity In Mental Health Law And Policy (Part I), Sheila Wildeman Oct 2015

Agonizing Identity In Mental Health Law And Policy (Part I), Sheila Wildeman

Dalhousie Law Journal

In this two-part paper, the author explores the significance of identity in mental health law and policy In this as in other socio-legal domains, identity functions to consolidate dissent as well as to effect social control. The author asks: where do legal experts stand in relation to the identity categories that run so deep in this area oflaw and policy? More broadly, she asks: is "mentalhealth" working on uson the mental health disabled, legal scholars, all of us-in ways that are impairing our capacity for socialjustice? In the first part of the paper, the author considers the Foucauldian exhortation to …


“Because That's Where The Money Is”: A Theory Of Corporate Legal Compliance, William C. Bradford Sep 2015

“Because That's Where The Money Is”: A Theory Of Corporate Legal Compliance, William C. Bradford

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

The study and regulation of firms per se as agents of compliance may be misguided. Firms are abstractions that exist only in the legal, and not the natural, sense, and, as such, utterly lack decisional capacity. Firms do not decide whether to comply with law; people, specifically officers who exercise decisional authority on their behalf, do. Any theory that would explain or predict firm compliance must account for the individual level of analysis. However, most corporate legal compliance research minimizes the salience of personality. Accordingly, Part II traces associations between personalities of CEOs and firm compliance with obligations arising under …


From Blame To Punishment: Disrupting Prefrontal Cortex Activity Reveals Norm Enforcement Mechanisms, Owen D. Jones, Justin W. Martin, Joshua W. Buckholtz, Michael T. Treadway, Katherine Jan, David H. Zald, Rene Marois Sep 2015

From Blame To Punishment: Disrupting Prefrontal Cortex Activity Reveals Norm Enforcement Mechanisms, Owen D. Jones, Justin W. Martin, Joshua W. Buckholtz, Michael T. Treadway, Katherine Jan, David H. Zald, Rene Marois

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

The social welfare provided by cooperation depends on the enforcement of social norms. Determining blameworthiness and assigning a deserved punishment are two cognitive cornerstones of norm enforcement. Although prior work has implicated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in norm-based judgments, the relative contribution of this region to blameworthiness and punishment decisions remains poorly understood. Here, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and fMRI to determine the specific role of DLPFC function in norm-enforcement behavior. DLPFC rTMS reduced punishment for wrongful acts without affecting blameworthiness ratings, and fMRI revealed punishment-selective DLPFC recruitment, suggesting that these two facets of norm-based …


Book Review: The Role Of Psychiatry In Law, Leslie J. Martin Aug 2015

Book Review: The Role Of Psychiatry In Law, Leslie J. Martin

Akron Law Review

If you ask the man on the street about his views on the criminal law, typically his response will include a commentary on some notorious crime. What impresses him most about that crime? Commonly his answer will be that he was amazed that the "murderer" was able to escape conviction by invoking the defense of insanity. This view is remarkably prevalent. It is the same view which led Queen Victoria to ask Parliament to formulate the rigid M'Naghten Rule in 1843. This test of insanity survives to the present day, perplexing many members of the legal profession and alienating most …


44. The Effects Of Question Repetition On Responses When Prosecutors And Defense Attorneys Question Children Alleging Sexual Abuse In Court, Samantha J. Andrews, Michael E. Lamb, Thomas D. Lyon Aug 2015

44. The Effects Of Question Repetition On Responses When Prosecutors And Defense Attorneys Question Children Alleging Sexual Abuse In Court, Samantha J. Andrews, Michael E. Lamb, Thomas D. Lyon

Thomas D. Lyon

This study examined the effects of repeated questions (n=12,169) on 6- to 12-year-olds’ testimony in child sexual abuse cases. We examined transcripts of direct- and cross-examinations of 120 children, categorizing how attorneys asked repeated questions in-court and how children responded. Defense attorneys repeated more questions (33.6% of total questions asked) than prosecutors (17.8%) and repeated questions using more suggestive prompts (38% of their repeated questions) than prosecutors (15%). In response, children typically repeated or elaborated on their answers and seldom contradicted themselves. Self-contradictions were most often elicited by suggestive and option-posing prompts posed by either type of attorney. Child age …


Release From Confinement Of Persons Acquitted By Reason Of Insanity In Ohio, Caryl A. Hess Jul 2015

Release From Confinement Of Persons Acquitted By Reason Of Insanity In Ohio, Caryl A. Hess

Akron Law Review

The Court also held that the committing court, "... a tribunal composed of the judge of the court of common pleas of Allen county, the superintendent of the Lima state hospital, an alienist to be designated by said judge and superintendent, or a majority of them," can make the "restored to reason" determination and order release. This note focuses on the relationship between acquittal and release standards.


The Power Of The Body: Analyzing The Corporeal Logic Of Law And Social Change In The Arab Spring, Zeina Jallad, Zeina Jallad Jul 2015

The Power Of The Body: Analyzing The Corporeal Logic Of Law And Social Change In The Arab Spring, Zeina Jallad, Zeina Jallad

Zeina Jallad

The Power of the Body:

Analyzing the Logic of Law and Social Change in the Arab Spring

Abstract:

Under conditions of extreme social and political injustice - when human rights are under the most threat - rational arguments rooted in the language of human rights are often unlikely to spur reform or to ensure government adherence to citizens’ rights. When those entrusted with securing human dignity, rights, and freedoms fail to do so, and when other actors—such as human rights activists, international institutions, and social movements—fail to engage the levers of power to eliminate injustice, then oppressed and even quotidian …


Behavioral Ethics, Behavioral Compliance, Donald C. Langevoort Jul 2015

Behavioral Ethics, Behavioral Compliance, Donald C. Langevoort

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The design of an effective legal compliance system for an organization fearing prosecution for white-collar crime or regulatory violations requires skill at predicting human behavior. It is entirely plausible to use the economist’s simplifying assumptions of rational choice and pecuniary self-interest in making these predictions. But the realism of these assumptions has been under attack for decades now, suggesting that we should at least consider more nuanced behavioral possibilities when designing and implementing compliance programs. The label “behavioral compliance” can be attached to the design and management of compliance that draws from this wider range of behavioral predictions about individual …


43. The Effects Of The Putative Confession And Parent Suggestion On Children's Disclosure Of A Minor Transgression. Legal And Criminological Psychology, Elizabeth B. Rush, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Jodi A. Quas, Thomas D. Lyon Jul 2015

43. The Effects Of The Putative Confession And Parent Suggestion On Children's Disclosure Of A Minor Transgression. Legal And Criminological Psychology, Elizabeth B. Rush, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Jodi A. Quas, Thomas D. Lyon

Thomas D. Lyon

Purpose: This study examined the effects of the putative confession (telling the child that an adult “told me everything that happened and he wants you to tell the truth”) on children’s disclosure of a minor transgression after questioning by their parents. Methods: Children (N = 188; 4 – 7-year-olds) played with a confederate, and while doing so, for half of the children, toys broke. Parents then questioned their children about what occurred, and half of the parents were given additional scripted suggestive questions. Finally, children completed a mock forensic investigative interview. Results: Children given the putative confession were 1.6 times …


10. Ohio V. Clark: Brief Of Amicus Curiae American Professional Society On The Abuse Of Children In Support Of Petitioner., Jeremy A. Lawrence, Daniel B. Levin, Kevin L. Brady, Maria Jhai, Thomas D. Lyon Jul 2015

10. Ohio V. Clark: Brief Of Amicus Curiae American Professional Society On The Abuse Of Children In Support Of Petitioner., Jeremy A. Lawrence, Daniel B. Levin, Kevin L. Brady, Maria Jhai, Thomas D. Lyon

Thomas D. Lyon

“Testimonial” statements are inadmissible against criminal defendants under the Confrontation Clause unless the declarant was subject to cross-examination. Statements are testimonial if the primary purpose of the speaker and the interrogator was to create an out-of-court substitute for trial testimony. Ohio v. Clark (2015) considered whether a 3-year-old’s disclosure of abuse to his teacher is testimonial. This brief surveyed case law, statutory law, and psychological and criminological research in arguing that it is not. First, young children do not appreciate that their disclosures may be used at trial, because they do not fully understand the legal system. Furthermore, many children …


Eastern Airlines V. Floyd: Airline Passengers Denied Recovery For Emotional Distress Under The Warsaw Convention, Lisa M. Fromm Jul 2015

Eastern Airlines V. Floyd: Airline Passengers Denied Recovery For Emotional Distress Under The Warsaw Convention, Lisa M. Fromm

Akron Law Review

This Note reviews prior district court and appellate court decisions regarding the translation and scope of "bodily injury." Next, the Note discusses the Court's analysis in Floyd, including the arguments for and against allowing recovery for emotional distress under the Warsaw Convention. Finally, the Note examines the ramifications of the Floyd Court's interpretation and the uncertainties which remain in this area of the law.


[N]Ot A Story To Pass On: Constructing Mothers Who Kill, Susan Ayres Jul 2015

[N]Ot A Story To Pass On: Constructing Mothers Who Kill, Susan Ayres

Susan Ayres

Toni Morrison has said in her Nobel acceptance speech, “We die. That may be the meaning of life. But we do language. That may be the measure of our lives.” How we “do language” in judicial decisions about infanticide can perhaps be compared to and informed by fiction such as Toni Morrison’s Beloved.

Beloved provides a fictional account of the life of a historical woman, a slave who escaped to freedom and then attempted to kill all four of her children, successfully killing one when her master came to claim her under the Fugitive Slave Act. In addition to …


The Zombie Lawyer Apocalypse, Peter H. Huang, Corie Rosen Felder Jul 2015

The Zombie Lawyer Apocalypse, Peter H. Huang, Corie Rosen Felder

Pepperdine Law Review

This article uses a popular cultural framework to address the near-epidemic levels of depression, decision-making errors, and professional dissatisfaction that studies document are prevalent among many law students and lawyers today. Zombies present an apt metaphor for understanding and contextualizing the ills now common in the American legal and legal education systems. To explore that metaphor and its import, this article will first establish the contours of the zombie literature and will apply that literature to the existing state of legal education and legal practice — ultimately describing a state that we believe can only be termed “the Zombie Lawyer …


Dualism And Doctrine, Dov Fox, Alex Stein Jul 2015

Dualism And Doctrine, Dov Fox, Alex Stein

Indiana Law Journal

What kinds of harm among those that tortfeasors inflict are worthy of compensation? Which forms of self-incriminating evidence are privileged against government compulsion? What sorts of facts constitute a criminal defendant’s intent? Existing doctrine pins the answer to all of these questions on whether the injury, facts, or evidence at stake are “mental” or “physical.” The assumption that operations of the mind are meaningfully distinct from those of the body animates fundamental rules in our law.

A tort victim cannot recover for mental harm on its own because the law presumes that he is able to unfeel any suffering arising …


Don't Call Me Crazy: A Survey Of America's Mental Health System, Justin L. Joffe Jul 2015

Don't Call Me Crazy: A Survey Of America's Mental Health System, Justin L. Joffe

Chicago-Kent Law Review

Unfortunately, the typical exposure to mental illness for most Americans comes via tragic mass shootings or highly publicized celebrity mental breakdowns. However, the vast majority of mentally ill individuals are not violent murderers or hyper-tweeting celebrities. Rather, they are the ordinary, everyday people that make up the tens of millions of American adults suffering from some form of mental illness. The American mental health system has a lamentable history. The initial policy of locking up mentally ill individuals in jails transitioned to a system of confinement in asylums that quickly became notorious for their poor living conditions and treatment. The …


Dangerous Diagnoses, Risky Assumptions, And The Failed Experiment Of "Sexually Violent Predator" Commitment, Deirdre M. Smith Jul 2015

Dangerous Diagnoses, Risky Assumptions, And The Failed Experiment Of "Sexually Violent Predator" Commitment, Deirdre M. Smith

Faculty Publications

In its 1997 opinion, Kansas v. Hendricks, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld a law that reflected a new model of civil commitment. The targets of this new commitment law were dubbed “Sexually Violent Predators” (SVPs), and the Court upheld indefinite detention of these individuals on the assumption that there is a psychiatrically distinct class of individuals who, unlike typical recidivists, have a mental condition that impairs their ability to refrain from violent sexual behavior. And, more specifically, the Court assumed that the justice system could reliably identify the true “predators,” those for whom this unusual and extraordinary deprivation of liberty …


Those Awful Tahrir Rapes, Lama Abu-Odeh Jul 2015

Those Awful Tahrir Rapes, Lama Abu-Odeh

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This essay highlights the myriad ways in which street sexual harassment of women in Egypt, of which I argue the mass rapes of Tahrir are an egregious instance thereof, disciplines women's bodies. It describes briefly and dismisses the frameworks for understanding those practices proposed by the left, the right and the government. I also describe the role that law, in conjunction with its lax enforcement, plays in intensifying this regulation.

The essay uses purposefully the fighting radical feminist pronoun "we" to describe the predicament. I "am" an Egyptian women. I consider myself an ally in their attempt to understand, resist …