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Law and Psychology

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2011

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Articles 1 - 30 of 40

Full-Text Articles in Law

Self-Injurious Behaviors In Prisons: A Nationwide Survey Of Correctional Mental Health Directors, Kenneth L. Appelbaum, Judith A. Savageau, Robert L. Trestman, Jeffrey L. Metzner Oct 2011

Self-Injurious Behaviors In Prisons: A Nationwide Survey Of Correctional Mental Health Directors, Kenneth L. Appelbaum, Judith A. Savageau, Robert L. Trestman, Jeffrey L. Metzner

Commonwealth Medicine Publications

Self-injurious behavior (SIB) by inmates has serious health, safety, operational, security and fiscal consequences. Serious incidents require a freeze in normal facility operations. Injuries that need outside medical attention create additional security risks, including potential escape attempts. The interruption of normal operations, diversion of staff, cost of outside care, and drain on medical and mental health resources all have significant fiscal consequences. This session will present the results and implications of a survey of the Mental Health Directors in all 51 state and federal prison systems on the extent of SIB by inmates, including incidence and prevalence, adverse consequences, and ...


Coalition, Cross-Cultural Lawyering, And Intersectionality: Immigrant Identity As A Barrier To Effective Legal Counseling For Domestic Violence Victims, Jessica H. Stein Oct 2011

Coalition, Cross-Cultural Lawyering, And Intersectionality: Immigrant Identity As A Barrier To Effective Legal Counseling For Domestic Violence Victims, Jessica H. Stein

Connecticut Public Interest Law Journal

Vol. 11, No. 1


A Look At In Re Fabian A.: Examining The Extension Of Due Process Protections And Failure To Object As Waiver In The Juvenile Justice System, Elizabeth Bannon Oct 2011

A Look At In Re Fabian A.: Examining The Extension Of Due Process Protections And Failure To Object As Waiver In The Juvenile Justice System, Elizabeth Bannon

Connecticut Public Interest Law Journal

Vol. 11, No. 1


Protecting Liberty And Autonomy: Desert/Disease Jurisprudence, Stephen J. Morse Oct 2011

Protecting Liberty And Autonomy: Desert/Disease Jurisprudence, Stephen J. Morse

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This contribution to a symposium on the morality of preventive restriction on liberty begins by describing the positive law of preventive detention, which I term "desert/disease jurisprudence." Then it provides a brief excursus about risk prediction (estimation), which is at the heart of all preventive detention practices. Part IV considers whether proposed expansions of desert jurisprudence are consistent with retributive theories of justice, which ground desert jurisprudence. I conclude that this is a circle that cannot be squared. The following Part canvasses expansions of disease jurisprudence, especially the involuntary civil commitment of mentally abnormal, sexually violent predators, and the ...


Genetics And Criminal Responsibility, Stephen J. Morse Jul 2011

Genetics And Criminal Responsibility, Stephen J. Morse

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Some believe that genetics threatens privacy and autonomy and will eviscerate the concept of human nature. Despite the astonishing research advances, however, none of these dire predictions and no radical transformation of the law have occurred.


Regulation, Deregulation, And Happiness, Jeffrey L. Harrison Jul 2011

Regulation, Deregulation, And Happiness, Jeffrey L. Harrison

UF Law Faculty Publications

Happiness, in general, is in many respects the topic du jour. A great deal of theoretical and empirical work has been devoted to dissecting it. Studies of happiness have crossed over to law, and the result is an addition to the long list of the list of “law and” interdisciplinary areas. In fact, in 2010, Eric Posner and Matthew Alder presented an excellent book of readings the title of which is Law and Happiness. Peter Henry Huang has written the definitive survey of law and happiness literature. My own writing has reflected on the promise of happiness research and the ...


Exploring The Relationship Between Drug And Alcohol Treatment Facilities And Violent And Property Crime: A Socioeconomic Contingent Relationship, Christopher Salvatore, Travis A. Taniguchi May 2011

Exploring The Relationship Between Drug And Alcohol Treatment Facilities And Violent And Property Crime: A Socioeconomic Contingent Relationship, Christopher Salvatore, Travis A. Taniguchi

Department of Justice Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

Siting of drug and alcohol treatment facilities is often met with negative reactions because of the assumption that these facilities increase crime by attracting drug users (and possibly dealers) to an area. This assumption, however, rests on weak empirical footings that have not been subjected to strong empirical analyses. Using census block groups from Philadelphia, PA, it was found that the criminogenic impact of treatment facilities in and near a neighborhood on its violent and property crime rates may be contingent on the socioeconomic status (SES) of the neighborhood. Paying attention to both the density and proximity of facilities in ...


Dangerous People Or Dangerous Weapons: Access To Firearms For Persons With Mental Illness, Lawrence O. Gostin, Katherine L. Record May 2011

Dangerous People Or Dangerous Weapons: Access To Firearms For Persons With Mental Illness, Lawrence O. Gostin, Katherine L. Record

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The recent attempted assassination of Rep. Gabrielle Giffords has once again focused the nation’s attention on the danger of the wide availability of firearms. The Supreme Court has ruled that gun restrictions may only be imposed on those deemed “prohibited persons” under the Gun Control Act of 1968. Although some are easily identifiable (e.g., children, convicted felons), one widely inclusive group is not – the mentally ill.

The current system designed to bar the mentally ill from purchasing or possessing firearms is ineffectual due to a lack of reporting and the existence of loopholes. What’s more, no state ...


Mental Disorder And Criminal Law, Stephen J. Morse Apr 2011

Mental Disorder And Criminal Law, Stephen J. Morse

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Mental disorder among criminal defendants affects every stage of the criminal justice process, from investigational issues to competence to be executed. As in all other areas of mental health law, at least some people with mental disorders, are treated specially. The underlying thesis of this Article is that people with mental disorder should, as far as is practicable and consistent with justice, be treated just like everyone else. In some areas, the law is relatively sensible and just. In others, too often the opposite is true and the laws sweep too broadly. I believe, however, that special rules to deal ...


Risky Business Versus Overt Acts: What Relevance Do Actuarial, Probabilistic Risk Assessments Have For Judicial Decisions On Involuntary Psychiatric Hospitalization, Douglas Mossman Md Jan 2011

Risky Business Versus Overt Acts: What Relevance Do Actuarial, Probabilistic Risk Assessments Have For Judicial Decisions On Involuntary Psychiatric Hospitalization, Douglas Mossman Md

Faculty Lectures and Presentations

Recently, several authors have suggested that only by incorporating findings from actuarial risk assessment instruments (ARAIs) can mental health experts provide evidence-based testimony in mental health commitment hearings. Determining eligibility for involuntary hospitalization seems like an appropriate, natural, obvious application of ARAIs. Similar instruments are used frequently in decision-making about sex offender commitments, where (as with mental health commitment) social policy ostensibly aims to protect the public from harmful acts by persons with mental abnormalities. Also, all evidence suggests that actuarial techniques for judging dangerousness are superior to other methods of assessing the risk of future violence.

Yet in many ...


When The Child Abuser Has A Bible: Investigating Child Maltreatment Sanctioned Or Condoned By A Religious Leader, Basyle Tchividjian, Victor Vieth Jan 2011

When The Child Abuser Has A Bible: Investigating Child Maltreatment Sanctioned Or Condoned By A Religious Leader, Basyle Tchividjian, Victor Vieth

Faculty Publications and Presentations

In many cases of child sexual and physical abuse, perpetrators use religious or spiritual themes to justify their abuse of a child. Although no known religion in modern culture suggests that sexual abuse is condoned or taught as part of its tenets, some church leaders engage in conduct suggesting the child is equally, if not more to blame than the perpetrator, while also urging immediate reconciliation between the perpetrator and victim. In more than one case, pastors have asked children to confess their own “sins” in being sexually abused and have even required children to “confess” in front of an ...


Baby Boomers At Work: Growing Older And Working More, Eve M. Brank Jan 2011

Baby Boomers At Work: Growing Older And Working More, Eve M. Brank

College of Law, Faculty Publications

In the current chapter, I will first detail the legal framework for workplace age discrimination and court case examples that have largely mirrored race and gender discrimination law. Next, I will discuss the psychological research that details the consequences of age discrimination with a particular focus on the combined effects of stereotype assimilation and notions of deservingness of respect. Last, I will suggest that until we know the causes of age discrimination, we cannot legitimately address its consequences the same way we have addressed other forms of discrimination. Specifically, I will argue that legislating against age discrimination is inherently different ...


A Psychological Investigation Of Consumer Vulnerability To Fraud: Legal And Policy Implication, 35 Law & Psychol. Rev. 61 (2011), Jessica M. Choplin, Debra Pogrund Stark, Jasmine N. Ahmad Jan 2011

A Psychological Investigation Of Consumer Vulnerability To Fraud: Legal And Policy Implication, 35 Law & Psychol. Rev. 61 (2011), Jessica M. Choplin, Debra Pogrund Stark, Jasmine N. Ahmad

UIC Law Open Access Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Consumer Protection Initiatives In The Eu Mortgage Market: A Behavioral Economics Based Critique And Proposal, 25 Temp. Int'l & Comp. L.J. 1 (2011), Debra Pogrund Stark, Jessica M. Choplin Jan 2011

Consumer Protection Initiatives In The Eu Mortgage Market: A Behavioral Economics Based Critique And Proposal, 25 Temp. Int'l & Comp. L.J. 1 (2011), Debra Pogrund Stark, Jessica M. Choplin

UIC Law Open Access Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Alternative Justifications For Law School Academic Support Programs: Self-Determination Theory, Autonomy Support, And Humanizing The Law School, Louis N. Schulze Jr. Jan 2011

Alternative Justifications For Law School Academic Support Programs: Self-Determination Theory, Autonomy Support, And Humanizing The Law School, Louis N. Schulze Jr.

Faculty Publications

This Article examines a problem that exists in law school academic support programs. While many schools now include extensive academic support opportunities within their curricula, some schools make the choice that more modest investments in these programs are warranted. Obviously, funding such programs is expensive, and law school administrations understandably are reticent to finance such endeavors absent guarantees of results. As such, scholars have attempted to prove, empirically, that law school academic support programs (ASPs) lead to demonstrable results in terms of improvements in student performance in law school and on the bar exam. Setting aside that important project, I ...


Economics, Behavioral Biology, And Law, Owen D. Jones, Erin O'Hara O'Connor, Jeffrey Evans Stake Jan 2011

Economics, Behavioral Biology, And Law, Owen D. Jones, Erin O'Hara O'Connor, Jeffrey Evans Stake

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

The article first compares economics and behavioral biology, examining the assumptions, core concepts, methodological tenets, and emphases of the two fields. Building on this, the article then compares the applied interdisciplinary fields of law and economics, on one hand, with law and behavioral biology, on the other - highlighting not only the most important similarities, but also the most important differences.

The article subsequently explores ways that biological perspectives on human behavior may prove useful, by improving economic models and the behavioral insights they generate. The article concludes that although there are important differences between the two fields, the overlaps between ...


Sorting Guilty Minds, Owen D. Jones, Francis X. Shen, Morris B. Hoffman, Joshua D. Greene, Rene Marois Jan 2011

Sorting Guilty Minds, Owen D. Jones, Francis X. Shen, Morris B. Hoffman, Joshua D. Greene, Rene Marois

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

Because punishable guilt requires that bad thoughts accompany bad acts, the Model Penal Code (MPC) typically requires that jurors infer the past mental state of a criminal defendant. More specifically, jurors must sort that mental state into one of four specific categories - purposeful, knowing, reckless, or negligent - which in turn defines the nature of the crime and the extent of the punishment. The MPC therefore assumes that ordinary people naturally sort mental states into these four categories with a high degree of accuracy, or at least can reliably do so when properly instructed. It also assumes that ordinary people will ...


The Need To Overrule Mapp V. Ohio, William T. Pizzi Jan 2011

The Need To Overrule Mapp V. Ohio, William T. Pizzi

Articles

This Article argues that it is time to overrule Mapp v. Ohio. It contends that the exclusionary rule is outdated because a tough deterrent sanction is difficult to reconcile with a criminal justice system where victims are increasingly seen to have a stake in criminal cases. The rule is also increasingly outdated in its epistemological assumption which insists officers act on "reasons" that they can articulate and which disparages actions based on "hunches" or "feelings." This assumption runs counter to a large body of neuroscience research suggesting that humans often "feel" or "sense" danger, sometimes even at a subconscious level ...


Excluding Unemployed Workers From Job Opportunities: Why Disparate Impact Protections Still Matter, Helen Norton Jan 2011

Excluding Unemployed Workers From Job Opportunities: Why Disparate Impact Protections Still Matter, Helen Norton

Articles

No abstract provided.


Happiness In Business Or Law, Peter H. Huang Jan 2011

Happiness In Business Or Law, Peter H. Huang

Articles

This article provides a short introduction to recent happiness research and its applications to business or law that is organized as follows. Section I briefly considers: (1) troubling and not so troubling reservations about happiness research, and (2) how money and happiness are related. Section II concisely surveys two sets of applications of happiness research to business, namely: (1) workplace well-being and meaning, and (2) marketing. Section III succinctly reviews two categories of happiness research implications for law: (1) business regulation, and (2) law student and lawyer happiness.


Holding Parents Responsible: Is Vicarious Responsibility The Public’S Answer To Juvenile Crime?, Eve M. Brank, Edie Greene, Katherine Hochevar Jan 2011

Holding Parents Responsible: Is Vicarious Responsibility The Public’S Answer To Juvenile Crime?, Eve M. Brank, Edie Greene, Katherine Hochevar

Faculty Publications, Department of Psychology

Parental responsibility laws hold parents accountable for the delinquent behaviors of their children even when parents’ actions are not the direct cause of an offense. Despite the prevalence of these laws, we know little about their perceived fairness. Is it reasonable to make parents vicariously responsible for outcomes they could not have foreseen and, if so, under what circumstances? Our series of three studies addressed those questions by systematically examining the impact of various situational and dispositional factors on public opinions regarding parental responsibility. Respondents attributed most of the responsibility for a crime to the child, and attributions of responsibility ...


Gene-Environment Interactions, Criminal Responsibility, And Sentencing, Stephen Morse Jan 2011

Gene-Environment Interactions, Criminal Responsibility, And Sentencing, Stephen Morse

Neuroethics Publications

"Imagine a defendant who has been charged with murder, the intentional homicide of a victim he was robbing with a weapon. He has a history of three previous convictions and imprisonments for armed robbery. Prior to being released from the third term, he publicly threatened to kill any future armed robbery victims who might be able to identify him. When the current victim looked our armed robber in the eye, the robber said to the victim, "You looked the wrong way at the wrong guy," pulled the trigger, and killed the victim. (We know this because his accomplice has turned ...


Capturing Individual Harms, Katrina Fischer Kuh Jan 2011

Capturing Individual Harms, Katrina Fischer Kuh

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

The aggregated lifestyles and behaviors of individuals impose significant environmental harms yet remain largely unregulated. A growing literature recognizes the environmental significance of individual behaviors, critiques the failure of environmental law and policy to capture harms traceable to individual behaviors, and suggests and evaluates strategies for capturing individual harms going forward. This Article contributes to the existing literature by approaching the problem of environmentally significant individual harms through the lens of environmental federalism. Using climate change and individual greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions as an exemplar, the Article illustrates how local information, local governments, and local implementation can enhance policies designed ...


Antitrust Review Of The At&T/T-Mobile Transaction, Maurice E. Stucke, Allen Grunes Jan 2011

Antitrust Review Of The At&T/T-Mobile Transaction, Maurice E. Stucke, Allen Grunes

College of Law Faculty Scholarship

In this Essay, we review AT&T Inc.’s proposed $39 billion acquisition of T-Mobile USA, Inc., under federal merger law, under the U.S. Department of Justice and Federal Trade Commission’s 2010 Horizontal Merger Guidelines, and with a focus on possible remedies. We find, under a rule of law approach, that the proposed acquisition is presumptively anticompetitive, and the merging parties in their public disclosures have failed to overcome this presumption. Next we find that under the Merger Guidelines, there is reason to believe that the transaction may result in higher prices to consumers under several different plausible ...


Beyond Crime And Commitment: Justifying Liberty Deprivations Of The Dangerous And Responsible, Kimberly Kessler Ferzan Jan 2011

Beyond Crime And Commitment: Justifying Liberty Deprivations Of The Dangerous And Responsible, Kimberly Kessler Ferzan

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The traditional approaches to dangerous persons have been crime and commitment. The criminal law punishes responsible actors, and the civil law confines the mentally ill. These approaches leave a gap: The state cannot substantially restrict the liberty of responsible actors until they have committed a crime. In response to this gap, the criminal law’s boundaries have expanded to include preparatory offenses and early inchoate conduct that are deserving of only minimal, if any, punishment in attempt to incarcerate the dangerous. Meanwhile, the Supreme Court’s effort to articulate a test of mental disease warranting involuntary confinement of sexual predators ...


Gene-Environment Interactions, Criminal Responsibility, And Sentencing, Stephen J. Morse Jan 2011

Gene-Environment Interactions, Criminal Responsibility, And Sentencing, Stephen J. Morse

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This chapter in, Gene-Environment Interactions in Developmental Psychopathology (K. Dodge & M. Rutter, eds. 2011), considers the relevance of GxE to criminal responsibility and sentencing. It begins with a number of preliminary assumptions that will inform the analysis. It then turns to the law’s view of the person, including the law’s implicit psychology, and the criteria for criminal responsibility. A few false starts or distractions about responsibility are disposed of briefly. With this necessary background in place, the chapter then turns specifically to the relation between GxE and criminal responsibility. It suggests that GxE causes of criminal behavior have ...


Beyond Common Sense: A Social Psychological Study Of Iqbal's Effect On Claims Of Race Discrimination, Victor D. Quintanilla Jan 2011

Beyond Common Sense: A Social Psychological Study Of Iqbal's Effect On Claims Of Race Discrimination, Victor D. Quintanilla

Articles by Maurer Faculty

This article examines the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision Ashcroft v. Iqbal, 129 S. Ct. 1937 (2009) from a social psychological perspective, and empirically studies Iqbal’s effect on claims of race discrimination.

In Twombly and then Iqbal, the Court recast Rule 8 from a notice-based rule into a plausibility standard. Under Iqbal, federal judges must evaluate whether each complaint contains sufficient factual matter “to state a claim to relief that is plausible on its face.” When doing so, Iqbal requires judges to draw on their “judicial experience and common sense.” Courts apply Iqbal at the pleading stage, before ...


The Behavioral Economics Of Mergers And Acquisitions, Donald C. Langevoort Jan 2011

The Behavioral Economics Of Mergers And Acquisitions, Donald C. Langevoort

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The world of mergers and acquisitions seems like a setting in which rationality necessarily dominates. There are high stakes, focused and sustained attention, and expert advisers who are repeat players. In the economics and management literature, however, there has been a great deal of research on what might be called “behavioral M&A”—using insights from psychology to explain observed patterns of behavior in the acquisitions marketplace. To date, the law has largely been uninterested in the psychological dynamics of corporate acquisitions. This essay looks at recent research on such issues as the role of overconfidence, hubris, anchoring, etc. in ...


Provocation As Partial Justification And Partial Excuse, Mitchell N. Berman Jan 2011

Provocation As Partial Justification And Partial Excuse, Mitchell N. Berman

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The partial defense of provocation provides that a person who kills in the heat of passion brought on by legally adequate provocation is guilty of manslaughter rather than murder. It traces back to the twelfth century, and exists today, in some form, in almost every U.S. state and other common law jurisdictions. But long history and wide application have not produced agreement on the rationale for the doctrine. To the contrary, the search for a coherent and satisfying rationale remains among the main occupations of criminal law theorists. The dominant scholarly view holds that provocation is best explained and ...


Losing It, William I. Miller Jan 2011

Losing It, William I. Miller

Articles

You are in your sixties, even fifties, and you are walking by a shop window, or in some area in which a security monitor shows a scan of the line you are in. You sneak a look. You see someone in the space where you should be but you do not recognize the interloper. Then, after an unseemly lag of a second or two you are forced to remake your own acquaintance; it seems you no longer know yourself at first sight. The you behind your eyes believes you look like you did twenty years ago, and it assumes that ...