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Law and Gender

University of Michigan Law School

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Voting While Trans: How Voter Id Laws Unconstitutionally Compel The Speech Of Trans Voters, Emmy Maluf Mar 2024

Voting While Trans: How Voter Id Laws Unconstitutionally Compel The Speech Of Trans Voters, Emmy Maluf

Michigan Law Review

Thirty-five states currently request or require identification documents for in-person voting, and these requirements uniquely impact transgender voters. Of the more than 697,800 voting-eligible trans people living in states that conduct primarily in-person elections, almost half (43 percent) lack documents that correctly reflect their name or gender. When an ID does not align with a trans voter’s gender presentation, the voter may be disenfranchised—either because a poll worker denies them the right to cast a ballot or because the voter ID requirement chills their participation in the first place. Further, when a trans voter presents an ID that does not …


Missed Connections In The U.N. Agenda: Applying The Women, Peace And Security Framework To The Feminization Of Poverty, Lauren A. Fleming Jul 2023

Missed Connections In The U.N. Agenda: Applying The Women, Peace And Security Framework To The Feminization Of Poverty, Lauren A. Fleming

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

Women, Peace and Security, a multifaceted agenda intended to address the particular ways in which conflict affects women, has been on the United Nations agenda since the landmark Security Council Resolution 1325 passed in 2000. The unequal burden of poverty on women, a phenomenon that has been coined “the feminization of poverty,” has been on the United Nations agenda for even longer, since the 1995 Beijing Conference on Women. Yet, despite the fact that poverty and inequality both cause and result in conflict in a violent cycle, the problem of the feminization of poverty has not been integrated into the …


The Preservation Of The Separate Spheres Doctrine In Congress And The Federal Courts, Arjun Parikh Jul 2023

The Preservation Of The Separate Spheres Doctrine In Congress And The Federal Courts, Arjun Parikh

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

In Bradwell v. State, an 1872 decision upholding an Illinois law prohibiting women from practicing law, the United States Supreme Court reasoned that the law was justified because women belonged in the “domestic sphere.” While today’s sex-based workplace exclusions are not as explicit as they once were, women still face barriers to remaining in the workforce and advancing in the workplace despite the existence of major federal legislation in the areas of pregnancy discrimination and family leave policy. Congress passed the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA) in 1978 to stop pregnancy discrimination, but the PDA has not come close to …


Right To Informed Consent, Right To A Doula: An Evidence-Based Solution To The Black Maternal Mortality Crisis In The United States, Cecilia Landor Jul 2023

Right To Informed Consent, Right To A Doula: An Evidence-Based Solution To The Black Maternal Mortality Crisis In The United States, Cecilia Landor

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

This Note seeks to build on existing research about how to improve childbirth in the United States for women, particularly for Black women, given the United States’ extremely high maternal mortality rate. Through examining the history and characteristics of American and Western childbirth, it seeks to explore how the current birth framework contributes to maternal mortality. To fight this ongoing harm, I suggest increasing access to doulas— nonmedical support workers who provide “continuous support” to the birthing person.

Through this Note I seek to build on the research of others by identifying the ways medicalized birth practices fail women, particularly …


Title Ix And "Menstruation Or Related Conditions", Marcy L. Karin, Naomi Cahn, Elizabeth B. Cooper, Bridget J. Crawford, Margaret E. Johnson, Emily Gold Waldman Jul 2023

Title Ix And "Menstruation Or Related Conditions", Marcy L. Karin, Naomi Cahn, Elizabeth B. Cooper, Bridget J. Crawford, Margaret E. Johnson, Emily Gold Waldman

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of 1972 (“Title IX”) prohibits sex discrimination in educational programs or activities receiving federal financial assistance. Neither the statute nor its implementing regulations explicitly define “sex” to include discrimination on the basis of menstruation or related conditions such as perimenopause and menopause. This textual absence has caused confusion over whether Title IX must be interpreted to protect students and other community members from all types of sex-based discrimination. It also calls into question the law’s ability to break down systemic sex-based barriers related to menstruation in educational spaces. Absent an interpretation that there …


Constructing Race And Gender In Modern Rape Law: The Abandoned Category Of Black Female Victims, Jacqueline Pittman Jul 2023

Constructing Race And Gender In Modern Rape Law: The Abandoned Category Of Black Female Victims, Jacqueline Pittman

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

Despite the successes of the 1960s Anti-Rape Movement, modern state rape statutes continue to prioritize white male perspectives and perceptions of race, ultimately ignoring the intersectional identity of Black women and leaving these victims without legal protection. This Note examines rape law’s history of allocating agency along gendered and racialized lines through statutory construction and other discursive techniques. Such legal constructions both uphold and cultivate the white victim/Black assailant rape dyad primarily by making the Black male the “ultimate” and most feared assailant. Rape law’s adherence to a white baseline sustains stereotypes of Black men as criminals and predators, which …


Title Vii’S Failures: A History Of Overlooked Indifference, Elena S. Meth Jun 2023

Title Vii’S Failures: A History Of Overlooked Indifference, Elena S. Meth

Michigan Law Review

Nearly sixty years after the adoption of Title VII and over thirty since intersectionality theory was brought into legal discourse by Professor Kimberlé Crenshaw, the U.S. Supreme Court has consistently failed to meaningfully implement intersectionality into its decisionmaking. While there is certainly no shortage of scholarship on intersectionality and the Court’s failure to recognize it, this remains an overlooked failure by the Supreme Court. This Note proceeds in three parts. Part I provides an overview of Title VII and intersectional discrimination theory. I then explain how the EEOC and the Supreme Court have historically handled intersectional discrimination cases. Part II …


An Intelligent Path For Improving Diversity At Law Firms (Un)Artificially, Rimsha Syeda Apr 2023

An Intelligent Path For Improving Diversity At Law Firms (Un)Artificially, Rimsha Syeda

Michigan Technology Law Review

Most law firms are struggling when it comes to diversity and inclusion. There are fewer women in law firms compared to men. The majority of lawyers—81%—are White, despite White people making up only about 65% of the law school population. Lawyers of color remain underrepresented with the historic high being only 28.32%. By comparison, 13.4% of the United States population is Black and 5.9% is Asian. The biases that perpetuate this lack of diversity in law firms begin during the hiring process and extend to associate retainment. For example, an applicant’s resume reveals a lot, including the prestige of the …


Hierarchy, Race & Gender In Legal Scholarly Networks, Nicholson W. Price, Keerthana Nunna, Jonathan Tietz Jan 2023

Hierarchy, Race & Gender In Legal Scholarly Networks, Nicholson W. Price, Keerthana Nunna, Jonathan Tietz

Articles

A potent myth of legal academic scholarship is that it is mostly meritocratic and mostly solitary. Reality is more complicated. In this Article, we plumb the networks of knowledge co-production in legal academia by analyzing the star footnotes that appear at the beginning of most law review articles. Acknowledgments paint a rich picture of both the currency of scholarly credit and the relationships among scholars. Building on others’ prior work characterizing the potent impact of hierarchy, race, and gender in legal academia more generally, we examine the patterns of scholarly networks and probe the effects of those factors. The landscape …


By Any Other Name, Shay Elbaum Jan 2023

By Any Other Name, Shay Elbaum

Law Librarian Scholarship

The use of names to refer to individuals is probably as old as language itself, but many features of naming in the United States are much newer. For the most part, our naming laws and norms derive from England, where the use of surnames, for example, can be traced back to the Norman conquest and did not become a common practice until the 13th or 14th century. The idea of a surname as a family name, permanent and hereditary, is even newer.

The common law method of changing one’s name — simply using a different name, for non-fraudulent purposes — …


Mothers In Law, Melissa Murray Jan 2023

Mothers In Law, Melissa Murray

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Civil Rights Queen: Constance Baker Motley and the Struggle for Equality. By Tomiko Brown-Nagin.


The Impact Of Post-Dobbs Abortion Bans On Prenatal Tort Claims, Aviva K. Diamond Jan 2023

The Impact Of Post-Dobbs Abortion Bans On Prenatal Tort Claims, Aviva K. Diamond

Michigan Law Review

In June 2022, the Supreme Court revoked Americans’ fundamental right to abortion in Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization. However, the Court said nothing about how its decision would impact tort claims related to reproductive care. Many states have since adopted near-total or early-gestational- age abortion bans, which has not only diminished access to reproductive care, but has also incidentally impaired the ability of plaintiffs to bring long-recognized prenatal tort claims. Prenatal tort claims—wrongful pregnancy, birth, and life—allow victims to recover when a medical professional negligently performs reproductive or prenatal care. This Note identifies the impact that post-Dobbs …


Making Mandates Last: Increasing Female Representation On Corporate Boards In The U.S., Nikki Williams Dec 2022

Making Mandates Last: Increasing Female Representation On Corporate Boards In The U.S., Nikki Williams

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

A lack of female representation on corporate boards has plagued our country for decades. Until a few years ago, there was not a single state or federal regulation that required corporations to fill board seats with female directors. Instead, the federal government talked around the issue. In 2010, the SEC established an optional reporting structure for corporations to communicate their hiring practices, but did little else. With no national plan in place, many states implemented legislation that urged corporations to hire female directors. But this legislation barely moved the needle. The country needed a mandate. And in 2018, California implemented …


Gentlewomen Of The Jury, Vivian N. Rotenstein, Valerie P. Hans Dec 2022

Gentlewomen Of The Jury, Vivian N. Rotenstein, Valerie P. Hans

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

This Article undertakes a contemporary assessment of the role of women on the jury. In 1946, at a time when few women served on U.S. juries, the all-male Supreme Court opined in Ballard v. United States: “The truth is that the two sexes are not fungible; a community made up exclusively of one is different from a community composed of both; the subtle interplay of influence of one on the other is among the imponderables.” Three-quarters of a century later, women’s legal and social status has changed dramatically, with increased participation in the labor force, expanded leadership roles, and the …


Critical Race Feminism, Health, And Restorative Practices In Schools: Centering The Experiences Of Black And Latina Girls, Thalia González, Rebecca Epstein Dec 2022

Critical Race Feminism, Health, And Restorative Practices In Schools: Centering The Experiences Of Black And Latina Girls, Thalia González, Rebecca Epstein

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

Restorative practices (RP) in K-12 schools in the United States have grown exponentially since the early 1990s. Developing against a backdrop of systemic racism, RP has become embedded in education practice and policy to counteract the harmful and persistent patterns of disparities in school discipline experienced by students of color. Within this legal, social, and political context, the empirical evidence that has been gathered on school-based restorative justice has framed and named RP as a behavioral intervention aimed at reducing discipline incidents—that is, an “alternative” to punitive and exclusionary practices. While this view of RP is central to dismantling discriminatory …


Litigation, Referendum Or Legislation? The Road To Becoming The First In Asia To Institutionalize Same-Sex Marriage, Tzu-Chiang Huang Dec 2022

Litigation, Referendum Or Legislation? The Road To Becoming The First In Asia To Institutionalize Same-Sex Marriage, Tzu-Chiang Huang

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

In the pursuit of same-sex marriage, advocates in each country evaluate the appropriate decision-making process for addressing this highly disputed issue—litigation, legislation, or referendum. The choice may be partially based on the institutional advantages of each approach, but more importantly, the choice is also conditioned by the legal and political context of each country, such as the authority of the court, the framing of public opinion, and the dynamics between movement and countermovement. Uniquely, all three decision-making processes are involved in the course of the institutionalization of same-sex marriage in Taiwan. This Article, focusing on the experience in Taiwan, examines …


Gender And Corporate Crime: Do Women On The Board Of Directors Reduce Corporate Bad Behavior?, Ido Baum, Dalit Gafni, Ruthy Lowenstein Lazar Dec 2022

Gender And Corporate Crime: Do Women On The Board Of Directors Reduce Corporate Bad Behavior?, Ido Baum, Dalit Gafni, Ruthy Lowenstein Lazar

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

Public debate on mandating gender representation on boards of directors in the United States is close to a boiling point. California introduced a mandatory quota in 2018 only to see it constitutionally disqualified in 2022, and the Nasdaq Stock Market followed suit with new diversity rules in 2021 for all corporations listed on the exchange. While public discourse focuses on corporate performance, not much is known about the link between gender diversity and corporate normative obedience.

In this study we explore the relationship between boardroom gender representation and corporate compliance with the law. We examine the impact of gender diversity …


The Times They Are A-Changin’?: #Metoo And Our Movement Forward, Terry Morehead Dworkin, Cindy A. Schipani Dec 2022

The Times They Are A-Changin’?: #Metoo And Our Movement Forward, Terry Morehead Dworkin, Cindy A. Schipani

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Social movements like #MeToo have gained public traction like never before. In this Article, we place those developments within their historical context and chart a path forward. First, we provide a history of the prior unsuccessful attempts to ratify an Equal Rights Amendment, and we discuss that effort’s current legal status and prospects. Then, we briefly review the history of sexual harassment law. Having outlined this historical context, we move to contemporary developments. We describe actions that state legislatures and local municipalities have taken to address the concerns raised by the #MeToo movement. Finally, we discuss how inflection points can …


Liability For Toxic Workplace Cultures, Dana Florczak Sep 2022

Liability For Toxic Workplace Cultures, Dana Florczak

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Title VII is meant to protect employees from discrimination and has historically been a crucial tool for creating social change in the workplace. But when considering modern-day workplace discrimination wrought by “toxic workplace cultures” defined herein, Title VII’s frameworks for confronting systemic discrimination prove outdated and ineffective. This Note proposes the codification of a new theory of discrimination under Title VII targeting toxic workplace cultures, with substantive and procedural elements working in tandem to better enable plaintiffs to collectively bring actions to hold employers accountable for fostering discriminatory environments. Part I defines toxic workplace cultures and walks through case studies …


Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, And Homelessness Post-Bostock, Alaina Richert Sep 2022

Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, And Homelessness Post-Bostock, Alaina Richert

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Housing discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity is a critical problem facing LGBTQ+ people in the United States. In addition, LGBTQ+ people, particularly transgender people, disproportionately suffer from homelessness and face discrimination by homeless shelters on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity. This homelessness and discrimination both disproportionately affect transgender people of color. This Note makes two contributions that would enable courts to grant meaningful relief in these contexts. First, it argues that “sex” in the Fair Housing Act includes sexual orientation and gender identity after the holding in Bostock v. Clayton County. Second, …


Decolonizing The Corpus: A Queer Decolonial Re-Examination Of Gender In International Law's Origins, David Eichert Aug 2022

Decolonizing The Corpus: A Queer Decolonial Re-Examination Of Gender In International Law's Origins, David Eichert

Michigan Journal of International Law

This article builds upon queer feminist and decolonial/TWAIL interventions into the history of international law, questioning the dominant discourses about gender and sexual victimhood in the laws of armed conflict. In Part One, I examine how early European international law writers (re)produced binary and hierarchical ideas about gender in influential legal texts, discursively creating a world in which wartime violence only featured men and women in strictly defined roles (a construction which continues to influence the practice of law today). In Part Two, I decenter these dominant discourses by looking outside Europe, questioning what a truly “international” law would look …


Cruel Dilemmas In Contemporary Fertility Care: Problematizing America's Failure To Assure Access To Fertility Preservation For Trans Youth, Anna Reed Jun 2022

Cruel Dilemmas In Contemporary Fertility Care: Problematizing America's Failure To Assure Access To Fertility Preservation For Trans Youth, Anna Reed

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

Transgender youth are increasingly able to access gender-affirming healthcare. Because gender-affirming care such as hormone therapy is clinically shown to reduce gender dysphoria and ease physical and social transition, every major U.S. medical association recognizes that gender-affirming healthcare is medically necessary for the treatment of dysphoria. However, an important dimension of gender-affirming care remains under-insured and overpriced: fertility preservation (FP). Several studies indicate that hormone therapies and certain gender-affirming surgeries can have negative, long-term impacts on future fertility. Although these impacts can be mitigated through approved FP methods such as sperm cryopreservation and oocyte cryopreservation, such methods are rarely affordable …


Defining Sexual Orientation: A Proposal For A New Definition, Andrew Park Jun 2022

Defining Sexual Orientation: A Proposal For A New Definition, Andrew Park

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

Laws prohibiting discrimination based on sexual orientation are becoming more common in all parts of the world. Few of these laws provide useful definitions of the term sexual orientation. As a result, the meaning and impact of these laws remains unclear. This Article reviews past and current definitions of sexual orientation according to how well they incorporate current empirical knowledge of sexual orientation, and how their use in human rights laws impacts the dignity, right to equality, and human development of sexual minorities. The Article gives particular attention to the definition of sexual orientation found in the Yogyakarta Principles which …


Surrogacy And Parenthood: A European Saga Of Genetic Essentialism And Gender Discrimination, Mélanie Levy Jun 2022

Surrogacy And Parenthood: A European Saga Of Genetic Essentialism And Gender Discrimination, Mélanie Levy

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

This paper tells a story of shifting normativities, from tradition to modernity and back, regarding the recognition of legal parenthood in non-traditional families created through crossborder surrogacy. The cross-border nature of the surrogacy is often forced as most domestic legal frameworks in Europe still restrict the creation of non-traditional families through assisted reproductive technologies. Once back home, these families struggle to have birth certificates recognized and establish legal parenthood. The disjuncture between social reality and domestic law creates a situation of legal limbo. In its recent case law, the European Court of Human Rights has pushed for domestic authorities to …


Pregnant Transgender People: What To Expect From The Court Of Justice Of The European Union's Jurisprudence On Pregnancy Discrimination, Hannah Van Dijcke Jun 2022

Pregnant Transgender People: What To Expect From The Court Of Justice Of The European Union's Jurisprudence On Pregnancy Discrimination, Hannah Van Dijcke

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

Pregnant transgender people’s experiences vary: they may identify as male or non-binary and may seek gender-affirming medical care to different degrees. This variety in gender identities and bodies puts additional pressure on CJEU’s pregnancy discrimination case law—a case law that is, as this Article argues, already flawed. Building on a critique of the CJEU’s decision in Dekker, this Article discusses three alternative approaches to addressing pregnancy discrimination in EU law. The first two approaches are different ways of construing pregnancy discrimination as sex discrimination. First, the Article discusses a gender-stereotyping approach to direct sex discrimination, and, second, an indirect sex …


Advancing Reproductive Justice In Latin America Through A Transitional Justice Lens, Rosario Grimà Algora Apr 2022

Advancing Reproductive Justice In Latin America Through A Transitional Justice Lens, Rosario Grimà Algora

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

Reproductive autonomy is a pivotal part of women’s access to equal citizenship, yet it has not been included in any international nor regional human rights treaty. In the past decades, the U.N. Committees, notably the CEDAW Committee, and regional human rights bodies, particularly the Inter-American System for the Protection of Human Rights, have timidly advanced reproductive justice through their jurisprudence, including through the use of reparations. Drawing from the standards of reparations developed in the field of transitional justice, human rights bodies increasingly rely on reparations to enhance the transformative effects of their decisions. These reparations intend to include a …


Trek To Triumph, Briaunna Buckner Apr 2022

Trek To Triumph, Briaunna Buckner

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

I was screaming in the stairwell of my home, holding a dead baby. The air was so thick that I could barely breathe. Tears were racing down my face as her twin sister, Zola, was screeching at the top of her lungs. “WHY LORD, don't take my baby!” Every emotion, every word, and every second after that moment felt black. All the sweet memories from just eight days of being able to hold her, kiss her, and love her fell in a black pit along with the dreams I had for my life. As I looked down at my sweet …


Title Ix And The Alleged Victimization Of Men: Applying Twombly To Federal Title Ix Lawsuits Brought By Men Accused Of Sexual Assault, Zoë Seaman-Grant Apr 2022

Title Ix And The Alleged Victimization Of Men: Applying Twombly To Federal Title Ix Lawsuits Brought By Men Accused Of Sexual Assault, Zoë Seaman-Grant

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

This Note provides a survey of the current state of Title IX law as applied to anti-male bias lawsuits and suggests how courts should apply Twombly’s plausibility standard to anti-male bias claims going forward. Part I of this Note provides an overview of sexual violence on college campuses and the history of Title IX regulations and jurisprudence. Part II offers a brief history of Title IX anti-male bias lawsuits, examines the structure of anti-male bias lawsuits, and analyzes the various pleading standards applied by courts. Part III lays out the types of facts pled by Title IX anti-male bias …


Reproduction And Gender Self-Determination: Fertile Grounds For Trans Legal Advocacy, Samira Seraji Apr 2022

Reproduction And Gender Self-Determination: Fertile Grounds For Trans Legal Advocacy, Samira Seraji

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

Current medical constructions of trans identities reflect heterosexist understandings of gender expression—understandings that deny access to gender-affirming healthcare to those who fail to perform normative binary genders. As medical providers establish norms for how to “properly” be trans, the state codifies these norms, basing trans existence on rigidly defined and harshly enforced understandings of binary gender. When this construction of transness is codified on an institutional level, such as with gender reclassification rules for government identification, it forces trans people to conform their bodies to cisgender norms, and dangerously disrupts trans people’s bodily autonomy and diminishes their control over their …


The Home Of The Dispossessed, Allison Anna Tait Apr 2022

The Home Of The Dispossessed, Allison Anna Tait

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

The objects that people interact with on a daily basis speak to and of these people who acquire, display, and handle them—the relationship is one of exchange. People living among household objects come to care for their things, identify with them, and think of them as a constituent part of themselves. A meaningful problem arises, however, when people who have deep connections to the objects that populate their lived spaces are not those who possess the legal rights of ownership. These individuals and groups—usually excluded from the realm of property ownership along lines of gender, race, and ethnicity—live on an …