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Productive Mindset Interventions Mitigate Psychological Friction And Improve Well-Being For Bar Exam Takers, Victor D. Quintanilla, Sam Erman Jan 2020

Productive Mindset Interventions Mitigate Psychological Friction And Improve Well-Being For Bar Exam Takers, Victor D. Quintanilla, Sam Erman

Articles by Maurer Faculty

By participating in a brief productive mindset intervention, prospective lawyers improved their wellbeing and performance on the California Bar Exam. Those are the initial results of the research conducted by our interdisciplinary, multi-institutional research team with support from AccessLex Institute and in partnership with the State Bar of California. It did so by mitigating psychological friction and helping test takers reframe stressful experiences. This column discusses our findings and the implications for efforts to make evidence-based gains in bar exam performance, wellbeing, and attorney licensure systems.


Mindsets In Legal Education, Victor D. Quintanilla, Sam Erman Jan 2020

Mindsets In Legal Education, Victor D. Quintanilla, Sam Erman

Articles by Maurer Faculty

If you teach 1Ls, you may share the following concern. At the start of each year, we meet enthusiastic and successful students who are passionate about law. They arrive on campus invested in learning, ready to work hard, and eager to participate in class. But trouble brews soon thereafter. Students worry whether they have what it takes to do well, whether they will fit in, and whether they belong in law school. Answering questions in class, many sense (rightly or wrongly) that their professors and peers think that they aren’t smart and that they will not do well. When ...


The Noisy "Silent Witness": The Misperception And Misuse Of Criminal Video Evidence, Aaron M. Williams Oct 2019

The Noisy "Silent Witness": The Misperception And Misuse Of Criminal Video Evidence, Aaron M. Williams

Indiana Law Journal

This Note examines recent developments in the research of situational video evidence biases. Part I examines the current and growing body of psychological research into the various situational biases that can affect the reliability of video evidence and the gaps in this research that require further attention from researchers and legal academics. Because these biases do not “operate in a vacuum,” Part I also examines some of the recent and exciting research into the interaction between situational and dispositional biases. Part II examines the development of camera and video processing technology and its limitations as a means of mitigating such ...


Why Exempting Negligent Doctors May Reduce Suicide: An Empirical Analysis, John Shahar Dillbary, Griffin Edwards, Fredrick E. Vars Apr 2018

Why Exempting Negligent Doctors May Reduce Suicide: An Empirical Analysis, John Shahar Dillbary, Griffin Edwards, Fredrick E. Vars

Indiana Law Journal

This Article is the first to empirically analyze the impact of tort liability on suicide. Counter-intuitively, our analysis shows that suicide rates increase when potential tort liability is expanded to include psychiatrists—the very defendants who would seem best able to prevent suicide. Using a fifty-state panel regression for 1981 to 2013, we find that states which allowed psychiatrists (but not other doctors) to be liable for malpractice resulting in suicide experienced a 9.3% increase in suicides. On the other hand, and more intuitively, holding non-psychiatrist doctors liable de-creases suicide by 10.7%. These countervailing effects can be explained ...


Law And Identifiability, Daphna Lewinsohn-Zamir, Ilana Ritov, Tehila Kogut Apr 2017

Law And Identifiability, Daphna Lewinsohn-Zamir, Ilana Ritov, Tehila Kogut

Indiana Law Journal

Psychological studies have shown that people react either more generously or more punitively toward identified individuals than toward unidentified ones. This phenomenon, named the identifiability effect, has received little attention in the legal literature, despite its importance for the law. As a prime example, while legislators typically craft rules that would apply to unidentified people, judges ordinarily deal with identified individuals. The identifiability effect suggests that the outcomes of these two forms of lawmaking may differ, even when they pertain to similar facts and situations.

This Article is a preliminary investigation into the relevance of the identifiability effect for law ...


Identifying Criminals’ Risk Preferences, Murat C. Mungan, Jonathan Klick Apr 2016

Identifying Criminals’ Risk Preferences, Murat C. Mungan, Jonathan Klick

Indiana Law Journal

There is a 250-year-old presumption in the criminology and law enforcement literature that people are deterred more by increases in the certainty rather than increases in the severity of legal sanctions. We call this presumption the Certainty Aversion Presumption (CAP). Simple criminal decision-making models suggest that criminals must be risk seeking if they behave consistently with CAP. This implication leads to disturbing interpretations, such as criminals being categorically different from law-abiding people, who often display risk-averse behavior while making financial decisions. Moreover, policy discussions that incorrectly rely on criminals’ risk attitudes implied by CAP are ill informed, and may therefore ...


The Same-Actor Inference Of Nondiscrimination: Moral Credentialing And The Psychological And Legal Licensing Of Bias, Victor D. Quintanilla, Cheryl R. Kaiser Jan 2016

The Same-Actor Inference Of Nondiscrimination: Moral Credentialing And The Psychological And Legal Licensing Of Bias, Victor D. Quintanilla, Cheryl R. Kaiser

Articles by Maurer Faculty

One of the most egregious examples of the tension between federal employment discrimination law and psychological science is the federal common law doctrine known as the same-actor inference.

When originally elaborated by the Fourth Circuit in Proud v. Stone, the same-actor doctrine applied only when an “employee was hired and fired by the same person within a relatively short time span.” In the two decades since, the doctrine has widened and broadened in scope. It now subsumes many employment contexts well beyond hiring and firing, to scenarios in which the “same person” entails different groups of decision makers, and the ...


Dualism And Doctrine, Dov Fox, Alex Stein Jul 2015

Dualism And Doctrine, Dov Fox, Alex Stein

Indiana Law Journal

What kinds of harm among those that tortfeasors inflict are worthy of compensation? Which forms of self-incriminating evidence are privileged against government compulsion? What sorts of facts constitute a criminal defendant’s intent? Existing doctrine pins the answer to all of these questions on whether the injury, facts, or evidence at stake are “mental” or “physical.” The assumption that operations of the mind are meaningfully distinct from those of the body animates fundamental rules in our law.

A tort victim cannot recover for mental harm on its own because the law presumes that he is able to unfeel any suffering ...


Taboo Procedural Tradeoffs: Examining How The Public Experiences Tradeoffs Between Procedural Justice And Cost, Victor D. Quintanilla Jan 2015

Taboo Procedural Tradeoffs: Examining How The Public Experiences Tradeoffs Between Procedural Justice And Cost, Victor D. Quintanilla

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Fairness is a foundational concept in American jurisprudence. Yet when evaluating our system of civil procedure, debate surrounds how to reconcile the competing ends of our civil justice system. While scholars agree that our civil justice system must vindicate rights, deter wrongful conduct, respect human dignity, and enhance social welfare and efficiency, scholars disagree on how best to reconcile these ends. Doubtless, the tension between these plural ends poses difficulty when courts, civil rule designers, and legislators balance and weigh the costs and benefits of different civil procedural rules and constitutional safeguards under the Due Process Clause. Notably, courts face ...


Access To Counsel: Psychological Science Can Improve The Promise Of Civil Rights Enforcement, Victor D. Quintanilla, Cheryl R. Kaiser Jan 2014

Access To Counsel: Psychological Science Can Improve The Promise Of Civil Rights Enforcement, Victor D. Quintanilla, Cheryl R. Kaiser

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Employment discrimination claimants in general, and racial minority claimants in particular, disproportionately lack access to legal counsel. When employment discrimination claimants lack counsel, they typically abandon their claims, or if they pursue their claims, they do so pro se (without counsel), a strategy that is seldom successful in court. Access to counsel is, hence, a decisive component in whether employment discrimination victims realize the potential of civil rights enforcement. Psychological science analyzes access to counsel by identifying psychological barriers—such as threatened social identity, mistrust in legal authorities, and fear of repercussions—that prevent employment discrimination victims from pursuing counsel ...


Critical Race Empiricism: A New Means To Measure Civil Procedure, Victor D. Quintanilla Jan 2013

Critical Race Empiricism: A New Means To Measure Civil Procedure, Victor D. Quintanilla

Articles by Maurer Faculty

This article reflects the second phase in a research line examining the effects of highly subjective pleading rules, specifically, Ashcroft v. Iqbal, 556 U.S. 662 (2009), and was an invited contribution to a symposium, which explored the intersection of empirical legal methods and critical race theory. In this phase, I updated the empirical legal analysis in a prior article, Beyond Common Sense: A Social Psychological Study of Iqbal’s Effect on Claims of Race Discrimination, 17 Michigan Journal of Race and Law 1 (2011), in three ways. First, I lengthened the time horizon from 18 months to 24 months ...


Challenges Of "Sameness": Pitfalls And Benefits To Assumed Connections In Lawyering, Carwina Weng, Lynn Barenberg, Alexis Anderson Jan 2012

Challenges Of "Sameness": Pitfalls And Benefits To Assumed Connections In Lawyering, Carwina Weng, Lynn Barenberg, Alexis Anderson

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Individuals are drawn to connect with other people because of shared experiences and personal characteristics. These connections often help people establish rapport, trust, and engagement. Surely these same benefits would apply in the lawyer-client relationship where a lawyer’s ability to find common links with her client would facilitate the lawyering process.

Perhaps that is true, but not necessarily and not without some potential costs. As clinical teachers, we have become increasingly wary that assumptions attributable to sameness can complicate lawyering. Untested assumptions, whatever their source, can impair lawyering judgments. In our collective experience, we have found that assumptions rooted ...


Judicial Mindsets: The Social Psychology Of Implicit Theories And The Law, Victor D. Quintanilla Jan 2012

Judicial Mindsets: The Social Psychology Of Implicit Theories And The Law, Victor D. Quintanilla

Articles by Maurer Faculty

This article introduces Dr. Carol Dweck’s seminal and significant line of psychological research on the phenomenon of implicit theories and draws on this research as a lens through which we might better understand judicial decision-making. In particular, the article focuses on the implications of two types of implicit theories – whether people believe that phenomena are static and fixed versus dynamic and malleable. By introducing this research, this article aims to forward a research agenda designed to examine how social, contextual, and situational forces influence judicial behavior.

An entity theory reflects the mindset that phenomena are fixed and unlikely to ...


Beyond Common Sense: A Social Psychological Study Of Iqbal's Effect On Claims Of Race Discrimination, Victor D. Quintanilla Jan 2011

Beyond Common Sense: A Social Psychological Study Of Iqbal's Effect On Claims Of Race Discrimination, Victor D. Quintanilla

Articles by Maurer Faculty

This article examines the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision Ashcroft v. Iqbal, 129 S. Ct. 1937 (2009) from a social psychological perspective, and empirically studies Iqbal’s effect on claims of race discrimination.

In Twombly and then Iqbal, the Court recast Rule 8 from a notice-based rule into a plausibility standard. Under Iqbal, federal judges must evaluate whether each complaint contains sufficient factual matter “to state a claim to relief that is plausible on its face.” When doing so, Iqbal requires judges to draw on their “judicial experience and common sense.” Courts apply Iqbal at the pleading stage, before ...


(Mis)Judging Intent: The Fundamental Attribution Error In Federal Securities Law, Victor D. Quintanilla Jan 2010

(Mis)Judging Intent: The Fundamental Attribution Error In Federal Securities Law, Victor D. Quintanilla

Articles by Maurer Faculty

This article examines the element of scienter (fraudulent intent) in claims of federal securities fraud under Section 10(b) of the Exchange Act and, more specifically, the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in Tellabs, Inc. v. Makor Issues & Rights, Ltd., 551 U.S. 308 (2007) from a social psychological perspective. The field of social psychology has documented a pervasive phenomena, the Fundamental Attribution Error, the failure of decision makers to consider situational explanations, including the force of environments and social and situational norms on human conduct. In light of robust social psychological research on the Fundamental Attribution Error, legal ...


Last Stand? The Criminal Responsibility Of War Veterans Returning From Iraq And Afghanistan With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Thomas L. Hafemeister, Nicole A. Stockey Jan 2010

Last Stand? The Criminal Responsibility Of War Veterans Returning From Iraq And Afghanistan With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Thomas L. Hafemeister, Nicole A. Stockey

Indiana Law Journal

As more psychologically scarred troops return from combat in Iraq and Afghanistan, society's focus on and concern for these troops and their psychological disorders has increased With this increase and with associated studies confirming the validity of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) diagnosis and the genuine impact of PTSD on the behavior of war veterans, greater weight may be given to the premise that PTSD is a mental disorder that provides grounds for a "mental status defense, " such as insanity, a lack of mens rea, or self-defense. Although considerable impediments remain, given the current political climate, Iraq and Afghanistan ...


The Unabomber Revisited: Reexamining The Use Of Mental Disorder Diagnoses As Evidence Of The Mental Condition Of Criminal Defendants, Adam K. Magid Jan 2009

The Unabomber Revisited: Reexamining The Use Of Mental Disorder Diagnoses As Evidence Of The Mental Condition Of Criminal Defendants, Adam K. Magid

Indiana Law Journal

This Article revisits a longstanding debate concerning the appropriateness of diagnostic evidence in criminal cases in which a defendant’s mental condition is at issue. As illustrated through a case study of Theodore Kaczynski, more widely known as the “Unabomber,” a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia poses a risk of confounding a judge or jury attempting to ascertain an accurate picture of the mental state of a criminal defendant, specifically by (i) suggesting symptoms not actually present, (ii) creating a distorted picture of symptoms that are present, and (iii) suggesting organic, determinative factors as the mechanism behind a defendant’s actions ...


Multicultural Lawyering: Teaching Psychology To Develop Cultural Self-Awareness, Carwina Weng Jan 2005

Multicultural Lawyering: Teaching Psychology To Develop Cultural Self-Awareness, Carwina Weng

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Much of the current literature in multicultural lawyering focuses on learning substantive information about clients who are culturally different from the lawyer, such as how the client's culture perceives eye contact or reacts to science-based world views. This article notes that such a focus sidesteps the human reality that every person reacts to people who are different from him- or herself unconsciously in ways that may be culturally insensitive and discriminatory and that this human reaction occurs despite awareness of the general values, attitudes, and beliefs of the client's culture. It therefore suggests that multicultural lawyering training should ...


Suppressing Memory, Lynne N. Henderson Jan 1997

Suppressing Memory, Lynne N. Henderson

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


"Lies, Damned Lies, And Statistics"? Psychological Syndrome Evidence In The Courtroom After Daubert, Krista L. Duncan Jul 1996

"Lies, Damned Lies, And Statistics"? Psychological Syndrome Evidence In The Courtroom After Daubert, Krista L. Duncan

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Freud And Critical Legal Studies: Contours Of A Radical Socio-Legal Psychoanalysis, David S. Caudill Jul 1991

Freud And Critical Legal Studies: Contours Of A Radical Socio-Legal Psychoanalysis, David S. Caudill

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Better Trials Through Science: A Defense Of Psychologist-Lawyer Collaboration, J. Alexander Tanford, Sarah Tanford Jan 1988

Better Trials Through Science: A Defense Of Psychologist-Lawyer Collaboration, J. Alexander Tanford, Sarah Tanford

Articles by Maurer Faculty

A concern of some legal commentators is that lawyers may use psychological persuasion techniques to gain an unfair advantage over their courtroom opponents and subvert the justice system. In this Article, the Tanfords respond to an earlier Article in which Professor Victor Gold raised such concerns. The Tanfords argue that commentators like Gold misunderstand jury behavior and trial process, exaggerating the negative impact of lawyers aided by psychologists. To the contrary, lawyer/psychologist collaboration improves rational decision making by identifying existing biases and devising strategies to correct them. The Tanfords conclude these benefits outweigh any possible abuse, and no reason ...


The Emerging "Victim Factor" In The Supreme Court's Criminal Jurisprudence: Should Victims' Interests Ever Prevent A Court From Overturning A Conviction And Ordering A Retrial?, Roger A. Pauley Apr 1986

The Emerging "Victim Factor" In The Supreme Court's Criminal Jurisprudence: Should Victims' Interests Ever Prevent A Court From Overturning A Conviction And Ordering A Retrial?, Roger A. Pauley

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Incompetent Principals, Competent Third Parties, And The Law Of Agency, Alexander M. Meiklejohn Apr 1986

Incompetent Principals, Competent Third Parties, And The Law Of Agency, Alexander M. Meiklejohn

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Jensen And The Science Of Psychometrics: A Legal Perspective - Bias In Mental Testing, By Arthur R. Jensen, Bryant Garth Jul 1980

Jensen And The Science Of Psychometrics: A Legal Perspective - Bias In Mental Testing, By Arthur R. Jensen, Bryant Garth

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Public Law 94-103: An Implied Private Right Of Action To Enforce The Right To Treatment For Institutionalized Mentally Retarded Persons, John Cahalan Apr 1979

Public Law 94-103: An Implied Private Right Of Action To Enforce The Right To Treatment For Institutionalized Mentally Retarded Persons, John Cahalan

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Psychological Stress Evaluator: The Theory, Validity And Legal Status Of An Innovative "Lie Detector", William H. Kenety Jan 1979

The Psychological Stress Evaluator: The Theory, Validity And Legal Status Of An Innovative "Lie Detector", William H. Kenety

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Due Process And The Insanity Defense: The Supreme Court's Retreat From Winship And Mullaney, Jeffrey A. Burger Oct 1978

Due Process And The Insanity Defense: The Supreme Court's Retreat From Winship And Mullaney, Jeffrey A. Burger

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Lawyer In The Interviewing And Counselling Process, By Andrew S. Watson, Margaret C. Attridge Apr 1978

The Lawyer In The Interviewing And Counselling Process, By Andrew S. Watson, Margaret C. Attridge

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Administrative Discharge Procedures For Involuntary Civilly-Committed Mental Patients: An Alternative, Barbara Woodall Kragie Jul 1975

Administrative Discharge Procedures For Involuntary Civilly-Committed Mental Patients: An Alternative, Barbara Woodall Kragie

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.