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Full-Text Articles in Law

El Borrado Del Sexo: La Captura Global De Las Políticas Sobre Sexo Por Parte De Los Activistas De La Identidad De Género Y Los Efectos Sobre Los Derechos De Las Mujeres Y Las Niñas, Feministas De Europa, Asia, América Del Norte, América Latina Y África, Analía Susana Vitale Rosenbrock Jan 2023

El Borrado Del Sexo: La Captura Global De Las Políticas Sobre Sexo Por Parte De Los Activistas De La Identidad De Género Y Los Efectos Sobre Los Derechos De Las Mujeres Y Las Niñas, Feministas De Europa, Asia, América Del Norte, América Latina Y África, Analía Susana Vitale Rosenbrock

Dignity: A Journal of Analysis of Exploitation and Violence

Este artículo revisa los objetivos, la historia y el impacto de las nuevas políticas de identidad de género. Basadas en los Principios de Yogyakarta, estas nuevas ideas y políticas afectarán profundamente los derechos de las mujeres y las niñas en todo el mundo. Los Principios son un documento de una reunión internacional sobre orientación sexual e identidad de género en 2006. En 2017, el documento se actualizó a los Principios de Yogyakarta Plus 10. Los Principios recomiendan cambios legales por parte de los estados en todo el mundo, lo que resulta en la eliminación del sexo como una …


Bridging The Gap In Lgbtq+ Rights Litigation: A Community Discussion On Bisexual Visibility In The Law, Nancy C. Marcus, Bendita Malakia, Ann E. Tweedy, Mya Reid Jan 2023

Bridging The Gap In Lgbtq+ Rights Litigation: A Community Discussion On Bisexual Visibility In The Law, Nancy C. Marcus, Bendita Malakia, Ann E. Tweedy, Mya Reid

Faculty Scholarship

This essay discusses the genesis of BiLaw, a coalition of Bi+ lawyers and law students, and highlights the importance of a 2021 Lavender Law session organized by BiLaw in which representatives of LGBT rights organizations discussed the erasure of Bi+ persons in jurisprudence and the importance of, and their commitment to, serving the needs of the Bi+ community, along with those of other stakeholders. A transcript of the groundbreaking discussion follows the essay.


The Culture War Over Girls' Sports: Understanding The Argument For Transgender Girls' Inclusion, Kimberly A. Yuracko Dec 2022

The Culture War Over Girls' Sports: Understanding The Argument For Transgender Girls' Inclusion, Kimberly A. Yuracko

Villanova Law Review

No abstract provided.


Sexual Abuse Of Female Inmates In Federal Prisons, Brenda Smith Dec 2022

Sexual Abuse Of Female Inmates In Federal Prisons, Brenda Smith

Congressional and Other Testimony

This Article discusses the modest aspirations of the Prison Rape Elimination Act (“PREA”) that passed unanimously in the United States Congress in 2003. The Article posits that PREA created opportunities for holding correctional authorities accountable by creating a baseline for safety and setting more transparent expectations for agencies’ practices for protecting prisoners from sexual abuse. Additionally, the Article posits that PREA enhanced the evolving standards of decency for the Eighth Amendment and articulated clear expectations of correctional authorities to provide sexual safety for people in custody.


Gender Identity, Sports, And Affirmative Action: What's Title Ix Got To Do With It?, Michael E. Rosman Dec 2022

Gender Identity, Sports, And Affirmative Action: What's Title Ix Got To Do With It?, Michael E. Rosman

St. Mary's Law Journal

There is much talk these days of promoting “equity” rather than “equality.” When applied outside athletics, Title IX promotes non-discrimination, usually associated with equality. As it has been applied to sports, though, it may be our most prominent “equity” statute, making sure each sex gets its fair share.

The questions this article seeks to address are legal ones that the debate about trans females seems to bring to the fore. How did we start with a statute whose language looks very similar to every other civil rights statute—and, indeed, that acts just like every other civil rights statute outside of …


Subsidiarity & Vulnerability Theory: A Case Study For Deepening The Relationship Between Catholic Social Teaching And The Responsive State, Nathaniel Romano Dec 2022

Subsidiarity & Vulnerability Theory: A Case Study For Deepening The Relationship Between Catholic Social Teaching And The Responsive State, Nathaniel Romano

Catholic University Law Review

Religion and religious voices have long had a role to play in shaping community norms and values and public policy; this role continues in contemporary America. Yet, legitimate questions arise about the extent of this role and its place in a pluralist and democratic state. These questions are particularly pronounced when religion is perceived as partisan, a situation that seems apparent in contemporary America. Hoping to combat this perception, this paper explores the relationship between Catholic Social Teaching and Vulnerability Theory, aiming to show how religious values can inform legal theory across the political spectrum. This paper surveys both Catholic …


The Times They Are A-Changin’?: #Metoo And Our Movement Forward, Terry Morehead Dworkin, Cindy A. Schipani Dec 2022

The Times They Are A-Changin’?: #Metoo And Our Movement Forward, Terry Morehead Dworkin, Cindy A. Schipani

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Social movements like #MeToo have gained public traction like never before. In this Article, we place those developments within their historical context and chart a path forward. First, we provide a history of the prior unsuccessful attempts to ratify an Equal Rights Amendment, and we discuss that effort’s current legal status and prospects. Then, we briefly review the history of sexual harassment law. Having outlined this historical context, we move to contemporary developments. We describe actions that state legislatures and local municipalities have taken to address the concerns raised by the #MeToo movement. Finally, we discuss how inflection points can …


Lessons From Bostock: Analysis Of The Jurisprudential (Mis)Treatment Of “Sex” In Title Vii Cases, Allison Greenberg Dec 2022

Lessons From Bostock: Analysis Of The Jurisprudential (Mis)Treatment Of “Sex” In Title Vii Cases, Allison Greenberg

UC Irvine Law Review

The Supreme Court’s decision in Bostock v. Clayton County extended Title VII’s prohibition on sex discrimination to lesbian, gay, and transgender individuals. This decision represents the latest step forward in a long line of Title VII jurisprudence, which slowly expanded the definition of “sex” as the cultural understanding of sex, gender identity, and sexual orientation improved. This Note critically reviews that history of jurisprudence, using the Bostock decision as a frame to examine the ways in which the courts’ definition of “sex” has evolved out of a flawed understanding of the relationships between sex, gender identity, …


The First Amendment And Online Access To Information About Abortion: The Constitutional And Technological Problems With Censorship, John Villasenor Nov 2022

The First Amendment And Online Access To Information About Abortion: The Constitutional And Technological Problems With Censorship, John Villasenor

Northwestern Journal of Technology and Intellectual Property

To what extent could an abortion-restrictive state impede access to online information about abortion? After Dobbs, this question is no longer theoretical. This essay engages with this issue from both a legal and technological perspective, analyzing First Amendment jurisprudence as well as the technological implications of state-level online censorship. It concludes that the weight of Supreme Court precedent indicates that state attempts to censor information regarding out-of-state abortion services would violate the First Amendment. That said, the essay also recognizes that as Dobbs itself upended precedent, it is unclear what Supreme Court would do when ruling on questions regarding …


Comments On The International Criminal Court Office Of The Prosecutor's Draft Policy On The Crime Of Gender Persecution Under The Rome Statute, Milena Sterio Nov 2022

Comments On The International Criminal Court Office Of The Prosecutor's Draft Policy On The Crime Of Gender Persecution Under The Rome Statute, Milena Sterio

Law Faculty Reports and Comments

The Draft Policy promises to be a seminal contribution not only to the Office of the Prosecutor's (OTP) policy and practice and the International Criminal Court's (ICC) jurisprudence on gender persecution, but also to the development of international criminal law generally. Building on its prior work, including the 2014 Policy Paper, the OTP is well placed to develop policies and procedures that protect historically marginalized and oppressed groups, deliver justice that accurately reflects the depth and breadth of the gender persecution suffered, and shed light on a crime that has to date received only limited attention.

As it finalizes the …


Integrating Doctrine And Diversity Speaker Series: Teaching Diversity Skills In Bar Tested Classes, Roger Williams University School Of Law Nov 2022

Integrating Doctrine And Diversity Speaker Series: Teaching Diversity Skills In Bar Tested Classes, Roger Williams University School Of Law

School of Law Conferences, Lectures & Events

No abstract provided.


Justice For All: Demanding Accessibility For Underrepresented Communities In The Law: A Roger Williams University Law Review, Roger Williams University School Of Law Nov 2022

Justice For All: Demanding Accessibility For Underrepresented Communities In The Law: A Roger Williams University Law Review, Roger Williams University School Of Law

School of Law Conferences, Lectures & Events

No abstract provided.


Patriarchy’S Link To Intimate Partner Violence: Applications To Survivors’ Asylum Claims, Daniel G. Saunders, Tina Jiwatram-Negrón, Natalie Nanasi, Iris Cardenas Nov 2022

Patriarchy’S Link To Intimate Partner Violence: Applications To Survivors’ Asylum Claims, Daniel G. Saunders, Tina Jiwatram-Negrón, Natalie Nanasi, Iris Cardenas

Faculty Journal Articles and Book Chapters

Eligibility for asylum for survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV) has recently been contested. We summarize social science evidence to show how such survivors generally meet asylum criteria. Studies consistently show a relationship between patriarchal factors and IPV, thereby establishing a key asylum criterion that women are being persecuted because of their status as women. Empirical support is also provided for other asylum criteria, specifically: patriarchal norms contribute to state actors’ unwillingness to protect survivors, and survivors’ political opinions are linked to an escalation of perpetrators’ violence. The findings have implications for policy reform and supporting individual asylum-seekers.


Judging From Above: French Feminists & Their Influence On The Veil Debate, Emma Caroline Delapré Oct 2022

Judging From Above: French Feminists & Their Influence On The Veil Debate, Emma Caroline Delapré

Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union

Over the past two decades, the international community has found itself questioning France’s application of laïcité and the egalitarianism it supposedly ensures, particularly regarding veils associated with the Islamic faith. Integral to the face veil debate is the advocacy of French feminists, especially those who identify as pro-ban. Overarchingly, pro-ban feminists argue that the practice of wearing face veils or coverings undermines a French citizen’s obligation to foster cohesion in the public sphere through the acceptance of republican norms. This viewpoint informs the analysis of the state of social division in France undertaken here. The tools of analysis include a …


Is Trade Sexist? How “Pink” Tariff Policies’ Harmful Effects Can Be Curtailed Through Litigation And Legislation, Miranda Hatch Oct 2022

Is Trade Sexist? How “Pink” Tariff Policies’ Harmful Effects Can Be Curtailed Through Litigation And Legislation, Miranda Hatch

BYU Law Review

No abstract provided.


Discrimination Because Of Sex[Ual Orientation And Gender Identity]: The Necessity Of The Equality Act In The Wake Of Bostock V. Clayton County, Rachel Eric Johnson Oct 2022

Discrimination Because Of Sex[Ual Orientation And Gender Identity]: The Necessity Of The Equality Act In The Wake Of Bostock V. Clayton County, Rachel Eric Johnson

BYU Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Supreme Court Gets The Ball Rolling: Ncaa V. Alston And Title Ix, Arianna Banks Oct 2022

The Supreme Court Gets The Ball Rolling: Ncaa V. Alston And Title Ix, Arianna Banks

Northwestern University Law Review

Student-athlete compensation has been a consistent topic of controversy over the past few years, as critics question the legitimacy of the NCAA’s notion of amateurism and proponents favor the status quo. The Supreme Court decision in NCAA v. Alston has only served to intensify the debate, opening the door to alternative compensation structures. Despite a unanimous ruling in favor of the athletes, the limited holding of the case has only produced further questions. In his scathing concurrence, Justice Kavanaugh raises one such question: how does a student-athlete compensation structure comply with Title IX? This Comment seeks to address that question …


Birthing Alone, Elizabeth Kukura Oct 2022

Birthing Alone, Elizabeth Kukura

Washington and Lee Law Review

Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, hospitals implemented restrictive visitor policies that have prevented many pregnant people from giving birth with their chosen support people. For some, this meant foregoing labor and delivery support by a birth doula, someone who serves in a nonclinical role and provides emotional, physical, and informational support to birthing people. Given that continuous labor support such as the care provided by doulas is associated with fewer cesareans and other interventions, less need for pain medication, and shorter labors, the promotion of doula care is a promising strategy to ease the maternal health crisis and, in particular, shrink …


Leave Them Kids Alone: State Constitutional Protections For Gender-Affirming Healthcare, Jessica Matsuda Oct 2022

Leave Them Kids Alone: State Constitutional Protections For Gender-Affirming Healthcare, Jessica Matsuda

Washington and Lee Law Review

State legislatures across the nation are continually targeting the rights of transgender individuals with a variety of laws affecting everything from bathrooms to medical care. One particularly invasive type of legislation, the gender-affirming healthcare ban, seeks to prohibit all forms of healthcare that align a person’s physical traits with their gender identity for individuals under eighteen. Bans like this severely impede the treatment necessary for transgender youth suffering from gender dysphoria, which carries serious physical consequences and sometimes fatal psychological repercussions. As legislative sessions pass, more and more states are introducing and actually enacting these bans

Striking down these bans …


More Than Fifty Years After The Enactment Of Federal Laws Forbidding Discrimination In Pay, The Wage Disparity Based On Sex Continues: Focusing On The Circuit Courts’ Differing Interpretations Of “Factors Other Than Sex”, Audrey K. Hurt Oct 2022

More Than Fifty Years After The Enactment Of Federal Laws Forbidding Discrimination In Pay, The Wage Disparity Based On Sex Continues: Focusing On The Circuit Courts’ Differing Interpretations Of “Factors Other Than Sex”, Audrey K. Hurt

Mississippi College Law Review

The broad scope of this fourth affirmative defense available to employers under the EPA and Title VII allows for inconsistency in its interpretation and is responsible, at least in part, for the continued existence of wage discrimination. Without a prescribed means of application— specifically, a stricter means of application—employers are more readily absolved from liability under the FOTS defense. The best solution to this problem is for Congress to adopt a more stringent approach to the FOTS defense under the Equal Pay Act of 1963—an approach which would apply to Title VII, as well. However, with little headway being made …


The Effect Of Defendant Gender On Jurors’ Decision-Making, Yu Du Oct 2022

The Effect Of Defendant Gender On Jurors’ Decision-Making, Yu Du

University of Baltimore Law Review

No abstract provided.


Integrating Doctrine And Diversity Speaker Series: Making Changes, Making Mistakes (Part 2), Roger Williams University School Of Law Sep 2022

Integrating Doctrine And Diversity Speaker Series: Making Changes, Making Mistakes (Part 2), Roger Williams University School Of Law

School of Law Conferences, Lectures & Events

No abstract provided.


New Approaches To Disarming Domestic Abusers, Natalie Nanasi Sep 2022

New Approaches To Disarming Domestic Abusers, Natalie Nanasi

Villanova Law Review

No abstract provided.


Inconceivable Families, Malinda L. Seymore Sep 2022

Inconceivable Families, Malinda L. Seymore

Faculty Scholarship

Basic biology tells us that each child has no more than two biological parents, one who supplies the egg and one who supplies the sperm. Adoption law in this country has generally followed biology, insisting only two parents be legally recognized for each child. Thus, every adoption begins with loss. Before a child can be adopted, that child must first be cut off from their family of birth, rendering the equation of adoption one of subtraction, not addition. This Article examines the biological model of adoption that insists on mimicking the nuclear family—erasing one set of parents and replacing them …


#Includetheirstories: Rethinking, Reimagining, And Reshaping Legal Education, Leslie P. Culver, Elizabeth A. Kronk Warner Sep 2022

#Includetheirstories: Rethinking, Reimagining, And Reshaping Legal Education, Leslie P. Culver, Elizabeth A. Kronk Warner

Utah Law Review

This symposium gathered scholars and practitioners who have been deeply engaged in the work to examine historical roots of the legal profession and discuss best practices for exploring ethnic, gender, and related inequities alongside our law students. It is well established that the legal profession and legal education neither reflect the community they serve nor swiftly respond to the social shifts within the broader society.3 As 2020 grossly revealed, ethnic partiality and division are aches we have yet to really confront and bear. For example, the casebook method format of legal education continues to model Christopher Langdell’s Gilded Age curriculum, …


Cut Athletes' Injunction Hail Mary: Covid-19 And The Unveiling Of Title Ix Noncompliance In Collegiate Sports, Elizabeth Kletsel Aug 2022

Cut Athletes' Injunction Hail Mary: Covid-19 And The Unveiling Of Title Ix Noncompliance In Collegiate Sports, Elizabeth Kletsel

Jeffrey S. Moorad Sports Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Beyond Bostock: Title Ix Protections For Transgender Athletes, Joseph Brucker Aug 2022

Beyond Bostock: Title Ix Protections For Transgender Athletes, Joseph Brucker

Jeffrey S. Moorad Sports Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Decolonizing The Corpus: A Queer Decolonial Re-Examination Of Gender In International Law's Origins, David Eichert Aug 2022

Decolonizing The Corpus: A Queer Decolonial Re-Examination Of Gender In International Law's Origins, David Eichert

Michigan Journal of International Law

This article builds upon queer feminist and decolonial/TWAIL interventions into the history of international law, questioning the dominant discourses about gender and sexual victimhood in the laws of armed conflict. In Part One, I examine how early European international law writers (re)produced binary and hierarchical ideas about gender in influential legal texts, discursively creating a world in which wartime violence only featured men and women in strictly defined roles (a construction which continues to influence the practice of law today). In Part Two, I decenter these dominant discourses by looking outside Europe, questioning what a truly “international” law would look …


Is It Hot In Here Or Is It Just Me? A Call For Menopause Equity In The Workplace, Leslie Mullins Jul 2022

Is It Hot In Here Or Is It Just Me? A Call For Menopause Equity In The Workplace, Leslie Mullins

University of the District of Columbia Law Review

In a society where many topics related to female reproduction are considered taboo, menopause is especially stigmatized because of its intersection with age and a perception that a woman’s value ends with her reproductive ability.1 As described by Gail Sheehy (“Sheehy”) in The Silent Passage, menopause is “one of the most misunderstood passages in a woman's life.”2 Menopause causes shame and stigma because of its association with middle age in a culture obsessed with youth.3 The failure of courts to extend available protections to claims related to menopause denies millions of working persons protections from unlawful discrimination under the Americans …


_Not That Bad_: Lessons Women Learn In A Rape Culture, Sydney J. Selman Jul 2022

_Not That Bad_: Lessons Women Learn In A Rape Culture, Sydney J. Selman

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at The University of Tennessee

In 2018, Roxane Gay assembled an anthology that addresses the severity of rape, rejecting the common belief that some sexually violent acts, compared to others, are not that bad. This collection, titled Not That Bad: Dispatches from Rape Culture, compiles pieces from thirty different authors and sheds light on how the notion of not that bad contributes to a broader structural social problem involving sexual violence. This social problem, known as rape culture, is commonly defined as a culture that normalizes sexual violence and blames victims of sexual assault (“What is Rape Culture?”). In other words, rape culture …