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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Doctor Will See You Now: The Fourth Circuit Revives The Juvenile Detainee's Right To Treatment By Adopting The Professional Judgment Standard In Doe 4, Matthew Skolnick Jun 2022

The Doctor Will See You Now: The Fourth Circuit Revives The Juvenile Detainee's Right To Treatment By Adopting The Professional Judgment Standard In Doe 4, Matthew Skolnick

Villanova Law Review

No abstract provided.


The United States And Its Obligations Under The Optional Protocol To The Convention On The Rights Of The Child On The Sale Of Children, Child Prostitution And Child Pornography To Combat Child Exploitation In The Digital World, Audrey Cunningham Jun 2022

The United States And Its Obligations Under The Optional Protocol To The Convention On The Rights Of The Child On The Sale Of Children, Child Prostitution And Child Pornography To Combat Child Exploitation In The Digital World, Audrey Cunningham

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


The Future Of The Habitual Residence Analysis In The United States Post-Monasky, Katherine A. Fleming Jun 2022

The Future Of The Habitual Residence Analysis In The United States Post-Monasky, Katherine A. Fleming

Buffalo Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Not-So-Straight First Amendment: Why Prohibitions On Conversion Therapy For Children Survive Strict Scrutiny, Samuel G. Bernstein May 2022

The Not-So-Straight First Amendment: Why Prohibitions On Conversion Therapy For Children Survive Strict Scrutiny, Samuel G. Bernstein

Boston College Law Review

In November 2020, the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit, in Otto v. City of Boca Raton (Otto II), became the first federal appellate court to hold that bans on Sexual Orientation Change Efforts (“SOCE”) therapy, also known as conversion therapy, for minors are unconstitutional restrictions of freedom of speech. In reviewing the bans under the strict scrutiny standard, the Eleventh Circuit’s decision in Otto departs from the other circuits’ decisions not only in outcome but also in analysis. The Eleventh Circuit, following recent Supreme Court’s decisions, concluded that courts must apply strict scrutiny and ...


Falling Through The Cracks: The American Indian Foster Care To Sexual Exploitation Pipeline And The Need For Expanded American Indian Community Services In Minnesota, Sadie Hart May 2022

Falling Through The Cracks: The American Indian Foster Care To Sexual Exploitation Pipeline And The Need For Expanded American Indian Community Services In Minnesota, Sadie Hart

DePaul Journal for Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Hopefully Enduring: How North Carolina’S Divorce Laws Violate The First Amendment, Maren H. Lowrey May 2022

Hopefully Enduring: How North Carolina’S Divorce Laws Violate The First Amendment, Maren H. Lowrey

Child and Family Law Journal

The phrase “til death do us part” is both poetic and aspirational. It is the ubiquitous vow Americans make to one another when they marry[1] and embark on what is “hopefully enduring.”[2] But life does not always meet the aspirational marks we set and that is most true in the context of marriage and divorce. Each state enjoys nearly exclusive control over this intimate relationship, which results in different regulatory schemes across the United States.[3] Changes in Supreme Court jurisprudence over time ensured state regulation of marriage did not run afoul of the Constitution.[4] These decisions ...


Floridians' Right To Choose Or Refuse Vaccinations, Patrick E. Tolan Jr. May 2022

Floridians' Right To Choose Or Refuse Vaccinations, Patrick E. Tolan Jr.

Child and Family Law Journal

Every state must strike the right balance between an individual's freedom to make medical choices and the state's role in protecting the public health and the welfare of its people. Florida, by and through its Constitution, has afforded heightened protections for individual self-determination over medical treatment decisions and evaluates infringement of these private medical rights with strict scrutiny. This article is about legal rights for adults to obtain or refuse vaccines and for parents to decide the timing or administration of any vaccine or group of vaccines proposed for their school-aged, preschool, newborn, or unborn children.

I argue ...


Covid-“14-17”: A Case For Florida Teens To Choose The Covid Vaccine Without Requiring Parental Consent, Kait Ramsay May 2022

Covid-“14-17”: A Case For Florida Teens To Choose The Covid Vaccine Without Requiring Parental Consent, Kait Ramsay

Child and Family Law Journal

The novel COVID-19 pandemic has created a huge disruption to almost everyone, forcing many individuals to adapt to entirely new ways of life. In the United States, COVID safety protocols and restrictions, such as mask and vaccine mandates, have been met with huge political polarization and resistance.[1] Even as COVID variants have kept infections in a perpetual cycle of rising and falling, Florida has lifted mask mandates for businesses and schools, and its governor has been one of the largest vocal opponents to requiring vaccines for school attendance.[2] Furthermore, with the passing of Florida’s Parental Consent for ...


Marketing Research And Children’S Consumer Privacy Rights: A Battle In The Digital Age, Hadley Johnson May 2022

Marketing Research And Children’S Consumer Privacy Rights: A Battle In The Digital Age, Hadley Johnson

Child and Family Law Journal

Advancements in technology and social media have led to a decreased level of personal data privacy. Companies are now provided with limitless ways to extract information about their customers, even without their knowledge. This is especially concerning when it is the personal information of a child that is being collected, as in the United States, few regulations exist to protect them on social media. Even fewer regulations exist to protect children between the ages of thirteen and seventeen. The purpose of this Note is to discuss the importance between market research practices and children’s consumer privacy rights in the ...


Parental Alienation In Family Court: Attacking Expert Testimony, John E.B. Myers, Jean Mercer May 2022

Parental Alienation In Family Court: Attacking Expert Testimony, John E.B. Myers, Jean Mercer

Child and Family Law Journal

In child custody litigation, when a parent raises the possibility of child abuse, the accused parent may respond that the parent wo has raised the possibility of abuse is alienating the child in an effort to gain an unfair advantage in court. The parent accused of abuse may offer expert testimony on parental alienation. A voluminous and contentious social science literature exists on parental alienation. Family law attorneys often lack ready access to social science literature. The purpose of this article is to give family law attorneys information from the parental alienation literature that can be used to cross-examine experts ...


Juvenile Life Without Parole: Exposing The Parallels Between Juvenile Offenders And Those Who Sentence Them, Autumn Fortenberry May 2022

Juvenile Life Without Parole: Exposing The Parallels Between Juvenile Offenders And Those Who Sentence Them, Autumn Fortenberry

Honors Theses

This thesis will discuss Juvenile Life Without Parole sentencing (JLWOP) from three perspectives: (1) the evolving standard of decency as developed through relevant U.S. Supreme Court cases; (2) the cognitive and psychosocial development of adolescents that creates reduced culpability in juvenile offenders; and (3) the justifications and implications of punishment as-applied to juvenile offenders. In my fourth chapter, I argue that JLWOP sentencing disregards the humanity and transformable nature of juvenile offenders. I will then draw a parallel between the implications of a juvenile offender's underdeveloped cognitive functions on their decision-making processes and the implications of a trial ...


2021 Annual Report, Deirdre M. Smith Cumberland Legal Aid Clinic Apr 2022

2021 Annual Report, Deirdre M. Smith Cumberland Legal Aid Clinic

Cumberland Legal Aid Clinic Annual Report

  • Program Overview 3
  • General Practice Clinic 5
  • Prisoner Assistance Clinic 6
  • Juvenile Justice Clinic 7
  • Refugee and Human Rights Clinic 10
  • Protection from Abuse Program 12
  • Clinic Staffing 13


Symposium Transcript Apr 2022

Symposium Transcript

Richmond Public Interest Law Review

No abstract provided.


Disrupting The School-To-Prison Pipeline: Reforming The Role Of The School Resource Officer, Olivia Seksinsky Apr 2022

Disrupting The School-To-Prison Pipeline: Reforming The Role Of The School Resource Officer, Olivia Seksinsky

Richmond Public Interest Law Review

A School Resource Officer (“SRO”) is a law enforcement officer employed

by local law enforcement agencies to provide security to public schools. As

a result of fatal and highly publicized school shootings such as Columbine

and Parkland, SROs have become a fixed aspect of many school communities.

There are tens of thousands of SROs patrolling the halls of Virginia’s

public elementary and secondary schools every year. Despite their intended

purpose to keep students safe and prevent crime, SROs too often contribute

to the school-to-prison pipeline. When SROs are brought into the classroom

to address “disruptive” behaviors, students are at ...


The Mother Of Exiles Is Abandoning Her Children: The Systemic Failure To Protect Unaccompanied Minors Arriving At Our Borders, Rosa M. Peterson Apr 2022

The Mother Of Exiles Is Abandoning Her Children: The Systemic Failure To Protect Unaccompanied Minors Arriving At Our Borders, Rosa M. Peterson

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

Unaccompanied minors arrive at the United States border every day. Many brought by the hope of finding a life lived without fear, a luxury many United States citizens take for granted. Their truths become the barriers and shackles which keep them in detention centers and unaccompanied minor facilities throughout the United States; children find their very words wielded as weapons against them in immigration court. Words often spoken to therapists in perceived confidence, during counseling sessions. This practice is a systemic failure to protect unaccompanied minors arriving at our borders who are seeking protection and help. The United States was ...


The Decrease In Crime Violence And Re-Offence Rates Of Juveniles Involved In Musical Theater Arts Programs In The United States, Alexia Williams Apr 2022

The Decrease In Crime Violence And Re-Offence Rates Of Juveniles Involved In Musical Theater Arts Programs In The United States, Alexia Williams

Liberty University Research Week

Undergraduate

Theoretical Proposal


Special Education No Man's Land, Adrián E. Alvarez Apr 2022

Special Education No Man's Land, Adrián E. Alvarez

St. John's Law Review

(Excerpt)

Since 2014, unaccompanied immigrant children have migrated to the United States in staggering numbers. The vast majority come from the Northern Triangle countries of Central America—El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras—and many are fleeing some of the highest homicide rates in the world. Immigration lawyers have highlighted many problems with the federal regime that cares for these children before they are released to family members or other adults living in the United States while their immigration cases move forward. Yet there is one group of unaccompanied minors that is not even on the radar of many advocates: unaccompanied ...


Reformation Within The Nation: Adapting The Nordic Rehabilitation And Reintegration Model To Positively Recondition The United States Criminal Justice System, Jessica Cornell Apr 2022

Reformation Within The Nation: Adapting The Nordic Rehabilitation And Reintegration Model To Positively Recondition The United States Criminal Justice System, Jessica Cornell

Helm's School of Government Conference

An analytical and statistical based comparison of criminal sentencing, incarceration, rehabilitation and reintegration in the United States of America to those of the five countries which follows those of the Nordic Criminal Justice System.


Juvenile Solitary Confinement And The Eighth Amendment, Taylor R. Graves Apr 2022

Juvenile Solitary Confinement And The Eighth Amendment, Taylor R. Graves

Honors Thesis

This literature review examines the practice of juvenile solitary confinement, applies the United States Supreme Court’s Eighth Amendment jurisprudence, argues that the practice should be declared unconstitutional as a violation of the Eighth Amendment, and calls for a categorical ban. The Cruel and Unusual Punishment Clause of the Eighth Amendment states, “nor [shall] cruel and unusual punishments [be] inflicted.” U.S. Const. amend. VIII. Juvenile solitary confinement is cruel and unusual, in violation of the Eighth Amendment, because juveniles are different. The United States Supreme Court has long recognized that juveniles should not be held to the same standards ...


Navigating A Potentially Changing Landscape In Child Welfare Appellate Review, Carolyn Altman, Robert Rodatus, Amanda Trimble Apr 2022

Navigating A Potentially Changing Landscape In Child Welfare Appellate Review, Carolyn Altman, Robert Rodatus, Amanda Trimble

Mercer Law Review

Recently, the Georgia Supreme Court, in reversing the Georgia Court of Appeals decision as to a legitimation petition, held that the evidence was sufficient, by the appropriate standard of proof, for the trial court to deny the putative father’s petition to establish his legal rights to a child. This supreme court opinion, in reviewing the analysis of the court of appeals, illustrated an approach of the court of appeals in some child welfare cases to state a standard of review that defers to the trial court as trier of fact; but then, in de facto deference, to the rights ...


No Child Left Behind Bars: Applying The Principles Of Strict Scrutiny When Sentencing Juveniles Tried As Adults, Max Chu Apr 2022

No Child Left Behind Bars: Applying The Principles Of Strict Scrutiny When Sentencing Juveniles Tried As Adults, Max Chu

William & Mary Law Review

The Commonwealth of Virginia was the first in the nation to pass legislation that provides judges with the discretion to veer away from the mandatory minimum sentence and to impose trauma-informed and age-appropriate sentences for juvenile offenders convicted of felonies and tried as adults. Although Virginia’s new law, House Bill 744 (HB 744), is a pioneering step in the right direction, this Note argues that the law may now provide judges with too much discretion. In other words, HB 744 alone, without more guidance, does not go far enough to protect the rights of juvenile offenders.

Therefore, this Note ...


Trauma: Community Of Color Exposure To The Criminal Justice System As An Adverse Childhood Experience, André Douglas Pond Cummings, Todd J. Clark, Caleb Gregory Conrad, Amy Dunn Johnson Mar 2022

Trauma: Community Of Color Exposure To The Criminal Justice System As An Adverse Childhood Experience, André Douglas Pond Cummings, Todd J. Clark, Caleb Gregory Conrad, Amy Dunn Johnson

University of Cincinnati Law Review

No abstract provided.


Unshackled: Stories Of Redemption Among Serious Youth Offenders, Julie E. Mcconnell Mar 2022

Unshackled: Stories Of Redemption Among Serious Youth Offenders, Julie E. Mcconnell

Richmond Public Interest Law Review

In a series of decisions concerning child defendants, the United States Supreme

Court has embraced the understanding, based on adolescent brain

development, that the legal system must recognize children are different than

adults concerning criminal culpability and sentencing. That recognition, culminating

in Miller v. Alabama and Montgomery v. Louisiana, led to the opportunity

for thousands of individuals across the country, initially sentenced

to death-in-prison sentences when they were minors, to gain a meaningful

opportunity for release. These cases permanently banned mandatory life sentences

for children. In Virginia, the legislature now allows reconsideration

of these cases through hearings before the parole ...


Excessive Sanctions & Evolving Standards Of Decency: The Mitigating Nature Of Sexual Trauma For Juvenile Survivors Who Murder, Ingrid Hofeldt Mar 2022

Excessive Sanctions & Evolving Standards Of Decency: The Mitigating Nature Of Sexual Trauma For Juvenile Survivors Who Murder, Ingrid Hofeldt

Minnesota Journal of Law, Science & Technology

No abstract provided.


Bars To Bridges: Culturally Responsive Education Advocacy, Micaella Flores, Christine Otto Mar 2022

Bars To Bridges: Culturally Responsive Education Advocacy, Micaella Flores, Christine Otto

National Youth Advocacy and Resilience Conference

We'll explore tangible ways to advocate for BIPOC students who've experienced educational disruptions. We’ll discuss the methods and model The Bars to Bridges Program uses to successfully transition justice involved youth into their academic settings and maintain engagement in education.


Kelemahan Pelaksanaan Kebijakan Kriminal Terhadap Cyberbullying Anak Di Indonesia, Wenggedes Frensh Feb 2022

Kelemahan Pelaksanaan Kebijakan Kriminal Terhadap Cyberbullying Anak Di Indonesia, Wenggedes Frensh

Indonesia Criminal Law Review

Advances in technology can create globalization that causes the world to be borderless. The rapid developing technology is information and communication technology. The development of information and communication technology is followed by the development of the internet which creates a cyberspace where crime is called cybercrime. One of the developing cybercrime is cyberbullying. In Indonesia, there are still weaknesses in the implementation of criminal policies against cyberbullying, so it is necessary to know the weaknesses in the cyberbullying criminal policies in Indonesia. The research method used is normative legal research (normative juridical) and empirical legal research (empirical juridical). The research ...


A Lineage Of Family Separation, Anita Sinha Feb 2022

A Lineage Of Family Separation, Anita Sinha

Brooklyn Law Review

Family separation is a practice rooted in US history. In order to comprehensively examine the most recent execution of separating children from their parents under the Trump Administration’s “zero tolerance” policy, we need to follow and understand this history. That is what this Article does. Examining the separation histories of enslaved, Indigenous, and immigrant families, it offers critical context of a reoccurring practice that has had devastating effects largely on communities of color, and across generations. By contextualizing the separation of migrant families crossing the US-Mexico border under zero tolerance, this Article identifies narratives that consistently rely on xenophobia ...


Negotiations In Juvenile Dependency: Addressing Power, Race, And Class Inequities, Akila Shenoy Feb 2022

Negotiations In Juvenile Dependency: Addressing Power, Race, And Class Inequities, Akila Shenoy

UC Irvine Law Review

A primary goal of the juvenile-dependency system is the preservation of the family, yet this goal is undermined by the gross disparity in bargaining power that exists between parties and that disproportionately affects poor families of color. This Note argues that the systemic power imbalance within the dependency system that disadvantages parents and is exacerbated by racial and class bias can be ameliorated by incorporating objective criteria into proceedings, moving from an adversarial to problem-solving approach in negotiations, requiring cultural competency that acknowledges disproportionality and its sources, and expanding access to mediation. This Note proceeds in five parts. Part I ...


Girls, Assaulted, I. India Thusi Jan 2022

Girls, Assaulted, I. India Thusi

Northwestern University Law Review

Girls who are incarcerated share a common trait: They have often experienced multiple forms of sexual assault, at the hands of those close to them and at the hands of the state. The #MeToo movement has exposed how powerful people and institutions have facilitated pervasive sexual violence. However, there has been little attention paid to the ways that incarceration perpetuates sexual exploitation. This Article focuses on incarcerated girls and argues that the state routinely sexually assaults girls by mandating invasive, nonconsensual searches. Unwanted touching and display of private parts are common features of life before and after incarceration—from the ...


Extraordinary (Circumstances) Injustice, Melissa Capalbo Jan 2022

Extraordinary (Circumstances) Injustice, Melissa Capalbo

St. John's Law Review

(Excerpt)

The box . . . . It’s a small room, so you really don’t move
around a lot. You wake up, and there’s a toilet right next to
your head. You look out the window and you see birds fly-
ing, and that only leads your mind into wanting freedom
more. And since it’s a small room, it makes you think cra-
zy. . . .Right now, I’m five-foot-seven. I grew. I came here
when I was five feet tall.

This is Rikers Island. The 19-year-old boy who shared his story is certainly not alone. Thousands of youth from throughout ...