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Law Enforcement and Corrections

2006

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Privatization And The Law And Economics Of Political Advocacy, Alexander Volokh Nov 2006

Privatization And The Law And Economics Of Political Advocacy, Alexander Volokh

ExpressO

A common argument against privatization is that private providers, motivated by self-interest, will advocate changes in substantive policy. In this Article, I evaluate this argument, using, as a case study, the argument against prison privatization based on the possibility that the private prison industry will distort the criminal law by advocating incarceration.

This “political influence” argument applies at least as well to public provision: Government agencies, too, lobby for changes in substantive law. In the prison industry, for instance, it is unclear whether private firms advocate incarceration to any significant extent, but public guard unions are known to do so …


Clark Memorandum: Fall 2006, J. Reuben Clark Law Society, Byu Law School Alumni Association, J. Reuben Clark Law School Nov 2006

Clark Memorandum: Fall 2006, J. Reuben Clark Law Society, Byu Law School Alumni Association, J. Reuben Clark Law School

The Clark Memorandum


Victims And Perpetrators: An Argument For Comparative Liability In Criminal Law, Vera Bergelson Oct 2006

Victims And Perpetrators: An Argument For Comparative Liability In Criminal Law, Vera Bergelson

Vera Bergelson

This article challenges the legal rule according to which the victim’s conduct is irrelevant to the determination of the perpetrator’s criminal liability. The author attacks this rule from both positive and normative perspectives, and argues that criminal law should incorporate an affirmative defense of comparative liability. This defense would fully or partially exculpate the defendant if the victim by his own acts has lost or reduced his right not to be harmed. Part I tests the descriptive accuracy of the proposition that the perpetrator’s liability does not depend on the conduct of the victim. Criminological and victimological studies strongly suggest …


A Complete Property Right Amendment, John H. Ryskamp Oct 2006

A Complete Property Right Amendment, John H. Ryskamp

ExpressO

The trend of the eminent domain reform and "Kelo plus" initiatives is toward a comprehensive Constitutional property right incorporating the elements of level of review, nature of government action, and extent of compensation. This article contains a draft amendment which reflects these concerns.


The Military Commissions Act And Its Impact On Our Justice System, Azra B. Zaidi Sep 2006

The Military Commissions Act And Its Impact On Our Justice System, Azra B. Zaidi

Buffalo Public Interest Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Crimmigration Crisis: Immigrants, Crime, & Sovereign Power, Juliet P. Stumpf Aug 2006

The Crimmigration Crisis: Immigrants, Crime, & Sovereign Power, Juliet P. Stumpf

ExpressO

This article provides a fresh theoretical perspective on the most important development in immigration law today: the convergence of immigration and criminal law. Although the connection between immigration and criminal law, or “crimmigration law,” is now the subject of national debate, scholarship in this area is in a fledgling state. This article begins to fill that void. It proposes a unifying theory – membership theory – for why these two areas of law recently have become so connected, and why that convergence is troubling. Membership theory restricts individual rights and privileges to those who are members of a social contract …


Beyond Conspiracy? Anticipatory Prosecution And The Challenge Of Unaffiliated Terrorism, Robert Chesney Aug 2006

Beyond Conspiracy? Anticipatory Prosecution And The Challenge Of Unaffiliated Terrorism, Robert Chesney

ExpressO

How early does criminal liability attach along the continuum between planning and committing a terrorist act? And in light of the answer to that question, have we struck an appropriate balance between the benefits of prevention and the off-setting costs in terms of a potentially-increased rate of false-positives and foregone opportunities to gather additional intelligence and evidence? These questions are pressing, particularly in light of statements from senior government officials that the Justice Department will be “forward-leaning” in its interpretation of its anticipatory-prosecution powers. My aim in this article is to establish a shared understanding regarding the first question in …


Sexually Violent Predator Legislation And The Sexual Psychopath Act: Will New York "Police" Their Sexual Predators Via Civil Commitment?, Stephanie M. Adduci, M.A. Aug 2006

Sexually Violent Predator Legislation And The Sexual Psychopath Act: Will New York "Police" Their Sexual Predators Via Civil Commitment?, Stephanie M. Adduci, M.A.

Journal of Race, Gender, and Ethnicity

No abstract provided.


The Optimal Law Enforcement With Mandatory Defendant Class Actions, Nelson Rodrigues Netto Jun 2006

The Optimal Law Enforcement With Mandatory Defendant Class Actions, Nelson Rodrigues Netto

ExpressO

In this article we argue that the optimal law enforcement system is based on an ideal mechanism to prevent and redress harms in the mass information society. This goal is achieved by means of mandatory defendant class actions.

The idea of mass society has evolved in time since the beginning of the industrialization in the 18th century. At that time, the transformation of the means of production from artisanal craftwork to large scale machinery work, forged the concept of mass production. Nowadays, massive and expeditious relationships are created by sophisticated communications links, especially the Internet, furnishing services and goods, which …


The Optimal Law Enforcement With Mandatory Defendant Class Action, Nelson Rodrigues Netto Jun 2006

The Optimal Law Enforcement With Mandatory Defendant Class Action, Nelson Rodrigues Netto

ExpressO

In this article we argue that the optimal law enforcement system is based on an ideal mechanism to prevent and redress harms in the mass information society. This goal is achieved by means of mandatory defendant class actions.

The idea of mass society has evolved in time since the beginning of the industrialization in the 18th century. At that time, the transformation of the means of production from artisanal craftwork to large scale machinery work, forged the concept of mass production. Nowadays, massive and expeditious relationships are created by sophisticated communications links, especially the Internet, furnishing services and goods, which …


Bond Repudiation, Tax Codes, The Appropriations Process And Restitution Post-Eminent Domain Reform, John H. Ryskamp Jun 2006

Bond Repudiation, Tax Codes, The Appropriations Process And Restitution Post-Eminent Domain Reform, John H. Ryskamp

ExpressO

This brief comment suggests where the anti-eminent domain movement might be heading next.


The “Csi Effect”: Better Jurors Through Television And Science?, Michael D. Mann Jun 2006

The “Csi Effect”: Better Jurors Through Television And Science?, Michael D. Mann

ExpressO

This Comment discusses how television shows such as CSI and Law & Order create heightened juror expectations. This will be published in the Buffalo Public Interest Law Journal's 2005-2006 issue.


An Integrated Perspective On The Collateral Consequences Of Criminal Convictions And Reentry Issues Faced By Formerly Incarcerated Individuals, Michael Pinard Jun 2006

An Integrated Perspective On The Collateral Consequences Of Criminal Convictions And Reentry Issues Faced By Formerly Incarcerated Individuals, Michael Pinard

Faculty Scholarship

This article examines the emergent focus on the collateral consequences of criminal convictions and the reentry of formerly incarcerated individuals. Specifically, the article details the ways in which legal scholars, policy analysts, elected officials, legal services organizations and community based organizations have begun to address these components of the criminal justice system. The article argues that these various groups have compartmentalized collateral consequences and reentry by focusing almost exclusively on one component to the exclusion of the other. In doing so, they have narrowed the lens through which to view these components, and have therefore missed opportunities to develop integrated …


Transparency And Participation In Criminal Procedure, Stephanos Bibas Jun 2006

Transparency And Participation In Criminal Procedure, Stephanos Bibas

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

The insiders who run the criminal justice system–judges, police, and especially prosecutors–have information, power, and self-interests that greatly influence the criminal justice process and outcomes. Outsiders–crime victims, bystanders, and most of the general public–find the system frustratingly opaque, insular, and unconcerned with proper retribution. As a result, a spiral ensues: insiders twist rules as they see fit, outsiders try to constrain them, and insiders find new ways to evade or manipulate the new rules. The gulf between insiders and outsiders undercuts the instrumental, moral, and expressive efficacy of criminal procedure in serving the criminal law’s substantive goals. The gulf clouds …


The Political Market For Criminal Justice, Rachel E. Barkow Jun 2006

The Political Market For Criminal Justice, Rachel E. Barkow

Michigan Law Review

In 2004, the number of individuals incarcerated in the United States exceeded the two million mark. The current incarceration rate in the United States is 726 per 100,000 residents, the highest incarceration rate in the Western world and a dramatic increase from just three decades ago. Not only are more people serving time, but sentences have markedly lengthened. What should we make of these trends? The answer has been easy for most legal scholars: to them, the incarceration rate in the United States is too high, and reforms are necessary to lower sentences. But many political leaders and voters reach …


Crime, Criminals, And Competitive Crime Control, Wayne A. Logan Jun 2006

Crime, Criminals, And Competitive Crime Control, Wayne A. Logan

Michigan Law Review

Given the negative consequences of crime, it should come as no surprise that states will endeavor to make their dominions less hospitable to potential criminal actors. This predisposition, when played out on a national stage, would appear ripe for a dynamic in which states will seek to "out-tough" one another, leading to a spiral of detrimental competitiveness. Doran Teichman, in an article recently appearing in these pages, advances just such a view. Teichman posits that the decentralized structure of America's federalist system provides states with "an incentive to increasingly harshen" their crime control efforts, with the net result being excessive …


Decentralizing Crime Control: The Political Economy Perspective, Doron Teichman Jun 2006

Decentralizing Crime Control: The Political Economy Perspective, Doron Teichman

Michigan Law Review

In an article recently published on the pages of this Law Review, The Market for Criminal Justice: Federalism, Crime Control, and Jurisdictional Competition ("The Market"), I put forward a theory of crime control in a decentralized government. Specifically, I made three distinct claims. First, criminal justice policies affect the geographic decision of criminals as to where to commit their crimes. Other things being equal, criminal activity will tend to shift to areas in which the expected sanction is lower. Second, local jurisdictions attempting to lower their crime rates will react to policies adopted by neighboring jurisdictions and try …


Facing Evil, Joseph E. Kennedy May 2006

Facing Evil, Joseph E. Kennedy

Michigan Law Review

It is no earthshaking news that the American public has become fascinated- some would say obsessed-with crime over the last few decades. Moreover, this fascination has translated into a potent political force that has remade the world of criminal justice. Up through the middle of the 1960s crime was not something about which politicians had much to say. What was there to say? "Crime is bad." "We do what we can about crime." "Crime will always be with us at one level or another." Only a hermit could have missed the transformation of crime over the last couple of decades …


Entrapment By Numbers, Dru Stevenson Apr 2006

Entrapment By Numbers, Dru Stevenson

ExpressO

This essay analyzes emerging trends in entrapment law, and is the first to describe the declining numbers of reported cases that involve the entrapment defense. This phenomenon is attributed to decreasing levels of uncertainty in the rules pertaining to the defense, and to discreet procedural issues. The shifting degrees of certainty in penal rules, which have become increasingly mechanical and mathematical over time, are shown to disfavor certain defendants inherently, to the point of being a snare or source of “entrapment” themselves for these individuals. (Published in 16 J. Law & Pub. Pol’y 1 2005)


Reflections On Standing: Challenges To Searches And Seizures In A High Technology World, José F. Anderson Apr 2006

Reflections On Standing: Challenges To Searches And Seizures In A High Technology World, José F. Anderson

All Faculty Scholarship

Among the profound issues that surround constitutional criminal procedure is the obscure often overlooked issue of who has standing to challenge an illegal search, seizure or confession. Privacy interests are often overlooked because without a legal status that allows a person to complain in court, there is no way to challenge whether one is constitutionally protected from personal invasions. Standing is that procedural barrier often imposed to prevent a person in a case from objecting to improper police conduct because of his or her relationship of ownership, proximity, location, or interest in an item searched or a thing seized. Although …


Should Coercive Interrogation Be Legal?, Eric A. Posner, Adrian Vermeule Feb 2006

Should Coercive Interrogation Be Legal?, Eric A. Posner, Adrian Vermeule

Michigan Law Review

Most academics who have written on coercive interrogation believe that its use is justified in extreme or catastrophic scenarios but that nonetheless it should be illegal. They argue that formal illegality will not prevent justified use of coercive interrogation because government agents will be willing to risk criminal liability and are likely to be pardoned, acquitted, or otherwise forgiven if their behavior is morally justified. This outlaw and forgive approach to coercive interrogation is supposed to prevent coercive interrogation from being applied in inappropriate settings, to be symbolically important, and nonetheless to permit justified coercive interrogation. We argue that the …


Declining To State A Name In Consideration Of The Fifth Amendment's Self-Incrimination Clause And Law Enforcement Databases After Hiibel, Joseph R. Ashby Feb 2006

Declining To State A Name In Consideration Of The Fifth Amendment's Self-Incrimination Clause And Law Enforcement Databases After Hiibel, Joseph R. Ashby

Michigan Law Review

In response to a report of an argument on a public sidewalk, a police officer approaches two people standing in the vicinity of the reported dispute. The officer requests that each person provide her name so the officer can run the names through databases to which the police department subscribes. After searching each name through various databases, the officer might discover that one of the individuals made several purchases of cold medicine containing pseudoephedrine and that the other just received a license from the State to procure certain hazardous chemicals. These two people might be in the early stages of …


Reform In Lieu Of Change: Tastes Great, Less Filling, Jonathan G.S. Koppell Jan 2006

Reform In Lieu Of Change: Tastes Great, Less Filling, Jonathan G.S. Koppell

Publications from President Jonathan G.S. Koppell

In this response to Light, Koppell argues that the increasing frequency of reform may reflect Congress's inability to make significant changes to the substance of entrenched government programs. Moreover, he observes that the more profound evolution in government has been the movement toward the market-based provision of services, which has created a demand for new competencies in the public sector.


Combating Money Laundering, Paul R. Rickert Jan 2006

Combating Money Laundering, Paul R. Rickert

Faculty Publications and Presentations

This paper discusses the modern problem of dealing with money laundering. Illicit occupations inherently create illicit incomes that must be given the appearance of legitimately earned income. The more government criminalizes activities of its citizens, the greater the need for laundering money.


Taxing Illegal Assets: The Revenue Work Of The Criminal Assets Bureau, Liz Campbell Jan 2006

Taxing Illegal Assets: The Revenue Work Of The Criminal Assets Bureau, Liz Campbell

Liz Campbell

This article considers the powers of the Criminal Assets Bureau (CAB) in the context of revenue law, as this lesser-known aspect of the Bureau’s work is often overshadowed by its ability to seize and confiscate the proceeds of crime. Although the taxing of illegal profits was traditionally precluded in Ireland, this situation was altered in the early-1980s, thereby facilitating CAB’s revenue work. Despite CAB’s significant powers in this regard, the courts have overturned its tax assessments in a number of cases, on the basis that certain criteria pertaining to its tax powers have been breached. Nevertheless, CAB’s ability to pursue …


The Evidence Of Intimidated Witnesses In Criminal Trials, Liz Campbell Jan 2006

The Evidence Of Intimidated Witnesses In Criminal Trials, Liz Campbell

Liz Campbell

The issue of witness intimidation has gained currency in the Irish criminal justice system in recent years with the increase in so-called “gangland” crime. The brutal treatment used by organised criminals to resolve gangland feuds is echoed in the threats received by individuals who seek to testify against suspected organised criminals. This article examines various approaches have been adopted by the State to ensure that the evidence of threatened witnesses may be used in court. While some witnesses may participate in the Witness Protection Programme (WPP), others may give evidence by means of video-camera. In addition, even if an intimidated …


Decline Of Due Process In The Irish Justice System: Beyond The Culture Of Control?, Liz Campbell Jan 2006

Decline Of Due Process In The Irish Justice System: Beyond The Culture Of Control?, Liz Campbell

Liz Campbell

Legislation in Ireland that pertains to serious and organised crime is characterised by a favouring of public protection over the rights of the accused; by an increased concern for security with a concomitant diminution of the significance of liberty. Throughout the pre-trial stage of the criminal process, the court-hearing and sentencing, a shift in focus from the due process rights of the accused towards the result-oriented aims of the State is apparent. Furthermore, the fight against organised crime has extended into the civil domain with the creation of the Criminal Assets Bureau (CAB), with its low burden of proof and …


Analyzing Prison Sex: Reconciling Self Expression With Safety, Brenda V. Smith Jan 2006

Analyzing Prison Sex: Reconciling Self Expression With Safety, Brenda V. Smith

Project on Addressing Prison Rape - Articles

This article examines the complexity of prison sex and the challenges that it raises in the context of recently enacted United States legislation, specifically the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA). It begins by identifying a range of prisoner interests in enhanced sexual expression. These interests are described below in an attempt to disentangle prisoners’ rights in sexual expression from states’ legitimate interests in regulating that expression. This article also directs policymakers and decision makers to mine international documents and human rights norms that recognize the necessity of punishment and at the same time outline a standard for the safety of …


Rethinking Prison Sex: Self -Expression And Safety, Brenda V. Smith Jan 2006

Rethinking Prison Sex: Self -Expression And Safety, Brenda V. Smith

Project on Addressing Prison Rape - Articles

This article analyzes legislation and policies that limit prisoners' sexual expression and autonomy. The article juxtaposes prisoners interest in sexual expression against the interests of the state in regulating sex by and between prisoners. The article concludes that the state has an interest in regulating sex between inmates and staff and in regulating coerced or forced sex between inmates. In other instances prisons could accommodate prisoners' interest in sexual expression and achieve important goals such as better decisionmaking; improved relations with family and partners to aid community reentry; reduction of prison rape; and inmate management.


Integrity In Jail Operations: Addressing Employee/Inmate Relationships, Brenda V. Smith, Nairi M. Simonian Jan 2006

Integrity In Jail Operations: Addressing Employee/Inmate Relationships, Brenda V. Smith, Nairi M. Simonian

Project on Addressing Prison Rape - Articles

Jails often struggle with how to ensure the integrity of operations by establishing policies aimed at governing employee relationships with individuals who are under the supervision of a criminal justice agency. Agencies need to balance their legitimate interests with employees’ basic rights to associate. This article discusses case law around this issue and makes recommendations about how to construct agency policies in this area.