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Law Enforcement and Corrections

2007

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Articles 1 - 30 of 61

Full-Text Articles in Law

Special Topics In Preventing And Responding To Prison Rape: Medical And Mental Healthcare, Community Corrections Settings And Oversight, Brenda V. Smith, Theodis Beck, Michele Deitch Dec 2007

Special Topics In Preventing And Responding To Prison Rape: Medical And Mental Healthcare, Community Corrections Settings And Oversight, Brenda V. Smith, Theodis Beck, Michele Deitch

Presentations

Hearing transcripts regarding medical and mental health care, community corrections, and oversight related to the prevention of and response to inmate sexual assault. Points of entry are: full transcript; opening remarks; personal accounts; response and treatment—caring for sexual assault victims in correctional and detention facilities; confidentiality and reporting—medical ethics, victim safety, and facility security; sexual violence and community corrections—the special considerations of community-based settings; and best practices and emerging trends—the community corrections field’s response to the Prison Rape Elimination Act. This article contains testimony specifically about the State of North Carolina.


Law's War With Conscience: The Psychological Limits Of Enforcement, Eric Fleisig-Greene Dec 2007

Law's War With Conscience: The Psychological Limits Of Enforcement, Eric Fleisig-Greene

BYU Law Review

No abstract provided.


An Evaluation Of Operation Street Sweeper - 2006, Andrew Giacomazzi, Jeremy D. Ball Dec 2007

An Evaluation Of Operation Street Sweeper - 2006, Andrew Giacomazzi, Jeremy D. Ball

Criminal Justice Faculty Publications and Presentations

Operation Street Sweeper (OSS) was a multi-level, interagency collaboration with multiple purposes. According to OSS documents, Operation Street Sweeper goals included the following: (1) to reduce gang-related criminal and violent activity in Nampa and Caldwell, Idaho through aggressive, proactive, and coordinated street enforcement between the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) and local law enforcement; (2) to deter criminal activity through high profile enforcement activity; (3) to develop and/or increase the number of positive community contacts; (4) to show the community and gang members that law enforcement is serious about reducing gang and violent crime in the area ...


Pro-Gun Scholars Twist Constitution, Kenneth Lasson Nov 2007

Pro-Gun Scholars Twist Constitution, Kenneth Lasson

All Faculty Scholarship

Earlier this year, the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia became the first federal tribunal to strike down a local gun-control law, holding that the Founding Fathers would have allowed all private citizens to arm themselves.


Reforming, Reclaiming Or Reframing Womanhood: Reflections On Advocacy For Women In Custody, Brenda V. Smith Oct 2007

Reforming, Reclaiming Or Reframing Womanhood: Reflections On Advocacy For Women In Custody, Brenda V. Smith

Project on Addressing Prison Rape - Articles

Brenda V. Smith was asked to present one of the keynote addresses for the symposium, Behind Bars: The Impact of Incarceration on Women and Their Families, sponsored by the Women's Rights Law Reporter at Rutgers University School of Law in Newark. She then wrote the introductory essay for the publication which arose from that symposium. This essay addresses why it is imperative to reclaim the discourse about women in prison and discusses how the other papers that appear in this issue aid in that project.


Rita V. United States Leaves More Open Than It Answers, Stephanos Bibas Oct 2007

Rita V. United States Leaves More Open Than It Answers, Stephanos Bibas

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This essay surveys the sentencing issues left open by Rita v. United States and considers how the presumption of reasonableness is likely to operate in practice and how rebutable it is, the roles of safe harbors and individual judges' policy disagreements, and the importance of Justices Stevens and Ginsburg as the swing Justices in this area. This line of cases has drifted far from its roots in a Sixth Amendment concern for juries. Though the resulting sentencing policies may be substantively desirable, the Court cannot articulate how they are rooted in the Sixth Amendment's concern for juries.


La Cesión De Derechos En El Código Civil Peruano, Edward Ivan Cueva Jul 2007

La Cesión De Derechos En El Código Civil Peruano, Edward Ivan Cueva

Edward Ivan Cueva

La Cesión de Derechos en el Código Civil Peruano


"Balancing Your Strengths Against Your Felonies": Considerations For Military Recruitment Of Ex-Offenders, Michael Boucai Jul 2007

"Balancing Your Strengths Against Your Felonies": Considerations For Military Recruitment Of Ex-Offenders, Michael Boucai

Journal Articles

Existing work on ex-offenders’ access to military employment too narrowly represents both the Armed Forces’ and the public’s interests in the issue. This Article proposes to shift the conversation from ex-offenders’ usefulness to the Armed Forces to the reciprocal responsibilities and benefits involved for these potential recruits, the military, and society at large. Part One reviews the rules, policies, and procedures governing the “moral waivers” that allow thousands of individuals with criminal histories to enlist each year, and it shows that that the waiver system nonetheless often fails to detect the criminal backgrounds of many recruits. Part Two reviews ...


Without Limitation: 'Groundhog Day' For Incompetent Defendants, J. Amy Dillard Jul 2007

Without Limitation: 'Groundhog Day' For Incompetent Defendants, J. Amy Dillard

All Faculty Scholarship

This Article offers a brief overview of the standards for determining competency to stand trial. After examining the seminal case of Jackson v. Indiana, which held that the indefinite pre-trial detention of incompetent defendants violates due process, this Article argues that Virginia Code § 19.2-169.3, like statutes in twenty other states, violates a defendant's right to substantive due process, including the right to be free from forcible medication. This Article proposes legislation that will make the process constitutional, while addressing the concerns about the release of dangerous individuals held by the prosecutors and the community.


Monitoring Stress During Training, Olivita Couso Jul 2007

Monitoring Stress During Training, Olivita Couso

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The highly stressful job of law enforcement personnel, rescue workers and soldiers requires them to constantly put to the test their previous training. In order too respond effectively under pressure, the training of these personnel must be preformed under conditions that elicit pressure. The research proposed in this thesis evaluates established training regimens for the degree of stressfulness instilled in trainees from physiological (hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, autonomic nervous system) and psychological perspectives (anxiety). Subjects participating in SWAT and military training were recruited, as well as subjects having no prior SWAT or military training. Individual physiological stress responses measured included heart ...


Encarcelados Por Error, Felipe Marín Jun 2007

Encarcelados Por Error, Felipe Marín

Felipe Marín Verdugo

No abstract provided.


City Of Las Vegas Municipal Court House Arrest Program Evaluation, Karen Coyne, Michele Hornstein, Timothy Shattler May 2007

City Of Las Vegas Municipal Court House Arrest Program Evaluation, Karen Coyne, Michele Hornstein, Timothy Shattler

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The City of Las Vegas operates a municipal detention facility, primarily housing offenders who have committed misdemeanor crimes within the 130 square miles of the Las Vegas City limits. Similar to many jurisdictions, within the State of Nevada, but also across the Country, the offender population is on the rise. The City’s inmate population has grown steadily at a rate of 10%, annually, for five years. This trend, when calculated as a future projection, suggests the City must be prepared for the misdemeanant population to swell from its current daily average of 1144 to more than 3000 inmates by ...


Algunos Apuntes En Torno A La Prescripción Extintiva Y La Caducidad, Edward Ivan Cueva May 2007

Algunos Apuntes En Torno A La Prescripción Extintiva Y La Caducidad, Edward Ivan Cueva

Edward Ivan Cueva

No abstract provided.


Hudson V. Michigan: "Knock-And-Announce" — An Outdated Rule?, J. Spencer Clark May 2007

Hudson V. Michigan: "Knock-And-Announce" — An Outdated Rule?, J. Spencer Clark

Brigham Young University Journal of Public Law

No abstract provided.


Citizen's Arrest Or Police Arrest? Defining The Scope Of Alaska's Delegated Citizen's Arrest Doctrine, Lael Harrison May 2007

Citizen's Arrest Or Police Arrest? Defining The Scope Of Alaska's Delegated Citizen's Arrest Doctrine, Lael Harrison

Washington Law Review

When a citizen witnesses the commission of a misdemeanor, Alaska law allows that citizen to arrest the offender on the spot. A citizen making such an arrest may request assistance from a police officer rather than physically subduing the offender alone. However, Alaska law does not clearly define how much assistance police may give before the citizen's arrest becomes a warrantless police arrest. That distinction is particularly important in misdemeanor arrests because Alaska follows the common law rule that citizens and officers may make warrantless misdemeanor arrests only for those misdemeanors committed in their presence. Officers may not make ...


Citizen's Arrest Or Police Arrest? Defining The Scope Of Alaska's Delegated Citizen's Arrest Doctrine, Lael Harrison May 2007

Citizen's Arrest Or Police Arrest? Defining The Scope Of Alaska's Delegated Citizen's Arrest Doctrine, Lael Harrison

Washington Law Review

When a citizen witnesses the commission of a misdemeanor, Alaska law allows that citizen to arrest the offender on the spot. A citizen making such an arrest may request assistance from a police officer rather than physically subduing the offender alone. However, Alaska law does not clearly define how much assistance police may give before the citizen's arrest becomes a warrantless police arrest. That distinction is particularly important in misdemeanor arrests because Alaska follows the common law rule that citizens and officers may make warrantless misdemeanor arrests only for those misdemeanors committed in their presence. Officers may not make ...


One Stop, No Stop, Two Stop, Terry Stop: Reasonable Suspicion And Pseudoephedrine Purchases By Suspected Methamphetamine Manufacturers, Andrew C. Goetz May 2007

One Stop, No Stop, Two Stop, Terry Stop: Reasonable Suspicion And Pseudoephedrine Purchases By Suspected Methamphetamine Manufacturers, Andrew C. Goetz

Michigan Law Review

This Note attempts to inject some clarity into courts' reasonable suspicion calculus for cold medicine purchases. It argues that the key factor in analyzing such purchases is whether the purchaser or purchasers appear to be circumventing pseudoephedrine purchasing restrictions in order to obtain inordinately large quantities of pseudoephedrine. Part I provides a general background on the domestic manufacture of methamphetamine in small, clandestine laboratories. Part II then examines the interplay between outward innocence and reasonable suspicion under the Supreme Court's Fourth Amendment jurisprudence. Finally, Part III establishes a framework for identifying purchasing strategies that methamphetamine manufacturers commonly use to ...


Proximate Cause In Constitutional Torts: Holding Interrogators Liable For Fifth Amendment Violations At Trial, Joel Flaxman May 2007

Proximate Cause In Constitutional Torts: Holding Interrogators Liable For Fifth Amendment Violations At Trial, Joel Flaxman

Michigan Law Review

This Note argues for the approach taken by the Sixth Circuit in McKinley: a proper understanding of the Fifth Amendment requires holding that an officer who coerces a confession that is used at trial to convict a defendant in violation of the right against self-incrimination should face liability for the harm of conviction and imprisonment. Part I examines how the Supreme Court and the circuits have applied the concept of common law proximate causation to constitutional torts and argues that lower courts are wrong to blindly adopt common law rules without reference to the constitutional rights at stake. It suggests ...


Cross-Gender Supervision In Prison And The Constitutional Right Of Prisoners To Remain Free From Rape, Flyn L. Flesher Apr 2007

Cross-Gender Supervision In Prison And The Constitutional Right Of Prisoners To Remain Free From Rape, Flyn L. Flesher

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

A variety of state, federal, and international laws theoretically prohibit sexual abuse of prisoners by the guards hired by the state to oversee them. Nevertheless, sexual abuse of female prisoners by male prison guards is a rampant phenomenon that the law has thus far failed to remedy. Cross-gender supervision policies exacerbate the problem by placing women in situations in which they have no escape from their attackers. These policies, which are as dangerous for some prisoners as they are humiliating to all prisoners, have generally withstood scrutiny in courts.

This note attempts to reframe the arguments challenging crossgender supervision policies ...


Keeping The State Out: The Separation Of Law And State In Classical Islamic Law, Lubna A. Alam Apr 2007

Keeping The State Out: The Separation Of Law And State In Classical Islamic Law, Lubna A. Alam

Michigan Law Review

The implementation and enforcement of Islamic law, especially Islamic criminal law, by modem-day Muslim nation-states is fraught with controversy and challenges. In Pakistan, the documented problems and failures of the country's attempt to codify Islamic law on extramarital sexual relations have led to efforts to remove rape cases from Islamic law courts to civil law courts. In striking contrast to Pakistan's experience, the Republic of the Maldives recently commissioned a draft of a penal law and sentencing guidelines based on Islamic law that abides by international norms. The incorporation of Islamic law into the legal systems of various ...


Passover And Jonathan Pollard, Kenneth Lasson Apr 2007

Passover And Jonathan Pollard, Kenneth Lasson

All Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Are All ‘Legal Dollars’ Created Equal?, Doron Teichman, Yuval Feldman Feb 2007

Are All ‘Legal Dollars’ Created Equal?, Doron Teichman, Yuval Feldman

ExpressO

For several decades law and economic scholars have employed the tools of price theory in order to evaluate an array of legal questions ranging from criminal sanctions to contract remedies. This vast body of literature implicitly assumed that all payments made through the legal system are fungible. In other words, just as a dollar paid for a tomato is identical to a dollar paid for a cucumber, so are a dollar paid as a pollution tax to the government and a dollar paid as compensation to the party injured by the pollution. In this study we challenge this assumption, and ...


The Catch-22 In Prison Privatization: The Problem With The Solution, Ahmed M.T. Riaz Feb 2007

The Catch-22 In Prison Privatization: The Problem With The Solution, Ahmed M.T. Riaz

ExpressO

A step into just about any state prison in the United States reveals an institution plagued by over-population, with just about every prison running at more than 100% capacity. The problem, of course, is not new but one that has received great attention. In the past decade or so the solution has been privatization of state prisons. Proponents of privatization have pushed forth the idea that private institutions are the solution to prison overcrowding. However, by looking to for-profit private institutions as a means to resolving the problems of the penal system, are legislators in fact ensuring that the problems ...


From Due Process To Crime Control: The Decline Of Liberalism In The Irish Criminal Justice System, Liz Campbell Jan 2007

From Due Process To Crime Control: The Decline Of Liberalism In The Irish Criminal Justice System, Liz Campbell

Liz Campbell

At all stages of the Irish criminal process, from pretrial detention and investigation, through the courthearing and at sentencing, a shift in focus from the due process rights of the accused towards the crime control aims of the State is apparent. Due process values, which seek to establish a degree of parity between the State and the accused, are increasingly seen in popular and political discourse as inconveniences to be overcome, rather than vital safeguards.


Pay-To-Stay In California Jails And The Value Of Systemic Self-Embarassment, Robert Weisberg Jan 2007

Pay-To-Stay In California Jails And The Value Of Systemic Self-Embarassment, Robert Weisberg

Michigan Law Review First Impressions

The website of the Santa Ana, California-version of Pay-to-Stay uses hotelier-type verbiage in describing features of its alternative jail program. It tells us that the jail “is pleased to host a full range of alternatives to traditional incarceration”; it reassures prospective “clients” seeking flexible work/jail schedules (“Work on Saturday or Sunday? No problem, your weekend days are our weekend days.”); it guarantees “24-hour on-site medical staff”; it accommodates inmates near and far (“We have helped clients with sentences from other counties as well as other states.”); and it generally brags that the jail “is the most modern and comfortable ...


Development And Confirmatory Factor Analysis Of The Community Norms Of Child Neglect Scale, Rebecca Goodvin, David R. Johnson, Sam A. Hardy, Michelle Graef, Jeff M. Chambers Jan 2007

Development And Confirmatory Factor Analysis Of The Community Norms Of Child Neglect Scale, Rebecca Goodvin, David R. Johnson, Sam A. Hardy, Michelle Graef, Jeff M. Chambers

Faculty Publications of the Center on Children, Families, and the Law

This article describes the development of the Community Norms of Child Neglect Scale (CNCNS), a new measure of perceptions of child neglect, for use in community samples. The CNCNS differentiates among four subtypes of neglect (failure to provide for basic needs, lack of supervision, emotional neglect, and educational neglect). Scenarios ranging in seriousness for each subtype were presented to a large community sample (N = 3,809). Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a four-factor model provided a better fit to the data than did a model specifying only one overall neglect factor, suggesting this sample distinguished among the four subtypes of ...


Undermining Individual And Collective Citizenship: The Impact Of Exclusion Laws On The African-American Community, S. David Mitchell Jan 2007

Undermining Individual And Collective Citizenship: The Impact Of Exclusion Laws On The African-American Community, S. David Mitchell

Faculty Publications

The purpose of this article is to expose felon exclusion laws as a method for undermining the individual and collective citizenship rights of the African-American community, and to call for their abolition.


Hiv-Positive Inmates Released From Nevada’S Prisons In 2001: Results From Matching Health Division And Corrections’ Databases, Paul G. Devereux, Kristen Clements-Nolle, Sharon Clodfelter, Jessey Bargmann-Losche, Miguel Feroro, Wei Yang Jan 2007

Hiv-Positive Inmates Released From Nevada’S Prisons In 2001: Results From Matching Health Division And Corrections’ Databases, Paul G. Devereux, Kristen Clements-Nolle, Sharon Clodfelter, Jessey Bargmann-Losche, Miguel Feroro, Wei Yang

Nevada Journal of Public Health

It is estimated that about one quarter of all HIV-infected individuals in the United States are released from a correctional facility each year. To better understand the needs of inmates with HIV exiting the prison system, a partnership with the Nevada State Health Division (NSHD), the Nevada Department of Corrections (DOC), and the University of Nevada, Reno School of Public Health was formed to examine this population using information contained in existing databases. An analysis of DOC data matched with the data from the HIV/AIDS Reporting System (HARS) maintained by the NSHD identified 2,802 HIV-negative inmates (2,451 ...


Why The County Jail Is Often A Better Choice, Shawn Chapman Holley Jan 2007

Why The County Jail Is Often A Better Choice, Shawn Chapman Holley

Michigan Law Review First Impressions

I have been a criminal defense lawyer in Los Angeles for almost twenty years. I began my career in the Los Angeles County Public Defender’s Office, representing defendants who were poor and often homeless. For the past twelve years, I have been in private practice, representing defendants who are wealthy and often famous. Having represented criminal defendants coming from such varied economic circumstances, I have witnessed firsthand the criminal justice system’s disparate treatment of those with money and those without. Pay-to-stay jails are yet another example of that disparity. Yet I believe that those without the money to ...


Pay-To-Stay Programs In California Jails, Michael S. Carona Jan 2007

Pay-To-Stay Programs In California Jails, Michael S. Carona

Michigan Law Review First Impressions

When a person has committed a criminal offense, he or she must be punished to vindicate the law, to acknowledge the suffering of the victim, and to deter future crimes. Imprisonment—the method commonly used to carry out this punishment—becomes increasingly problematic when our jails and prisons, especially in California, are bursting at the seams. As the Sheriff of the eighth largest jail system in the nation, I am responsible for the confinement and care of thousands of inmates in the Orange County Jail system. With a growing inmate population and a shortage of beds, I continue to look ...